HIST1020 Exam Two Lecture Notes
HIST1020 Exam Two Lecture Notes HIST 1020
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Date Created: 02/16/16
HIST1020 Lecture Notes for Exam Two September 25, 2015 Conjunctures Global Industrial Revolution Indian textiles Mughals Cottage industry Manufactories Water wheel Fall line Mechanized cotton gin British Textile Industry Keep big ideas of themes o Industrial Revolution Mechanized factories start out in England and spread from there on out o Often seen as wave of development Seen as one way to develop. NOT only wave Certainly wave of change, but not from one place Eurocentric narratives aren’t complete, must be tied in to the world entirely Revolution takes place all over the world at the same time, just in different ways o India, China, Africa, Southeastern US also important All pieces of the system make this happen Conjunctures coming together of different factors Industrial Revolution is a great example of a historical conjuncture Historian explanations do not rest on British supremacy 1750, global networks of trade getting more complex o Asia (China and India) are still the center Europeans were local market producers Huge trade deficit because they’re boring o They make this work because of American colonies Britain is becoming powerful, particularly navy, because of wars all over the place o First industrialized product of Britain was COTTON Made in factories via machines Even though England was first place to use this, can only be understood via big picture o Grown near equator with lots of irrigation Was extremely labor intensive Wasn’t very profitable for most people, making it expensive Wasn’t very profitable for most people, making it expensive o Only possible with low labor cost England wasn’t the place for this Textile industry pretty stagnant in Britain Cotton cloth came from India Indian agriculture was so productive, especially with food crops o Cost of labor was lower because of this Higher yields gave way to lower food price Wages were determined by food price British wage: 11 g of silver, whereas India: 2 g silver o Indian laborers had as good or better qualities of life than British people Indian textiles are manufactured the same way as British, but theirs is much cheaper because of price o Lots produced, best in the world Started producing patterned fabrics with special dying processes Enormous competitive advantage yielded Predominate source of fabric was Indian cloth o Words bleed over to our country from Sanskrit because of the Indian dominance in fashion market for so long India and Indian subcontinent, enormous place without unification politically o Ruled as separate states by local princes Autonomously by local authorities Produced and traded luxuries for centuries o Major source of minor trade goods Europeans were still battering over the chance to trade with India o Must negotiate with the local Indian leaders Most powerful leaders of India were the Mughals, descendants of Mongols They determined who gets to trade and with what, via the ruling emperor All British trade goes through the British East Trade Company o Some extent of Middle Ground, mostly controlled by Indians Traders had to “go native” to gain favor Dress like them, speak like them, marry them, etc o Not ideal for British officers Preferred to just go in with total power and control o This busted British textile producers’ ass 1707, British Parliament banned textile import with Indians o British take the textile market captive They began to experiment with ways to make wages drop Tariffs placed on Indian textiles give British manufacturers a chance to make cheaper, better clothes Industrial Revolution is essentially about reorganization of labor, directs attention to global markets o Cottage industry production spread through countryside, which was done in homes by women and children, essentially dying out because of Industrial Revolution o They were buying raw cotton and working in homes First change was taking it from the home to the factory Called manufactories, arose in North East United States and England Made more efficient, started to bring labor costs down o By 1800, encouraging usage of large tools Water wheels, large spinning machines, etc Not new technologies o Harnessing hydropower to generate energy to power the machines o Only worked where water ran fast Fall lines are drops in elevations with different kinds of rocks o When rock types shift, there is a drop, called a fall line in science Manufacturers switch to factories along fall lines o Only after 1830 do cities appear away from fall lines because of new technologies that could harness different powers (RAILROADS) September 28, 2015 Conjuncture Vanishing Peasants Open field system Commons Enclosure Capitalist agriculture (cash crops) Proletariat Classical Liberalism Iron Law of Wages “Free trade” Luddites Britain is benefiting from labor and resources of other places and becoming more o This frees up land and labor Making the transition from rural populations to urban factory workers wasn’t natural This can be thought of as “vanishing peasants” with industrialization o Urban laborers take their place Not the same people: very different ways of looking at the world Happens as a result of historical conjectures Overwhelming majority was peasants in mid-18 century o Worked for large land owner, whole family worked together Had open field system: every village had small farms and common land where everyone could use it o Allows everyone to be self-sufficient Not a lot of rights over land Not efficient to produce mass quantities of things o Rather than allowing each land owner to produce individual, rich land owners thought it was bright for villages to specialize Forces