Exam Study Guide
Exam Study Guide GPSYC 101
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristin Coggins on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GPSYC 101 at James Madison University taught by Mandi Quay in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Exam Study Guide: Chapters. 1 4 Chapter 1: ● Know the different professions in psychology and what they do (think broadly… clinical psychologist vs. psychiatrist, for example) o Counseling Psychologist: help people to cope with challenges and crises and to improve their personal and social functioning o Clinical Psychologist: Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorder o Psychiatrists: Medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders ● Know how psychology first began and who was responsible for its beginnings o Wilhelm and Wundt performed the first psychological experiment used a machine to measure the time lag between people’s hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing of a telegraph key. Sought to seek out the fastest and simplest mental processes measuring atoms of the mind. o Lead to the first two branches: structuralism and functionalism. ● Know what the major perspectives in psychology are, who the “fathers” of each were, and the general / broad idea behind each one. 1. Neuroscience: how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences Santiago Ramon y Cajal 2. Evolutionary: how the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes Darwin 3. Behavior Genetics: how our genes and our environment influence our individual differences 4. Psychodynamics: how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts – Sigmund Freud 5. Behavioral: how we learn observable responses – B. F. Skinner, John Broadus 6. Cognitive: how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information 7. Socialcultural: how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures 8. Humanistic: emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people – Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow ● Know generally what the biopsychosocial model is used for o Biopsychosocial model: Integrates biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process ▪ Bionatural selection of traits, genetic, brian mechanics, hormones ▪ Psychologicallearned fears and expectations, emotional response, cognitive processing ▪ Socioculturalfamily, social, and cultural norms and influences ● Experimentation in psychology: o Experiment: manipulation of one or more factors (IV) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process using random assignment ● Difference between independent vs. dependent variables o independent variables: factor that is manipulated or changed; the variable being studies o dependent variable: factor being measured, changes in response to manipulations of the IV ● Experimental group vs. control group o Experimental group: exposed to the treatment/to one version of the independent variable. o Control group: group NOT exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as comparison for evaluation towards the effect of the treatment. ● Positive vs. negative correlations o Positive correlation: (between 0 and 1.00) indicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things increase together or decrease together o Negative correlation: (between 0 and 1.00) indicates an inverse relationship – as one increases the other decreases ● Why do we need placebos sometimes? o To show the effect on behavior caused by administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent ● W.E.I.R.D.os – know what that stands for and what it is o Western Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratic cultures that contribute most study participants YET only make up 12% of humanity Chapter 2: ● Neurons: Nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system ● Know the process by which neurons fire (think generally) o Threshold (level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse) »Depolarization » Action Potential » Repolarization (recharge) » Refectory impulse o ● Know the parts of the neuron o Cell Body: cell’s life support center o Dendrites: receive message from other cells and conduct impulses toward the cell body o Axon: passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons muscles or glands o Neural Impulse: action potential; electrical signal traveling down the axon o Terminal Branches of Axon: form junctions with other cells o Myelin Sheath: fatty tissue that covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses ● How do they communicate? o Electrically through the axons o Neurotransmitters: CHEMICAL messengers that carry the information and travel from the neuron to the synapse to the next neuron ● Know the structures of the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System o CNS: Brain and spinal cord o PNS: Autonomic (controls selfregulated action of internal organs and glands) ▪ Sympathetic Arousing ▪ Parasympathetic Calming ● Broadly speaking, what is the frontal lobe responsible for? The body’s ultimate control and informationprocessing center. speaking, muscle movements, planning, judgement ● Parietal: Receives sensory input for touch and body position, orientation of space and time ● Occipital? Receive information from visual fields ● Temporal? Includes auditory areas and memory ● Cerebellum? Covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and informationprocessing center ● Where is the sensorimotor cortex? Semitrick question… it comes in two parts and each part is in a different lobe. ○ Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations ● Difference between the sympathetic vs. parasympathetic nervous systems. Are they a part of the CNS or PNS? o Sympathetic Nervous System: arouses and expends energy accelerates heartbeat, raise blood pressure, slow digestion (PNS) o Parasympathetic Nervous System: conserves energy as it calms you by decreasing your heart beat, lowering blood sugar (PNS) ● Left brain vs. right brain; think of this in the context of “splitbrain” patients. o Left brain: Speaks or calculates o Right brain: