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Sarah J. Allen
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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Arianna Negri on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 112 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 343 views. For similar materials see American and Californian Gov. in Political Science at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Power: Ability to exercise control over others & get them to comply Authority: Recognized right of an individual/group/institution to make binding decisions for society Democracy: a political system in which all citizens have a right to play a role in shaping government action – popular sovereignty= the principle that the authority of the Gov. is created/sustained by the consent of its people through their elected representatives Sovereignty= authority of a nation to control what happens w/in it’s border Republics: system of Gov. in which a small group of elected representatives acts on behalf of many Government: the formal structures and institutions through which binding decisions are made for citizens in a particular area (formal structure within politics occurs) Politics: the process by which the character, membership, and actions of a government are determined (what happens w/in the structure = Gov.) Constitutional Monarchies: monarch figurehead w/ limited power, governing authority dif. Body Monarchy can be… 1. Constitutional democracy 2. Dictatorship (some limits, come to rule through violence) 3. Totalitarian regime (leaders have no limits) 4. Oligarchy (elitism: ruled by a few) Ideologies: a consistent set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy regarding the proper goals, purposes, functions, and size of government (terms like: conservative, liberal, moderate, radical want change, exc.) o Libertarianism: people who support individual liberty over government authority in economic, personal, and social realms o Socialism: a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole o Pluralism: Universal franchise, freedoms of speech/press/belief, relative equality of gender/ ethnicity, rule of law (multiple centers of power vying for authority) o Anarchism: belief in the abolition of all government and the organization of society on a voluntary, cooperative basis without recourse to force or compulsion o Totalitarianism: leaders have no limits on authority o Liberal: a person who generally supports governmental action to promote equality, favors governmental intervention in the economy, and supports policies attempting to solve environmental issues o Conservative: a person who believes in limiting government spending, preserving traditional patterns of relationships, and that big government is a threat to personal liberties o Populist: people who believe that the Gov. can be a positive agent to protect common ppl. Partisanship: Party labels (Democrats, republicans, green, libertines, reform party) The Social Contract Theory: a political theory that holds individuals give up certain rights in return for securing certain freedoms; if the government breaks the social contract, grounds for revolution exist Locke Majoritarianism: a political philosophy that asserts that a majority of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect society Main causes of Rev: 1. FinancialBritish requires colonists to pay for protection 2. Ideological Colonists felt that their rights as Englishmen had been violated by England *American Revolution was conservative in nature & had representative assembles for 100+ yrs. by then Correct order of Nation Documents: Dec. of Ind., Art. Of Con., and the Constitution Colonists create new Gov.… Easy b/c 1. Had 150+ years of experience governing the colonies prior to the Revolution and 2. 400+ years of English experience w/ democracy that they brought to the new colonies The Articles of Confederation: the first Constitution in the United States signed by the 13 colonies, uniting them (Problems: weak central Gov., no power to tax/ regulate commerce/ conduct foreign affairs, no power to enforce laws, difficult to amend Undeveloped infrastructure and weak economy creditors/debitorsShay Reb) Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise: New national government would have a House of Representatives members would be based on each states population and a Senateeach state have the same number of representatives. Confederation: governmental authority is divided between a national government and state governments (subunits hold all the power w/ weak national government unstable) Federal: ultimate authority comes from the states Unitary: ultimate governmental authority comes from the national government (central Gov. only) “Constitutional Gov.”= exists when there are both informal/formal legal limits to what a Gov. can do All Gov. (Constitution or not): has sovereignty, chose a balance of power vs. authority, the importance of legitimacy, governments, which choose power over authority lack legitimacy Constitutional Gov. w/ legitimacy: pluralism, universal franchise, limited Gov./rule of law The Constitutional Convention: Brought on by Shays Rebellion (1787) revised the Articles of Confederation into Constitution Article I: The Legislative Branch (Congress) All: Checks & Balances Article II: The Executive Branch (President) Bicameral Legislature Article III: The Judicial Branch (Courts) Federalism Police Powers The powers reserved to state Gov. related to the health, safety, and well being of citizens Federalists: supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution; James Madison was one of the leading Federalists; by the late 1790s, it was the name given to one of the first political parties, headed by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams AntiFederalists: opponents of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution; this group worried that the new system would give the national government too much power, at the expense of the state rights and individual liberties The battle over ratification of the U.S. Constitution: Federalists vs. AntiFederalists; Federalists wrote The Federalist Papers and ensured a Bill of Rights (the first 10 amendments in the Constitution, limit on federal power) to allow states power Federalism: a system in which a viable national government would undertake certain responsibilities and state governments would handle others (divides Gov. so that power and authority are shared between a central Gov. and regional subunits) It was a compromise, helped guarantee a republican government * Under Marshalls leadership, shaped federalism by interpreting the Constitution to give the federal government superior powers in certain matters of public policy, thereby imposing limits on the powers of the states Dual Federalism: a theory stating that the powers of the federal and state governments are strictly separate, with interaction often marked by tension rather than cooperation Cooperative Federalism: a system in which the powers of the federal and state government are intertwined and shared; each level of government shares