farmers into cash economy, forcing them to work for money to survive Large land owners decide to be rid of common lands and little farms and just make big estates o After the enclosure its more organized, less diverse, and more efficient for one crop Got a slew of laws passed to do this Goal is to use land efficiently and produce cash crops o Transition to capitalist agriculture Forces peasants into cash economy This was a side of effect that produced a working class of the proletariat Proletariat only can sell its means of labor o This is the migration from rural areas to urban areas with the vanishing peasant shift This was looked at as losing the English past o Peasants were very aware of what was happening Factory system creating different kinds of laborers o Live entirely based on cash from selling their labor Peasants have to be taught to be proletariats o “Social education” Factory work is monotonous, steady and boring o Selling labor by hour creates a new concept of time Precise time-keeping was needed The clock started governing people’s lives Managers and governments had to create strict rules and whatnot to set punctuality, a new virtue This is the first time people began romanticizing nature because they were separated from it o Cost of labor had gone down by creating proletariat class Focus on unskilled labor Causes labor pool to get larger Because labor is deskilled, workers are much cheaper than other types of workers, driving wages down and making English textiles more competitive o Tied directly to the Enlightenment Classical Liberalism built heavily on Adam Smith o Looks for scientific and logical way to explain trade o Freedom is most efficient o Political and economic liberty goes together Natural price is production price of an item o Market prices are not equivalent to natural prices Artificially set by supply and demand If there is no intervention, the market will tend toward natural price o Part of liaise fair economics Lot of assumptions built in to this system o No such thing as power, force, cohesion, etc. Smith knows this is false, understands imbalances as market distortions Whenever market price distortions exist, liaise fair economics fail o Gets appropriated by another generation, and applied to economics as fact Classical Liberalism devises from Smith and yields tariffs and no intervention o Owners begin to lobby for free-trade In practice, ideas of Classical Liberalism are extremely relevant to the working, proletariat class o Taxed slavery heavily Economic claims begin to be made o Factories don’t generally use slaves because they’ll sabotage you Intellectual distortion also because of wages Economic issues spur the abolition of slavery o Instead of slaves, owners pay laborers as little as possible Iron Law of Wages has to do with natural price of labor o Called it the amount to keep them alive and working Anymore than that and you’re stiffing productivity Transition to industrial economy leads to growth of wealth in some manners o Average income and per capita are disguising a growing gap of economic worth between proletariats and owning class Low wages caused them to work very long hours all year round o Paychecks were instilled o Religious sects enforced and preached docility 1840, the wages were actually lower than before the Industrial Revolution o Definitely thought industrialization was worse o Protesting deskilling of work Working class becomes more political Luddites would break into factories and destroy machines o Executed a lot of Luddites o Deported them to the colonies Uprising of Luddites is terrifying to Bourgeoisie o Don’t want revolution, just better conditions (what workers wanted) Most workers tried to create unions and skilled labor unions Political changes also happen, middle-class men get to vote, workinh-class was actively pursuing this Peterloo Massacre was most violent o Attacked by British military on a magistrate order Parliament praised them o Horrified some of the working class Really convinced the working class that the British government was their enemies o Proletariat started to identify themselves with common interests Increasing ideas of revolution began circulating, but most ideas were just to increase the conditions in which they labored. o These people just wanted equality and to not live off of bread crumbs September 30, 2015 Great Divergence Biological Old Regime/ New Regime Malthusian cycles Coal Steam engines Industrial Revolution starts in England o Focusing here because of the world system o Emerges as a new central core This emergence pushes old cores to peripheries CHINA 1800’s, the transition of cores happens o Not the same thing as quality of life, just general production Known as the “Great Divergence” when Europe pulls ahead Labor organization comes first in industrial process, second is technology o Technology is always going to contribute to the outcomes of the Industrial Revolution, doesn’t make it happen however “Biological Old Regime” is when all energy comes from the sun via annual or semi-annual capture, PLANTS, or photosynthesis o People rely on how much energy the sun can produce in a year o Early British factories shifted away from this with water wheels With these, you can expand to a certain point and then you dead end The shift from BOR to Biological New Regime transformed the British societies from solar to fossil fuel society Malthuse, historical analyst o Came up with Malthusian cycles There are economic cycles directly tied to population numbers Population is linked directly to quality of life Quality of life is being dictated as, “how much is being produced” If you cant produce more, you’ll be trapped in a Malthusian cycle, pretty pessimistic outlook on life In the