Study Guide for professor Joshua Fan. WORLD HISTORY TO 1500.
Study Guide for professor Joshua Fan. WORLD HISTORY TO 1500. 27551
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Omar Barriga on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 27551 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Joshua Fan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see World History to 1500 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
World history to 1500 Joshua fan Study guide Exam 1 02/18/16 1. Prehistory The time before written record. The study of history starts with the classical civilizations; therefore, prehistory encompass the time before Mesopotamia. (around 3500BC and before) 2. Australopithecus Extinct species of ancient hominid; it is one of our common ancestors. It disappeared roughly 2 million years ago. 3. Homo erectus Extinct Bipedal hominid that is the most likely precursor of modern homosapiens. Homo erectus evolve from earlier hominids that left Africa millions of years ago. It is recognized for having the most proximity to modern humans (homo sapiens) homo erectus might have looked just a little bit different than us, however, it possessed humanlike mental characteristics. Homo erectus was highly intelligent and adaptable compared to other hominids. 4. Homo sapiens Besides being the category of our species. Homo sapiens is the only hominid that exist today. 5. Lascaux Famous cave in France known for its Paleolithic paintings. 6. Agricultural Revolution The agricultural revolution is referred as the period of time where huntergatherers develop agriculture. Although it’s called “the agricultural revolution” it wasn’t a fast transition. Over time (hundreds of years) more and more human populations switched from a Paleolithic diet to consuming cultivated foods. The rise of an “agricultural” society paved the way to the emergence of the first “complex societies” 7. Mesopotamia First human “complex society” the Sumerians (name given to the people of Mesopotamia) build a society in between the Euphrates and the Tigris river. The importance of this two rivers was great because they provided fresh water for an increasing population. From Mesopotamia we get the first human literature, “the epic of Gilgamesh”. Cuneiform was developed at this time and, it is considered to be one of the earliest forms of writing invented (if not the first one) Mesopotamia is also known as “the cradle of civilization” and its cultural importance transcended the fall of the city states. 8. Cuneiform Written record use in Mesopotamia. It was done by pressing reed grass (very common plant around that area) into a soft clay tablet. 9. Epic of Gilgamesh Regarded as part of the earliest literature. It talks about the adventures of the KingGod Gilgamesh. 10. Law Code of Hammurabi Set of laws created by Babylonian king Hammurabi. The codes are important because they are part of the first written record of common laws. 11. Hittite Ancient people that inhabited Anatolia. 12. IndoEuropeans migration The Migration of groups of people from different areas of Eurasia into; the middle east, India and Europe. 13. Nile Biggest river in the world. it is famous for having supported the rise of the Egyptian civilization. 14. Great Pyramid Constructed as a funeral site for pharaoh Khufu. The great pyramid was erected to be the final destination of a “Godpharaoh” Khufu was ultimately buried under the great pyramid with several of his possessions. Fun fact (not really important to class); the pyramid was covered with limestone so it used to be white. 15. Hatshepsut Female pharaoh and Stepmother of future pharaoh tuthmose II. She was known for being a great ruler. After her death, her stepson dedicated himself to eradicate all images of her from Egypt. 16. Hieroglyphic System of writing developed by Egyptians. 17. Rosetta Stone The Rosetta stone contained tree different kinds of writings; hieroglyphics, demotic and ancient Greek. The discovery of the Rosetta stone by napoleon soldiers was great because it led to decipher ancient Egyptian writing. 18. Akhenaton Egyptian pharaoh known for forcing monotheistic beliefs into Egyptians. Akhenaton removed the images and scriptures of other gods and replace them with the God “Aten”. Soon after his death, the cult of Osiris was brought back. 19. Cult of Osiris Osiris was the Egyptian God of dead and the ruler of the underworld. It was portrayed as a greenskinned man, and was believed to be the judge of the dead in the afterlife. The disciples of the cult of Osiris believe that death was only a transition and that “eternal life” was available by the exercise of good deeds. 20. Khyber Pass Important trading route between India and Pakistan. The Khyber Pass is STILL RELEVANT today 21. Harappan Complex society that raised in the Indus valley. The origins of the Harrapan society are still unknown for scholars but, we know that there were 7 major human settlements at the time. Being Harrapa and Mohenjodaro the two biggest civilizations there. 22. Indra Most important deity of the devas. Indra is represented wilding a lightning rod and riding a white elephant. 23. Purusha Purusha is one of the several gods that the Vedas described. According to the Vedic scriptures; Purusha created mankind by sacrificing himself. he divided himself into several pieces and out of those pieces, humans came to existence. The Indian caste system was born out of the belief that each “category” of humans had a specific role in society. From purushas mouth, the Brahmins were born (higher class. Priest) from his arms was the Rajanya (warriors) his thighs became the vaisaya (farmers, traders) and, from his feet the sudra (slaves. Servants) 24. Varna Varna is the four Hindu castes: brahimns, rajanya, vaisaya and sudra. 25. Untouchable The untouchables are a subcategory of the four castes. They are place right below the sudra (slaves) the untouchables were considered even less important than slaves. They were believed to be filthy and unworthy. They had jobs that under the eyes of the Vedic society was impure, therefore, the untouchables would do things like sweep the streets to erase their footprints, and they had no rights whatsoever. 26. Jati Jati is a caste in Hinduism. The term is derived from ancient Sanskrit (holy writing) and means “brought into existence” Jati is a form of existence determined by birth. It is related to lineage. Jatis were raised to perform the occupation that their ancestors had for hundreds of years. An example of a Jati would be a kinship lineage. 27. Samsara The belief that life and death are a cycle. Samsara is the idea that humans reincarnate on a better/worst social position depending on the deeds they did in their past life. according to this religion people could escape the “life and death cycle” by reaching enlightenment. 