overlapping power, authority, and responsibility (Example The New Deal by FDR in response to Great Depression) New Deal: bring economic recovery by expanding the role of the federal government in providing employment opportunities and social services, advanced social reforms to serve the needs of people, greatly expanding the budget and activity of federal Gov. Expansion of federal lawmaking affected federalism by simultaneously limiting the scope of the states authority to control their own affairs in certain areas Creative Federalism: a system in which the role of the federal government is expanded by providing financial incentives for states to follow congressional initiatives; it establishes programs that are funded and regulated by Congress centralizing congressional authority over the states to provide social services (Ex. Johnsons Great Society/War on Poverty: partnership between federal/state Gov.) Grants: Categorical (formula/project) money to specific place & Block money goes different places The pros of Federalism: fosters state loyalties, practices pragmatism, creates laboratories of democracy, leads to political stability, encourages pluralism, encourages the separation of power, and prevents tyranny The cons of Federalism: prevents the creation of a national policy and leads to a lack of accountability States’ Rights: political powers reserved for the U.S. states’ governments rather than the federalthovernment, according to the Constitution, reflecting especially enumerated powers of Congress and the 10 amendment Federal powers: Declare war, Make treaties and conduct foreign relations, Coin money, Regulate interstate commerce and commerce with foreign nations, Raise and support armies and navy, Create courts inferior to the Supreme Court, Make laws necessary and proper to carry out the above powers State powers: Draw electoral district lines and conduct elections, Conduct interstate commerce, Create districts for local rule, Exercise police powers to protect health, safety, morals, and public welfare, Ratify amendments to the Constitution, Exercise powers not delegated to the national government or prohibited to the states American political culture: have the freedom to do what people want to do, have a limited government, emphasis on capitalism, equality for all, democracy, popular sovereignty, minority rights, and emphasize the individual Political socialization: the complex process through which people acquire political knowledge and form political values; also the conscious and unconscious transmission of political culture and values from one generation to another Efficacy: The belief that individuals can influence government External political efficacy: belief that the governmental officials will respond to individuals Crosscutting cleavage: Divisions in society that separate people into groups Public opinion: The attitudes of individuals regarding their political leaders and institutions as well as political and social issues. Tends to be grounded in political values and can influence political behavior * Public policy doesn’t spring simply from government but rather from different layers of government Politics is about knowing which government to push and how Jonathan Haidt’s research on what he calls the “Moral Mind”: Care/harm, Fairness/cheating, Liberty/oppression, Loyalty/betrayal, Authority/subversion, and Sanctity/degradation The ‘catalystforchange theory’: assertion that public opinion shapes and alters our political culture, allows change Interactive Theory: The theory that popular cultures both shape/reflects popular opinion Forms of political participation: voting, lobbying, contacting government officials Exit polls: surveys of voters leaving polling places; used by news media, gauges how candidates doing @ Election Day Correct public polling methods: sample, develop questionnaires, margin of error, and confidence level Majority: more than 50% of votes & Plurality: just got most of the votes POLS Midterm Review Quiz #1 -It was easier for the colonists to create a new government in America because their more than 150 years of experience governing the colonies prior to the Revolution and the more than 400 years of English experience with democrazy that they brought to the new colonies -The Declaration of Independence was an act of treason by the colonists against the British government and a necessary legal document under international law in order to engage allies and borrow money to fight -The United States of America is a republic/democracy -Politics: the process which governance produces outcomes -Government: the structure, which makes governance possible -A monarchy can be… a constitutional democracy, a dictatorship, a totalitarian regime, an oligarchy but not necessarily at the same time - America inherited much of her system of government from England -The promise of a Bill of Rights to protect citizens from an overreach of early power convinced skeptical states to ratify the new governing document when they were in a battle over ratifying the Constitution -For the delegates representing the southern states at the Constitutional Convention, slavery represented a vital economic interest to them and upon which they refused to compromise -The Bill of Rights is the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution and a limit on federal power -The Anti-Federalists were led by Thomas Jefferson, and opposed the ratification of the new Constitution -By the time of the American Revolution, all of the colonies had had representative assemblies for more than 100 years -America has lower voter turnout percentages for her elections than most other democracies -Democracy: a governing system which allows citizen participation and which limits government power -A republic: A governing system in which citizens elect representatives to govern on their behalf -America vote more often, and on more issues and candidates than any other country in the world -Correct order of national documents: The Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution -The American Revolution was conservative in nature -Main causes of the American revolution: financial- Britain requiring the colonists to pay for their own protection and Ideological- the colonists felt that their rights as Englishmen had been violated by England Midterm #1 -The catalyst for change theory asserts that popular culture promotes change and shapes the independent attitudes and beliefs of the public -Political ideology is defined as a consisted set of beliefs that forms a person’s general philosophy regarding the proper goals, purposes, functions, and size of government -Two major schools of political ideology that dominate American politics are conservatism and liberalism -A person with a conservative ideology is likelier to oppose major increases in government spending for health care to favor government funding of faith based social service agencies that help the poor out -Unlike conservatives, libertarians oppose restrictions on social choices, such as the availability of contraception -Conservative are more likely to support limitations on abortion because that