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EDP 202: Human Development and Psychology

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by: Smccarty

EDP 202: Human Development and Psychology EDP 202-007

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Education and Teacher Studies > EDP 202-007 > EDP 202 Human Development and Psychology
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These notes cover chapters 1-5 of the study guide for the midterm. Theories in the educational psychology and applied in the classroom.
Human Development and Learning
Mrs. J. Burris
Study Guide
Education, Human Development, child psychology
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"Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class."
Milan Cassin

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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Smccarty on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDP 202-007 at University of Kentucky taught by Mrs. J. Burris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Human Development and Learning in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Kentucky.

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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.

-Milan Cassin


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Date Created: 02/17/16
EDP Midterm Study Guide – Chapter 1 Types of Research Studies:  What is educational psychology? o A discipline that encompasses the nature of learning, development, motivation, diversity, and assessment.  Types of Research Studies o Descriptive Studies  Describe things and situations  Allow us to draw conclusions about the current state of affairs  “How many students are involved in extracurricular activities?” o Correlational Studies  Explore possible relationship among variables  Allow predications about one variable if the status of other variable is known  “Do students involved in extracurricular activities have higher grades than those students not involved in extracurricular activities? o Experimental Studies  Attempt to discover a cause-and-effect relationship among variables  Independent variable is manipulated by the researcher to possibly discover an effect on the depended variable  “Will joining two extracurricular activities impact students’ grades?”  Theories in Classroom Decision Making o A theory is an integrated set of concepts and principles that explains a particular phenomenon  Often the result of descriptive, correlational, and experimental studies  As additional data are discovered, theories are continually expanded and modified  A theory can help explain and predict a phenomenon  Importance of Assessment o Assessment is more than tests, quizzes, papers, etc… o Assessment should occur in other contexts as well  Playground, field trips, extracurricular activities, etc… o Regular assessment and observations provide valuable insight into students’ learning, development, and motivation  Diversity in the Classroom o Teachers should take diversity into account when identifying teaching strat  Recognize that all students are unique individuals  Be sensitive to group differences  Be sensitive to individual differences Chapter 2  Examples of general principles of development (four principles characterize children’s physical, cognitive, personal, and social development) o The sequence of development is somewhat predictable  Many universals in development (similar patterns)  Some of this is marked by the acquisition of developmental milestones (new behaviors, more advanced), still in predictable sequences  EX: children typically become capable of using fractions in math problem solving only after they have mastered counting and the use of whole numbers o Children develop at different rates  Children do reach particular milestones at different rates, some earlier, some later  Thus, we (teachers) are able to see considerable diversity in students’ developmental accomplishments at any single grade level  NEVER jump to conclusions about what students can/cannot do based on age alone  EX: Ms. Lombard’s apple-tarts problem appears to be developmentally appropriate for some of her students, it might be too advanced for others o Development is often marked by periods of relatively rapid growth (spurts) between periods of slower growth (plateaus)  No constant rate  EX: Toddlers may speak with limited vocab and one-word “sentences” for several months, yet sometime around their second birthday their vocab expands rapidly and their sentences become longer in a few weeks  EX: Height in adolescents  Can take a step backwards because their cognitive processes are normally about to take a major leap o Heredity and environment interact in their effects on development  Basically all aspects of development are influenced either directly or indirectly by a child’s genetic makeup  Quickly after birth a child shows signs of genetic inclinations or temperaments, that predispose them to respond to physical and social events in particular ways o EX: Calm or irritable, outgoing or shy, cheerful or fearful  Not ALL inherited characteristics appear so early, however: Heredity continues to guide a child’s growth through a process of maturation  Environmental factors also play a big part in development o EX: Good nutrition and regular physical exercise also make a difference o While behaviors are mainly result of inherited temperaments, the ways environment encourages them to behave are just as influential  Nature VS Nurture  Genes need environmental support to grow o Some maturational processes seem to be characterized by sensitive periods  Children CAN choose their environment to some extent (especially as they get older) o Hardly passive recipients of their environmental legacies o They actively and intentionally think about and act on their environments and in doing so they alter their environments  Maturation- (talked about in the above section of heredity and environment) o A gradual, genetically controlled progression of physical advancements as the child develops  EX: Motor skills such as walking, running, and jumping develop primarily as a result of neurological development, increased strength, and increased muscular control—changes that are largely determined by inherited biological “instructions”  Sensitive Period-(as mentioned in the above section of heredity and environment) o Limited time periods during which certain environmental conditions are especially important for normal development  (examples in brain and language development)  A child’s inherited chara. may lead to them being treated by people in a certain way  EX: Physically attractive child will be accepted more easily by peers than another less attractive, or a temperamentally hyperactive child may be disciplined more harshly than a quieter one.  