28. Moksha ultimate freedom from the samsara cycle. When an individual reached moksha he escaped from reincarnation. This is the final goal of Hindu traditions. 29. Yellow River The yellow River it’s in norther china. it acquires its name from the color of its waters. It is the 7 largest in the world and it is considered to be the “cradle of civilization” of Chinese complex societies because its basin was the birthplace of the XIA dynasty. The river it’s also mention in the epic story of “Yu the great” a great legendary ruler who was able to control the waters of the river. 30. Yu the Great Yu the great is a legendary ruler of ancient china. His story of controlling the flooding of the yellow river dates back before writing was developed. There’s no real conclusive evidence he actually existed, however, his epic story narrates how after 13 years, he was able to limit the floods cause by the anomalies of the river. The moral of the story is that “the wellbeing of the community. It’s more important than individual happiness” 31. Oracle bones Chinese method of divination. The oracle bones were turtle bones with written questions about the future. The questions would be asked by a king and (by unknown procedures we still don’t know today) they oracle bones would reveal an answer. 32. Mandate of Heaven The mandate of heaven was the idea that emperors and governors were there because god choose them to rule. The mandate of heaven saw its beginnings at the ZHOU dynasty and from there, it was used by several dynasties to support rebellions. 33. Fu Hao Wife of emperor “wu ding” she served as a military general, governor and high priest. Chinese life was based on a patriarchal society. For most of the time, woman did not attain important government positions. Her success in a time where sexism was the norm, gain her extreme popularity. 34. King Wu Ding King of the Shang dynasty. It is regarded as being as one of the best kings of the Shang dynasty. 35. Qanat System of underground tunnels used by the Persians to obtain water. The qanats are still used in today’s Iran. 36. Cyrus Commonly known for his tittle “Cyrus the great” he was a Persian warrior. Cyrus founded the Achamenid empire by conquering neighbor clans as the medes. He is recognized for his achievements in human rights and for his toleration of other religions in the empire. 37. Darius Persian king and father of xerxes. Darius was remembered as “the great administrator” he created the system of satraps (royal governors) for different regions, he also created a “spy” institution (the eyes and ears of the king) to keep inform about his realm, he standardized taxes and coins. He ordered the construction of the royal road which cut travel time and, he created the postal system. 38. Behistun Inscription Rock inscription portraying darius the great. The relief is multilanguage; it contains the same text in old Persian, elamite and Babylonian. 39. Zoroastrianism Most recognized religion of the Persian empire. Although it wasn’t forced at first by darius the great. His successors eventually did enforce it and persecuted other religions. Zoroastrianism is still alive today. Its famous for being one of the oldest “monotheistic” religions, having ahuramazda as the godhead. Zoroastrianism heavily influence other faiths as; Judaism, Christianity and Islam. 40. Persian War The Persian war is referred as the series of events and battles that took place between the Persian empire and Greece. The Greeks having a much smaller army were able to defend themselves against the Persians (see; battle of marathon, battle of Thermopylae…) these insurrections inspired other subjugated regions to rebel. Eventually, piece by piece, the Persian empire collapse under the weight of internal civil wars. 41. Confucianism Confucianism ITS NOT A RELIGION. It focuses on moral attributes that people should strive to attain. It was founded by the master Confucius. 42. Junzi “the great man” the junzi were people with high morals standards. 43. Mencius One of the most famous Confucius scholars. Mencius believed that humans were naturally “good” and they tended to have a noble nature. 44. Xunzi Xunzi was also a confucionist, however, he believed that humans were naturally inclined to do evil. He believed that people were naturally greedy and jealous BUT through meditation and studying morality they could change their wicked nature. 45. Wuwei Wuwei is the philosophy of “deattachment” from the world. it is an important concept in Taoism. 46. First Emperor Qin shi huang, or mostly know by his tittle “the first emperor” was the king of the state of QIN. Under his rule he conquered all the warring states, making him the first emperor of unified china. he’s dynasty didn’t last for long but he’s remembered for bringing peace to a period of constant war. 47. Bering Land Bridge The Bering land bridge was the land mass between what its today Russia and the U.S state of Alaska. The old continent and the new continent were a single land mass during the last ice age. This bridge allowed ancient humans to migrate over to America. Once the ice age came to an end, the huge glaciers melted and covered the Bering bridge separating the two continents by a body of water. Olmec The Olmec’s were the first complex society of Mesoamerica. They were named by scholars as “rubber people” because of the abundant rubber threes in the region. 48. Mayan The Mayan society developed way later after the decline of the Olmec civilization. As their predecessor, the Mayans also were a Mesoamerican society. They developed in the southern Mexican peninsula of Yucatan. The Mayans build great ceremonial centers and cities like; Tenochtitlan and Tikal and, the pyramid of the sun and the moon. After the conquest of Mexico only 4 of their books survived. 49. Teotihuacan Teotihuacan was an important Mayan city. For one, it was a religious center (the pyramids of the sun and the moon are there) for two; Teotihuacan at its zenith was the biggest city of preColumbian America, therefore, it heavily influence and exercise power on other Mesoamerican cultures. 50. Austronesian Groups of people from Asia and Oceania that speak one of the many languages inside the Austronesian family three. Austronesia is also referred to the several territories populated by Austronesianspeaking people. 51. Hokulea Hokulea was the name of the ship used by scholars to investigate the migratory movements of the ancient Austronesians. For several years (probably hundreds) it was believed by Europeans that people from Oceania populated remote islands by luck. The people from the hokulea challenged that belief and they demonstrated that the peoples of ancient Austronesia had their own methods to guide themselves in the sea. This discovery proved that the natives were smarter than thought before and, it also show how early peoples were able to navigate in the sea.
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