characteristic of conservative, religious, reserve are more likely to be found in the profile of a person who is ideologically conservative rather than liberal -The media is an agent of political socialization, according to the textbook -Jenny grows up in a politically active household, where both her parents vote, contribute to campaigns, listen to nightly news broadcasts, and read weekly news magazines. They involve Jenny in their discussions of the political events of the day, often commenting about the social and economic polices that they favor. In time, Jenny learns that her parents favor government bailouts of troubled national industries and that it should act to improve public education. As she matures, she adopts the political party affiliation of her parents. Jenny has undergone the process of political socialization. -Family, school, peers and community, religion, the media, and events are all agents of political socialization. -The textbook has identified the rising reliance on cell phones to the exclusion of landlines as a problem for the future of administering public opinion surveys by telephone. -An exit poll is a poll conducted on Election Day to try and predict election outcomes before all votes are counted -Still another significant factor behind federalism is the geographic, cultural, and economic diversity of the US -Before the ratification of the Constitution, the United States was organized as a confederation -Federalism: A constitutional arrangement by which power is distributed between a central government and state governments -In the United States, the Constitution defines duties, obligations, and powers of both the national and state governments -When the powers given to the national government are sharply divided from those of the states, the system is labeled dual federalism -Regulation interstate commerce is a power specifically denied the states by the Constitution -Dr. Jonathan Haidt, in his TED talks presentation, described five conditions each of us has “written” on what he calls “the morals mind” at birth- Harm/Care, Sanctity/Purity, In-group/loyalty, Respect/Authority, and Fairness/Reciprocity. His research has found that in all cultures that these values are distributed slightly differently for liberals than for conservatives. Dr. Haidt’s findings are best described by Liberals value Harm/Care and Fairness/ Reciprocity more than the other three conditions but Conservatives value all five conditions -Patricia is making a presentation to your American government class about the role of public opinion in determining public policy. She advises that American policy is strongest when no one group is dominant, that power should be divided among the many, that competition among opinions ensures that the soundest opinions emerge in a debate and that consensus is a fundamental good. Patricia is arguing from a pluralist viewpoint. -Some of Henry’s friends think his views are extreme. Henry favors ending all entitlement programs and thinks government regulation of any kind is, more often than not, a really bad idea. He wants to be able to control for himself how to save and invest for retirement and does not think he should be required to obtain a license just to drive his own automobile. Henry is likely basing his opinions on the fundamental value of individualism. -Socialism values community needs over individual wants -A distinguishing feature of democracy is people have opportunities to influence the decisions of government -At the federal level, judges are appointed for life because this approach is designed to insulate them from public opinion. -Government is primarily about institutions and structure, whereas politics is primarily about process. -The central idea of democracy is expressed as ordinary people want to rule themselves and are capable of doing so -One definition of government is publicly funded institutions that create and enforce rules for a specific territory and people. Such institutions would include school boards -An important aspect of representative democracy is periodic elections so citizens can replace those whose views no longer reflect the views of the majority -The framers of the Constitution saw the document as a collection of compromises and ambiguities subject to revision and interpretation -American political culture is best characterized by relative stability, capitalism, and multiple choices for political change -To ensure that each branch of government ahs the power to limit the actions of others, the framers incorporated checks and balances into the Constitution. -Elements of pluralism: Diversity, freedom of speech, universal voting rights, relaive equality -The Declaration of Independence was an act of treason by the colonists against the British government and a necessary legal document under international law in order to engage allies and borrow money to fight the war for independence -If government represents the “rules of the game” then politics represents the process -Is a republican system government by representatives of the people instead of directly by the people themselves is used -In constitutional monarchies, kings and queens head the government but their role is largely ceremonial -In totalitarian regimes, leaders have no real limits on how they proceed or what they do -The Mayflower Compact set up the laws for the new settlement at Plymouth, Massachusetts -The colonists rebelled against the unilateral imposition by the British government of taxes -Many of the founders believed that the social contract gave the government its legitimacy -The Articles of Confederation inspired the Constitutional Convention in 1787 because it provided no mechanism for levying taxes in order to pay the costs of the war -Shay’s Rebellion was a protest by Massachusetts’s farmers to stop foreclosures -At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates agreed that slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a person for determining population for representation in the House of Representatives -The U.S Constitution was adopted in response to the weakness of the Articles of Confederation -The Constitutional Convention is best described as secretive -The Constitution has been amended 27 times -Federalists generally favored a strong national government and supported the proposed U.S Constitution -The greatest fear of the Anti-Federalists during the Constitutional Convention and subsequent debate was that a strong national government would infringe on the essential liberties of the people -The inclusion of the Bill of Rights to the U.S Constitution came about because it was a concession to the Anti-Federalists in return for ratifying the Constitution -In a unitary system, local and regional governments derive authority from the national government -The United States was born through the fusing of independent states- states that would never have agreed to a merger if giving up their independence had been part of the deal. Federalism was a compromise. Quiz #2 -Example of the free-rider (or collective goods) problem: an environmental group struggling to raise funds for a “clean air” campaign -If you were managing a campaign and about to veto a series of negative ads attacking your candidate’s opponent, learning that Negative campaigning may actually activates the most partisan voters might make you change your mind -The process in which party members attend a neighborhood meeting, share ideas and conerns about particular candidates, and cast a ballot pledged delegates to attend a statewide meting is called a nomination causcus -Someone who benefits from the work of an interest group- but who is not a member or who has not helped in the effort- is called a free-rider -Clean water, interstate highways, oublic libraries, state parks these are all examples of public goods used by individuals in the community -The number of American identifying as Independents has been on the rise over the first decade of this century -The First Amendment protects any interest group’s right to participate in politics is contained in which part of the U.S Constitution -The NRA as an interest group differs from a political party because the NRA is concerned about one main issue, rather than a broad range of issues -the “franchise” that goes with American citizenship is the right to vote -Parties are organizations that sponsor candidates for political office in the hope of controlling the apparatus of government according to the rational party model -Benefit of minor parties in the democratic process: They may have some effect on the main parties by changing the focus of pre- election policy -You can assume that opponents of voter ID’s for elections are predominantly Democrats because citizens who do not already have legal ID cards are likely to vote Democratic -National party conventions primarily serve to deliberate on the party’s choices for presidential and vice presidential nominees -Australian ballot= secret ballot -Material incentive: as a member of the Auto Club (AAA) -The charismatic leadership of Cesar Chavez was instrumental in the success of the United Farm Workers -Americans often have a bad impression of interest groups because groups often seek a narrow benefit for their members at the expense of the larger American population and because groups donate large sums of money to candidates who support the group’s goals -Interest groups have three important characteristics: they are voluntary, share common beliefs, and seek to influence government Midterm #2 -In the Frontline documentary on the NRA, the main thesis of the film is that the NRA is successful in achieving its organizational goals because the NRA uses “all the levers of democracy” to achieve those goals -According to the Frontline documentary, the NRA’s main mission nd is to protect their members’ 2 Amendment right and influence government policy in ways that benefits their members -If the Sierra Club is successful in encouraging California’s legislators to pass legislation setting aside more back country for recreational use, and that legislation results in more places fro hunters and off-road vehicle enthusiasts – many of whom are not members of the Sierra Club, nor supported its efforts, but who stand to benefit from the new recreational area- they would be considered ‘free riders’ -In totalitarian systems, the right to take collective action is restricted and often outlawed -The First Amendment freedom of the right to petition is what determines that those who take collective action can be effective in changing the minds of American citizens and leaders -An environmentally minded farmer would exercise her First Amendment guarantee of free assembly to encourage landowners from exercising their mineral rights by forming a citizen’s action committee for her neighbors and other stakeholders -An interest group refers to an organization that seeks to influence public policy -A public interest group is a group that works to gain benefits for society as a whole -A consumer rights group is an example of a public interest group -Interest groups are important subjects of study in American politics because they provide a venue for citizens to participate in government -The larges public interest group in the U.S in terms of membership is the AARP -Common cause, an organization that pushes for openness anf fairness in government, is an example of a public interest group -According to lecture, interest groups are considered by political scientists to be policy seekers -The free rider problem occurs when people fail to join a group because they can get the benefits the group offers without contributing to the groups’ effort -In order to overcome the free rider problem, may interest groups offer material benefits. Material benefits are benefits given only to group member -Lobbying is appealing to government officials to persuade them to support a particular policy position -Providing elected officials with information about an interest groups’ position on a bill or issue is an activity that lobbyists regularly engage in -The difference between grassroots/outside lobbying and lobbying members of Congress directly is that Grassroots/outside lobbying is a technique that places pressure on elected officials using group members and or general public opinion -Parties are organizations that sponsor candidates for political office in the hope of controlling the apparatus of government according to the rational party model -The Voting Rights Act of 1965 doubled the number of African Americans who participated in elections from 1960 to 1970 -According to the video shown in class, the group “No Labels” seeks to bridge the divide between the two major American parties in order to solve the many problems facing America -Any action that is broadly linked to the conduct or outcome of an election can be considered electoral behavior -In recent decades, voter participation can best be described as lackluster compared to previous elections -Turnout is the number of citizens whoa actually vote in an election divided by the total number of citizens who are legally qualified to vote in that election -All things being equal, if a voter knows nothing about a candidate and their positions, the most significant factor which will influence whether they vote for that candidate would be the party affiliation of the voter and the party affiliation of the candidate. -In California, city council and county supervisorial candidates are not allowed to list their party affiliation on the ballot -Listing a candidate’s party affiliation on a ballot gives the voter a cue as to what the candidate most likely stands for -One of the various ways in which parties contribute to democratic governance is by running candidates -The elements of a party organization have three general components. Party as organization refers to the formal structure that sets rules for party operations and provides services fro various party units and candidates -The party in the electorate, which includes the voters who identify themselves as Democrats or Republicans and who tend to vote for the candidates of their party, has shifted in recent decades -The U.S has a two party model because it developed in the struggle between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans -An Australian ballot is a secret ballot -Minor political parties are usually significant because they push major parties to incorporate new ideas or elucidate current ones -Minor parties are also called “third parties” -California’s primary elections for most elective offices now allow all candidates from any party to run against each other with the top two vote getters running off against each other in the November general election -The trustee model of representation holds that a legislator should consider the will of the people but then do what he/ she thinks is best for the nation as a whole and in the long run -Assistance to a constituent in obtaining a Social Security check is a good example of Congressional casework -Following the public opinion of the constituency, regardless of his or her personal viewpoint best demonstrates a legislator acting as a delegate of his or her constituency -State legislators have traditionally been responsible for drawing congressional district lines -To determine the number of representatives from each state, the Constitution indicated the allotment would be based on a census conducted every 10 years -Each state has two senators elected every six years -The U.s created a bicameral form of legislature -In the House of Representatives, members are elected every two years and apportioned to states based on population -There are currently 435 members in the House of Representatives because Congress fixes the number at this limit -Packing and cracking both draw district lines to the favor of the majority party, and thus, are two types of gerrymandering. -In comparison to the House of Representatives, more media coverage and somewhat less partisan are considered to be general characteristics of the Senate -When new senators and representatives arrive on Capitol Hill, the political parties are responsible for welcoming them and orienting them to their responsibilities and the activities of the office -Congressional whips main function is to persuade party members to toe the party line -The president is a participant in the legislative process of turning a bill into a law because he can threaten to veto a bill if he doesn’t like the bill’s contents Quiz #3 -The Department of Defense is commonly used as an example of the so-called “Iron Triangle”. The “Iron Triangle” is so strong because the historically strong relationships which exist amongst the three points of the so-called triange -3 Points of the “Iron Triangle” are 1. Congress, Interest Groups, and Executive Branch Agencies 2. Congressional committees, government contractors, and bureaucrats -California’s “Plural Executive” is eight independently elected statewide officials who govern California alongside the Governor -Most states do not hold caucuses to nominate their party’s presidential candidates -The White House Situation room is only used for emergencies FALSE -Bureaucracies exist primarily to manage complexity -California’s economy is larger than that of Russia -It has been said by political scientists that presidents really only have one true power which is the power to persuade people to follow his or her policies -If you live in an unincorporated party of the country like SLO, your primary source of local government is the County Board of Supervisors -Challenges that face any member of Congress who seeks to reduce the size of the federal budget is that reality that almost all states stand to benefit from federal budgetary spending, federal spending purchases local goods and services, which benefits local economies, and members of Congress get credit with their constituents for bringing federal spending to their states -It has been said that the two longest lasting legacies a president can have are his/her military engagements and his/her judicial appointments. President’s judicial appointments are so significant for America’s public policy because federal judges and justices serve for life with good behavior and most federal judges and justices are on the bench long after the president who appointed them has left office -Jerry Brown is an unconventional politician because has been elected four times to the governorship of California, his early career path was to become a Catholic priest and attended the seminary, as a Democratic governor he has raised taxes and cut government spending in both of his administrations -As the head of an agency in the federal government, you would most likely have to do the following as part of you hob: testify before congressional committees, and exercise discretion in implanting the policies of your department -The following tools that a president can use to help get his/her nominees for Cabinet secretary and judicial positions confirmed by the Senate: the public by going to the people and arguing for your nominee and asking for their support, your leadership of your party to ensure that they support your nominee, your skills as a negotiator to encourage reluctant senators to support your nominee -A governor of a state is analogous to being a CEO of Private Sector Company -Interest groups, who influence federal budgeting can represent contractors supplying goods and services to the federal government, represent citizens impact by federal policies administered by federal agencies, represent union members who work for the federal government -An “issue network” differs from and “Iron Triangle” in that Issue Networks are less unified and interdependent than Iron Triangles, often include a diverse variety of allies who join together to support or oppose a particular policy proposal, membership in such a network is often more fluid, and temporary than that of an Iron Triangle -The Walt Disney Company is a bureaucracy -Candidates running for city council or county supervisor seats run as non partisans (w/out party affiliation) -The Department of Defense employs almost a million civilian employees Interest Groups: A group of likeminded individuals who band together to influence public policy, public opinion, or governmental officials. Functions 1.Represent Constituents: Gov. allocates more attention to large groups 2. Serve as Gov. Watchdog: monitor programs assess effectiveness 3. Build Agendas: Create awareness of issues 4. Educate Public: inform through research, congressional testimonies & public relations 5. Prove a means of political participation: Ind. Feel power Come from: Cultural roots, rise of candidate centered campaigns, movements groups, & charismatic leaders/ What they do: agenda setting, lobbying, mobilize citizens Professional associations: represent mostly educate/ $ individuals in one occupational groups & Public interests groups: advocates issues of public good Disturbance Theory: Idea that interests groups form when resources become scare in order to contest the influence of other interests groups First Amendment – Guarantees freedom of religion, speech, rights of assembly (protects any interest group right to participate in politics) Relevant clauses and guarantees: Free Exercise Clause Collective Action: Any action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve common objective (franchise