Perceptual tasks, helps modulate speech, helps orchestrate out selfawareness ● What is your endocrine system responsible for? o Endocrine system: The body’s “slow” chemical communication system; set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Influence our interests in sex, food, and aggression. Chapter 3: ● Know what dual processing is, including the concept of “low road” and “high road” ○ Dual processing: The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. Perception, memory, thinking, language, and attitudes all operate on two levels– high road and low road ○ HIGH ROAD which is conscious, deliberate level ○ LOW ROAD which is more unconscious and automatic. ● Why is this important for us? What are some examples in everyday life we might see of dual processing? allows us to focus on multiple things at once without having to put our full attention on each task. ● FACT: The brain can turn conscious knowledge into unconscious knowledge. ● Ex. Our vision is a dual processing system o Visual perception track enables us to think about the world/recognize things and to plan future actions o Visual action track guides moment to moment movements ● Driving a car and talking on the phone ● Explain why multitasking is impossible. Multitasking is impossible because that would literally translate to focusing all of your attention on two tasks at once when really we are unable to do so. We can only focus on an unconscious and conscious level at the same time. ● Know difference between selective attention vs. inattentional blindness vs. change blindness o Selective attention: The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus o Inattentional blindness: Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere (driving while on the phone) o Change blindness: Failing to notice changes in the environment (magicians use this) Drugs ● Know difference between tolerance vs. addiction vs. withdrawal and when drug use is considered a disorder o tolerance: with repeated use, achieving the desired effect requires larger doses o addiction: compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences o withdrawal: the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug ● Name some major depressants. Why are they called depressants? o Depressants: drugs that calm/reduce neural activity and slow body functions ▪ alcohol ▪ barbiturates (tranquilizers) Seconal ▪ opiates morphine and heroin ● Name some major stimulants. Why are they called stimulants? o Stimulants: drugs the excite neural activity and speed up body functions ▪ caffeine ▪ nicotine ▪ Ecstasy ▪ Cocaine ▪ methamphetamine ● Name some major hallucinogens. Why are they called hallucinogens? o Hallucinogens: distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input ▪ LDS ▪ Marijuana THC Chapter 4: ● Childhood learning and development: ● Schemas: A concept or mental molds that organizes and interprets information and experiences ● Assimilation vs. accommodation o Assimilation: Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas o Accommodation: adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information ● Object permanence: The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived ● Neural “pruning” aka “use it or lose it” and the importance of it in early childhood o Neural “pruning”: Shuts down unused links and strengthens others ● What is Theory of Mind? When does it develop? People’s ideas of their own and others’ mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict ● It forms when we are preschoolers, approx. 3½ 4½ years old ● Know Henry Harlow and his famous study. What did it demonstrate and why is it important to our understanding of human development? Psychologist at University of Wisconsin. He bred monkeys for learning studies. He and his wife separated infant monkeys from their mothers shortly after being born and raised them in cages including a cheesecloth blanket. When the blankets were taken to be cleaned, the monkeys became distressed. o They noticed that the monkeys’ attachment to the blanket contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with nourishment. o They furthered their experiment by creating two artificial mothers one with the blanket and one with milk. o Monkey babies picked the clothed mother because it provided comfort ● How does attachment during early childhood impact attachment in adulthood? attachment: emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. young children cling to parents when frightened or at separation. they cling to those who provide nourishment... ● What was the premise of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development? We focused on one stage in particular. Know it. o Theory of psychosocial development: Each stage of life has its own crisis that needs resolution o Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion ▪ “I know who I am” ▪ Age: Teen20 ▪ Strong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidence ▪ Identity crisis: confusion ▪ Basic Strength: Fidelity sincerness, sensitivity in relationships ● Define Authoritarian vs. Authoritative vs. Permissive parenting styles and know which one is the best style o Authoritarian: Parents impose rules and expect obedience “because I said so” o Authoritative: BEST Both demanding and responsive, Exert control by setting rules but encourage open discussion and allow exceptions o Permissive: Submit to their children’s desires, make few demands and use little punishment ● Know Kohlberg and his levels of moral thinking ▪ Sought to describe the development of moral reasoning (right and wrong) ▪ Preconventional morality: Before age 9, self interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete awards “If you save your dying wife, you’ll be a hero” ▪ Conventional morality: early adolescence, uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order “If you steal the drug for her, everyone will think you’re a criminal” ▪ Postconventional morality: adolescence and beyond, actions reflect belief in basic rights and selfdefined ethical principles “People have a right to live”
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