Topic 3: Newspapers: Modern Era
Topic 3: Newspapers: Modern Era MC 101-740
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Destiny Giebe on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MC 101-740 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Frederick Christopher Jones in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Mass Comm & Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at Southeast Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Newspapers: Modern Era Newspapers in the 19th century may not have had color photographs and Sudoku puzzles, but they had style. In the era of penny papers and the yellow press, papers were written using the story model of journalism. More like short stories than contemporary news, these articles were written in dramatic prose and filled with opinion. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "New York Times" began a new approach to news-‐writing. Referred to as the information model of journalism, this style has become the cornerstone of modern news-‐writing. Reporters, instead of trying to entertain, tried to remain neutral toward the story. In the next lesson, you'll learn how to write news articles using this style. Another type of journalism to develop in the 20th century is investigative journalism. Often seen in television shows like "60 Minutes" or "20/20", this approach turns reporters into detectives -‐ exposing crimes or injustice to the unsuspecting public. This style is rooted in the stunt journalism of Nellie Bly, a pioneering reporter in the 19th century. Probably the most famous example of investigative journalism came in the early 70s, when the Watergate scandal was exposed to the public. Two young reporters with the "Washington Post ", Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, were assigned to cover a break -‐in at the offices of the Democratic National Committee, located in the Watergate office complex. What started out as a routine story turned into a two-‐year investigation that led to the resignation of many key members of the U.S. government, including President Richard Nixon. Inspired by the book "Around the "All The President's Men", starring World in 80 Days", journalist Nellie Robert Redford and Dustin Bly tried to duplicate the feat. She Hoffman as Woodward and finished in 72 days - with daily Bernstein, is an excellent film reports in the paper. about the Watergate cover-up. NEWSPAPER CATEGORIES Newspapers today fall into three basic categories: National papers (Wall Street Journal, USA Today) Dailies (includes metropolitan dailies like the St. Louis Post -‐ Dispatch and smaller dailies like the Southeast Missourian) Weekly papers (Cash-‐Book Journal in Jackson) Most national and metropolitan dailies are conflict -‐oriented papers. Articles in these papers tend to focus on problems within the city -‐ crime, corruption in government, trouble in the schools. On the good side, stories like these create public awareness, which often leads to the problem being solved. On the bad side, these articles often create adversarial relationships within the community, leading to distrust of journalists. Weeklies and smaller dailies tend to be consensus -‐oriented papers. These newspapers promote their communities, carrying articles on high school athletics, local commerce or the 5 -‐pound catfish Betty Jo Smith caught. Being non-‐confrontational is a matter of survival for these small papers. Let's say "Billy Bob's Bait Shop" takes out a full page ad each week in your paper. You decide to run a story about Billy Bob getting arrested for running over a cow. Odds are, Billy Bob is going to pull his ads -‐ and it might be hard to replace his business. NEWSPAPER ECONOMICS It's probably not a big surprise to hear that fewer people read newspapers than they did in the past. Once television arrived, many people started turning to the nightly news for their info rmation. And the immediacy of the Internet makes it even more difficult for newspapers to survive. This has lead to many newspapers going out of business -‐ leaving most cities with just one major daily paper. Now the government doesn't like just one jou rnalistic voice in a community, because it leads to one-‐sided coverage and that's not democratic. So in 1970, Congress passed the Newspaper Preservation Act. Under this act, two papers could merge their business and production operations, while keeping t heir news divisions separate. This is referred to as a joint operating agreement (JOA) -‐ and often it's the only way to keep two competing papers in a major market. This worked for awhile, but today only five cities (for example, Salt Lake City) with joint operating agreements remain. In order for newspapers to survive in the future, they will need to find a business model that appeals to your generation. Sorry, didn't mean to put so much pressure on you
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