that goes with American citizenship is the right to vote) Problem: of organizing collective efforts in pursuit of jointly desired ends… markets can’t provide public goods requires dif. approach in organizing collective action than market mechanism can provide Free Riders: everyone can enjoy public goods, + people who do not pay fair share for the cost for providing those goods ( Public/collective goods: clean water/ public roads/ community libraries… Used/ consumed by all individuals in society) Selective (Benefits provided only to members of organization/group), Material (Benefits that have concrete value/worth EX=AAA), Solidary (Benefits derived from fellowship w/ other members, EX=SIERRA CLUB), and Purposive Benefits (Intangible rewards people get from joining group they support & working to advance an issue they believe in, ex=policy ref.) [*Good legislation always product of compromise *] Inside lobbying: Appealing directly to lawmakers in meetings, providing info/research, or testifying at committee hearings (Outside lobbying) Grassroots lobbying/advocacy: Directed at general public Grassroots mobilization: Group comes together to organize social/ political/ env./ economic change in order to enhance equality of lives Types of interest groups: 1. Economic: Trade associations/ big business (NAM, APPA) 2. Public: don’t expect profit directly from policy changes they seek, extract donations, non partisanship EDF, League of Women Voters) 3. Gov.=bring issues of local/ state gov to Congress/administration; get federal grants (National League of Cities) 4. Religious (Christian Coalition) 5. Civil Rights= (NAACP, MALDEF, NOW) represent groups that face legal discrimination 6. Ideological= from federal spending to foreign appears (ADA, ACU) 7 & 8 Single/ Multi Issue Groups 9. Think Thanks: generate public policy research, analysis, & activity (universities, Government, ex=Heritage Foundation) Tools used by interest groups 1. Gaining Access: Winning opportunity to communication directly w/ legislator 2. Direct contact: Face to face meeting/ telephone 4. Direct mail: Information mailed to a large number of people 3. Advertisements 4. Blogs/ networking sits 5. Campaign activities Political Parties: roles 1. Election Seeking 2. Secondary mission= public policy Functions= 1. Select candidates 2. Mobilize voters 3. Facilitate governance 4. Monitor the opposing party when it’s in power Organize election process, facilitate voter choice, recruit/ aid candidates, organize a complex gov, education citizens and promote involvement, ensure accountability Parties as organizations=Democratic: Donkey, stubborn strong, liberal / Republican: (GOP: grand ol’ party) elephant, conservative / Independent( most) / No Label Party As organization: formal organization of the party: headquarters, officers, leaders Parties are not topdown, hierarchical organizations, organized at county level, where all the heavy lifting work of the parties is down... mobilization & fundraising Electorate: Citizens who attach themselves to a political party / government: Officials who were elected under a party banner /Electoral & political behavior: voting, lobbying, contact Gov. White/ older/ more educated & wealthy, home owners, high civic duty most likely to vote (decisions are made by those who show up and others claim underrepresentation) (Citizen Response to Parties): as citizens become disillusioned with parties, they’ve tended to increasingly join interests groups POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION IDEALOGY OPINIONS Electoral College: Procedure for selecting the Press/VP of the US defined by Article II of the Constitution, whereby the voters in each state choose electors to attend a gathering th where electors make the final decision (12 Amend.= required separate vote tally) Unit rule: Practice (48 states) of awarding all of a states electoral college votes to the candidate who receives the greatest # of popular votes in that state (all or nothing) *WINNER TAKES ALL (ohio) Direct primary election: Process by which average party members sometimes called the rankand file, are allowed to select party nominees process replaced by hand picked model used by party bosses Closed primary system: A nomination system where only members of the party are allowed to participate & Open Primary System: All are allowed to participate California’s new primary system: “Top Two Candidates Open Primary Act” in 2010 Creates new categories of candidates 1. Voter Nominated 2. Party nominated 1. State legislator, statewide (governor, treasurer), US Congress) All city and county offices, city council and country supervisor seats which in CA have not traditionally allowed candidates to list party affiliations The top 2 vote getters in these races all move on to the general education The new law doesn’t… Prevent candidates from listing their party affiliation on the ballot in voter nominated race & prevent party leaders/ activists from holiding party caucuses or conventions where on candidate could emerge as the party elites preferred cand. Primary voters are the partisan voters 2. Party nominated offices: US president, Party officers (county or local) Voters who have registered w/ party can vote; voters who haven’t registered w/ party may vote a party ballot provided that party allows those voters to participate *Primary= getting the nomination of your party All candidates for a voternominated office will appear on primary ballots Top 2 The role of minor parties: “Third Parties” bring additional issues to the table; provide a “safety value” for disaffected/ unhappy voters, sometimes act as “spoilers” in elections (some effect on main parties by changing focus of preelection policy) Voter turnout: The % of citizens legally eligible to vote in an election who actually vote in that election (bit over 50%) Rational Party Model: Goal is to win offices and to control the distribution of Gov. jobs (election seeking) / Responsible Party model: The goal is to shape public policy Implicit Deal? If they win elective office and don’t fulfill promises, voters can/ should vote the party’s members out of office Political Action Committee (PAC’s): following Buckley ruling & designed to get around direct donation limits imposed on unions/ corporations Super PAC’s: “Independent Expenditureonly Committee” Can raise unlimited sums from unlimited sums, cannot coordinate w/ candidates campaigns The Incumbent Fundraising Advantage: already has seat, PAC’s tend to support incumbents, advantage Congress: How a bill becomes a law: 1. Introduction of a Bill (bill sponsor: member of Congress who introduces a bill)… W/ exception of tax bills that can only be introduced to House of Rep., any members of national legislature can introduce 2. Referral: bill referred to a committee subcommittee 3. Committee Consideration: If bill approved back to fill committee/ Committee often accept or reject measure offered by subcommittee 4. Rules for Floor Action: Any approved bill floor for full chamber consideration House: Rules Committee controlled by majority party 5. Floor Consideration: every member of chamber gives opinion 6. Conference