BOR, growth was made possible when people figured out new ways to “make more” o Shift from foraging to farming was a dramatic shift With the Industrial Revolution in the 1800’s, an unheard of jump was made via transformation to a new fuel source o This new fuel source was coal, or, a different form of carbon than its original state Coal burns hotter than wood and could really lend itself to multiple industrial companies In England, people were using coal to heat houses and cook foods before o They were really able to do this in the Neolithic era because coal was literally on the surface By the 18 century, the mines had gotten deeper, and the mines would often flood This was developed over time, eventually birthing the steam engine, which ironically used coal to burn The constant large supply kept coal prices relatively low The flyer spinner machine was the first steam-based adapted machines o These adapted machines were only possible near coal mines because transportation costs were extremely high This didn’t expand until trains in the 19 century This transportation increase caused factory owners to shift to steam- powered machines, greatly increasing production o Fewer labor hours meant lower cost Finally, by about 1830, British textiles can compete with Indians Three factors led to this and cause the rise: coal, colonies, and labor organizations o British textiles get cheaper and more competitive on the global market This marks the Great Divergence, and China’s core level being surpassed o Why did this happen? China turned inward around 1433 to focus on internal development o Without colonies abroad, China had to produce everything internally More land became dedicated to food crops The production crops did decline, as China’s population is continuing to grow China had an industrial center in Ynagtze Valley and it was hard for farmers to get there o Farmers created cottage-industries for itself Became completely self-contained The center had a loss of raw materials, as well as a loss in the buying market China didn’t have enclosure acts, which means these peasants had more autonomy o The cottage-industries were suddenly in direct competition with the large industries China did have coal deposits and were using them o This is nth a lack of technology, but historical conjunctures 13 century, populations moved south because of the invasions This puts the industrial producers an enormous distance from its coal mines o People make decisions short-term, and in their own self-interest This was also not a conserted effort by China as a whole o The scale makes it difficult to compare China as a whole, you can compare regions however To some extent, the Great Divergence is built off of a comparison fallacy o The Chinese were acting in their own interests Great Divergence is about certain regions in England that have a set of conjoining factors that the rest of the world doesn’t have happening o This creates a growing disparity between European countries and the rest of the world If we start to ignore population pressures, we begin to think that Industrial Revolution was the only way, and it wasn’t Whether industrializations makes things better is really subjective to the people group There are multiple cause of the Great Divergence, it’s the result of multiple historical conjunctures and trends that typically have long- term roots October 2, 2015 New Imperialism Capitalism Raj Construction of Difference De-Industrialization Sepoy Rebellion Indian Nationalism Opium Unequal Treaties “Opening” Spheres of Influence Taiping Rebellion British manufactures realize they need big markets o Obtained these via colonies New Imperialism is born Colonies run by state, geared toward increasing state power IN OLD systems (mercantilism) o New Imperialism based things on capitalism, no ceiling for increase of wealth New Imperialism is about capturing the resources AND the markets o Because it’s based on private profits and venture, run by imperialists themselves Biggest target, region of India known as Bengal Densely populated, huge ports, lots of cotton British presence was through the British East India Company o For centuries, Britain had been going native in India, developing relationships with the native people Because of this, the natives began to become “weaker” throughout the century British East India Company found this to be their advantage, took advantage of the Mungal emperor and local princes o Increased the destabilization of the political units by forming alliances and hiring mercenary armies 1750, drove Mughals out of Bengal, immediately claimed this as a colony o Overwhelmingly, the staff of the BEIC was native This was because it was a commercial colony run by the British and manned by the Indian natives o This period is know as the COMPANY RAJ or the “company rule” Indirect rule, meaning the crown isn’t directly in control, but the BEIC can call on the British militaries Still a lot of local leaders controlled by the BEIC o Over century, expanded its control, often by force Social, cultural, political, and military shift within the country o In order to execute what the BEIC did, it required force Indian soldiers of the BEIC were known as “sequoys” o Also used representations of power, attempting to establish it as the “natural way” or as unalterable (the British dominance over the Indians) BEIC started bringing British traditions and fancy things to India o Mid-1800’s, claimed special status, became pristine elite class while native people were degraded down to the poorer class Created a new language, racial classes, English became the official language of India, separated the people groups into their own individual claves 1840’s
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