Committee: identical version must be approved in both houses 7. Presidential Action: Must be signed, if 10 days pass w/o pres. Signature bill becomes law (pocket veto: president doesn’t sign for 10 days and congress goes on recess, bill doesn’t go into effect) 8. Overriding a Presidential Veto: veto accompanied w/ written message & become law if 2/3 each house votes override Apportionment (Process of allocating the political power of a set of constituent voters among their representatives in a governing body) vs. Gerrymandering (Drawing legislative district boundaries in such a way as to gain political advantage) The Voting Rights Act of 1965: Federal Statute that effectively attached literacy tests & other techniques use to prevent African Americans from voting Congressional leadership Models of representation Delegate model: The Philosophy that legislators should adhere to the will of their constituents Trustee Model: Legislators should consider the will of the people but act in ways they believe best for the long term interests of the nation @ which time, the precise “will of the people” will be set aside Politico Model: Legislators follow their own judgment until the public becomes vocal about a particular matter @ which point they should follow the dictates of the constituents Conscience model: The philosophy that legislators should follow the will of the people until they truly believe it in the best interests of the nation to act differently House: Initiates all revenue bills/ articles of impeachment, 435 members w/ 2 year terms, more hierarchically organized, less evenly distributed powers, emphasizes tax & revenue policy, more (sub)committees, more partisan, high turnover rate, less flexible rules, limited debate, less media on coverage, centralized power Senate: Advice/ consent to treaties, presidential appointments, tries impeachmened officials, 100 members w/ six year terms, less hierarchically, even power, emphasize on foreign power, more flexible rules, virtually unlimited debate, moderate turnover rate Casework: Assistance provided to members of Congress to constituents who encounter a grievance w/ a federal agency/ federal Gov. The Judiciary “least dangerous branch” The hierarchy of American law: The US constitution US Supreme Court decisions, federal laws & treaties, federal rules and regulations State constitutions: state Supreme Court decisions, state laws County and city ordinances *Federal law is supreme Decision making and case precedent: case precedent, original intent (what did the framers intend), what do the words mean in light of current values Political Science and Judicial decisionmaking Legal model justices follow theories and consider precedents Attitudinal Model: opinions driven by attitudes and values Opinions driven attitudes and values Strategic voting model advancing a specific goal o Judgemade law or common law “Case law or precedent” is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statues adopt through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch A common law system is a legal system that gives great precedential weight to common law so that consistent principles applied to similar facts yield similar outcomes Defined: Body of law developed solely through judicial opinions o Judicial terms of office for the federal system How to become a judge: appointment by executive Federal system: presidential appointment Senate confirmation, lifetime tenure with good behavior States: gobernational appointment: legislative confirmation Election: appointments vs. Election: good idea? An increasingly politicized process, election required money o America’s dual court system Both federal and state judiciaries deal with two types of law: criminal (vast majority of criminal law is state law) and civil (“police powers” regulatory in nature, tors, tax law, contract law, includes regulations of federal Gov.) State. Vs. Federal law: Think federalism federal law primarily deals with anything that crosses state/ national borders (terrorism, admiralty law of the seas, bankruptcy, narcotics, human trafficking, internal laws and treaties, US military) o Judicial review The power of American judges to nullify decisions and actions by other branches of government, if the judges decide those actions violate the US Constitution or the relevant state constitution o The court system, its levels and how it works 1. Trial Courts court of 1 impression, courts as finders of law, juries as finders of fact, where testimony, evidence and witnesses are presented 2. Intermediate Appellate Courts lowers appeal, claiming error at the trial court level, written briefs and oral arguments on those briefs (courts of last resort, no jury trials, majority opinion concurring and dissenting opinion) 3. Supreme Court courts of last resort, same process as intermediate appellate court, only hear most important cases, must review death penalty appeals (writs of certiorari: Justices choose the cases, appellate briefs/oral arguments, conference and vote, majority opinion concurring and dissenting opinions) *Discretionary jurisdiction don’t have to take the case unless its death penalty cases o The hierarchy of American law U.S Constitution, Federal statutes, treaties, and court rules, federal administrative agency rules, Federal common law case law, state constitutions, state statutes and court rules, state agency rules, state common law case law, secondary authorities *each level of enacted law includes case law interpreting enacted law o Criminal vs. Civil law Criminal: vast majority of criminal law is state law In criminal law, a guilty defendant is punished by either 1. Incarcertainon in jail/prison 2. Fine paid to the government or in exceptional cases 3. Execution of the defendant: the death panlty. Crimes are divided into broad classes: felonies have a maximum possible sentence of more than one year incarceration, misdemanors have a maximum possible sentence of less than one year incarceration Civil “police powers” –regulatory in nature A defendant in civil litigation is never incarcerated and never executed. o Functions/responsibilities of appellate courts Appellate courts exist primarily to review and correct errors made in the primary or trial courts. Also deal with the development and application of law Procedure consists of the rules and practices by which appellate courts review trail court judgments. Appellate review performs several functions, including correction errors committed by a trial court, developing the law, and achieving uniformity across courts. Appellate procedure focuses on several main themes: what judgments are appealable, how appeals are brought before the court, what will be required for a reversal of the lower court o Precedent The judicial precedent is a decision of the court used as a source for future decisionmaking. This is known as stare devises (to stand upon decisions) and by which precedents are authoritative and binding and must be followed o Supreme Court review of appeals If you decide to appeal the Supreme Court after 1. Filing a lawsuit in your local state/federal court, then appealed as far as possible The next step is to prepare a “petition for certiorari” This is the document the Court will read in order to decide whether to hear a case. If they decide to hear a case, they will issue a “writ of certiorari” Although district courts, Appellate courts, and state courts can exercise the power of judicial review, their decisions about federal law are always subjects to review by the Supreme Court on appeal Final Exam Study Guide continued 2 Bureaucracies An organization with a hierarchical structure and specific responsibilities intended to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. In government, it refers to departments and agencies in the executive branch o Basic mission of bureaucracies: manage complexity hierarchy, accountability, job descriptions & standardization hierarchical management structure, standardization & expertise (services handled in consistent fashion), accountability & coordination (services run more smoothly when there are budget limits and clearly defined roles job descriptions) o The size of the American government Reform of Bureaucracy: The gigantic size and nationwide responsibilities of modern federal agencies make it extremely difficult for the bureaucracy to live up to the ideals of efficient performance based on management principles in an organizational hierarchy. Decentralization: Proposal reform for government agencies intended to increase efficiency in administration and create closer contacts with the local public; permits regional and local offices to manage their own performances without close supervision from headquarters Privatization: The process of turning some responsibilities of government bureaucracy over to private organizations on the assumption that they can administer and deliver services more effectively ad inexpensively. o Cabinetlevel agencies and Secretaries Cabinet agencies are known more commonly as cabinet departments Each of these cabinet agencies is led by a person referred to as secretary. The president appoints the secretaries but the senate must confirm the appointment before they can get the job. The importance of the Cabinet and the individuals who lead them is refelected in the order of succession to the presidency. If something should happen to the president, the vice president becomes president of the United States. As the United States grows and its needs change, Cabinet positions and their responsibilities are added o Department of Homeland Security (Independent Regulatory Commissions, Federal Reserve System and Board of Governors) After 9/11, public shock and congressional demands for action resulted in the creation of the federal government’s newest department (DHS). Represented a response to a policy issue that had moved to the top of the nation’s priority Creation involved the development of new agencies (TSA) and the consolidation of existing agencies from other departments, to better coordinate government actions related to domestic security issues. o Congressional oversight refers to oversight by the United States Congress on the Executive Branch, including the numerous U.S federal agencies. Congressional oversight refers to the review, monitoring and supervision of federal agencies, programs, activities, and policy implementation. Congress exercises this power largely through its congressional committee system. Congress’s oversight authority derives from its implied powers in the Constitution, public laws, and House and Senate rules. o The Civil Service A government employment system in which employees are hired on the basis of their qualifications and cannot be fired merely for belonging to the wrong political party; it originated 3 with the deferral Pendleton Act ion 1883 and expanded at other levels in government in the half century that follow. Today, federal employees in the International Revenue Service, National Park Service, U.S Department of Transportation, and other agencies are hired based on their qualifications and retain their jobs even when new presidents are elected significant job protection to avoid: favoritism, political retaliation o Cabinet meetings Served the function of reporting to the president on activities of each department 15 Cabinet level departments in the federal government today o Organizations 1. Departments: large organizations, broad policy realm 2. Independent Agencies: specific policy issues, narrow scope and mission than departments 3. Independent Regulatory Commissions: more autonomy 4. Gov. Corporations: independent boards, run like business o The legal authority of government agencies A government or state agency, often an appointed commission is a permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions. A government agency is normally distinct both from a department and other types of public body established by government. The functions of an agency are normally executive in character since different types of organizations are most often constituted in an advisory role Federal agencies may receive rulemaking authority from the statutes that Congress enacts. The rule making process gives officials in the bureaucracy power over the development of public policy. Regulations: Legal rules created by government agencies based on authority delegated by legislators Commenters often describe regulations as filling in the precise details of rules for society bade don the broader directives set forth in statues. In other cases, Congress may enact statutes that specifically delegate to agencies the authority to formulate the precise rules to govern a particular subject Statutes written by congress also specify the procedures that agencies must use in developing regulations. Normally these procedures includes publications of proposed regulations, a period during which the public may comment on the proposals and a process for hearings about desirability and potential effects of the proposed regulations. California Government o Responsibilities of the governor as a chief executive Governor has the supreme executive power of his/her state. Head of the executive branch of government, but also has legislative responsibilities, as well as serving as an agent of communications with other states/ federal government Governor’s executive branch responsibilities: appointing the heads of departments, agencies, and institutions. Most important: Budget, most of gubernational duties o The “Plural Executive” Creation of the progressive movement Premise is to weaken power of governor 4 *8 independently elected statewide officials: Governor, Lt. Gov., Attorney General, Controller, Commissioner, Treasurer, Secretary of State, and +2 more rarely all from the same party as governor (all have own agendas and plan on seeking higher office) o California’s governmental bureaucracies o California city and county governments Counties: 58 Non partisan supervisors (5 per country) “Unincorporated areas” Cities: 478 Nonpartisan offices: city council Usually five per council “general law”, city council/major vs. city council/city manager o Term limits for California elected officials 36 states have term limited the
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