Piaget’s perspective on how children acquire knowledge o Studies children’s responses to problems of this nature (logical thought)  (Children are in control of their own cognitive development)  Clinical method: An adult presents a task or problem and asks a child a series of questions about it, tailoring later questions to the child’s responses from the previous one  Through Piaget’s experiment he suggests that the child has trouble with class inclusion, tasks in which they must think of an object as simultaneously belonging to a category and to one of the its subcategories  Found many 4 and 5 year olds have difficulty with this  Found that 7 and 8 year olds respond correctly to task  10 year olds responded easier to logical response questions as well o Basic Assumptions (pg 10-12)  Children are active and motivated learners  Children construct rather than absorb knowledge  Children continually learn new things through two complementary processes: assimilation and accommodation  Interactions with one’s physical and social environments are essential for cognitive development  The process of equilibration progression toward increasingly complex thought  In part as a result of maturational changed in the brain, children think in qualitatively different ways at different ages  Piaget’s Stages of Development (Pg 13-16) o Sensorimotor  Begins at birth  Schemes are based largely on behaviors and perceptions  Early in the part of the stage, children cannot think about things that are not immediately in front of them, and so they focus on what they are doing and seeing at the moment o EX: Trial and Error experimentations with physical objects o EX: Object permanence – realization that objects continue to exist even when removed from view o Preoperational  About 2 years old  Rapid developing symbolic thinking abilities, children now think and talk about things beyond their immediate experience, though do not yet reason within logic like adults o EX: Language – Rapid expansion of vocab and grammar structures o EX: Extensive pretend play – Enactments of imaginary scenarios with plots and assigned roles o Intuitive thought – Some logical thinking (especially after 4), but based on hunches and intuition rather than conscious awareness of logical principles o Concrete Operations  About 6 or 7 years old  Adult-like logic appears but limited to reasoning about concrete, real- life situations o EX: Distinction between one’s own and other’s perspectives o EX: Class Inclusion o Conservation – Realization that amount stays the same is nothing added or taken away, regardless of alterations in shape or arrangement o Formal Operations  About 11 or 12 years of age  Logical reasoning processes applied to abstract ideas as well as concrete objects and situations  Many capabilities essential for advanced reasoning in science and math o EX: Logical reasoning about abstract, hypothetical, and contrary-to-fact ideas o EX: Proportional reasoning o EX: Formulation of multiple hypotheses o EX: Separation and control of variables o EX: Idealism – Ability to envision alternatives to current social and political practices, sometimes with little regard for what is realistically possible under existing circumstances  Sociocognitive Conflict – Interactions with age-mates that involves wrestling with contradictory viewpoints (than one’s own)—interactions that involve Sociocognitive conflict—create disequilibrium that may spur children to reevaluate and possibly revise their current understandings (where they might accept an adults ideas with no argument, they can argue with a peer)  Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development (pg. 21-24) o Emphasized the importance of adult instruction and guidance for promoting cognitive development 1. Through both informal conversation and formal schooling, adults convey to children the ways in which their culture interprets and responds to the world 2. Every culture passes along physical and cognitive tools that make daily living more productive and efficient 3. Thought and language become increasingly interdependent in the first few years of life 4. Complex mental processes begin as social activities and gradually evolve into internal mental activities that children can use independently 5. Children appropriate their culture’s tools in their own idiosyncratic manner 6. Children can accomplish more difficult tasks when assisted by more advanced and competent individuals 7. Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth 8. Play allows children to stretch themselves cognitively  Cognitive tool (in Vygotsky’s Theory 2 Assumption) o Tools such as scissors, sewing machines, and computers are physical objects o Writing systems, maps, and spreadsheets are part physical/symbolic o Concept of fractions, and the process of division, have little physical basis  Vygotsky views tools that are at least partly symbolic or mental in nature greatly enhances grordng children’s thinking and functioning  Inner speech (in Vygotsky’s Theory 3 Assumption) o Starting off as self-talk, or private speech a child learns to guide and direct their behaviors through difficult tasks and complex maneuvers in much the same way adults have previously guided them o Self-talk eventually evolves into inner speech, the mental conversations, rather than aloud, but still continue to direct and guide themselves through their tasks and activities  Helps with self-regulathon  Internalization (in Vygotsky’s Theory 4 Assumption) o This process which social activities evolve into internal mental activities is the internalization  Progression from self-talk to inner speech just illustrates this process, overtime children gradually internalize adults’ directions so that they are eventually giving themselves the direction  Zone of proximal development (in Vygotsky’s Theory 7 Assumption) o These are the range of tasks that children cannot yet perform alone but CAN perform with the help/guidance of others  Includes learning and problem solving abilities that are just beginning to emerge and develop  Changes over time and varies from student to student  Mediated learning experience (Contemporary extension and application of Vygotsky’s Theory) o Social construction of meaning – adults help children attach meaning to the objects and events around them o Often an adult will help a child make sense of the world around them through a joint discussion of topic or event they both are experiencing  This is a mediated learning experience, it encourages the child to think about the topic/event in certain ways, attaching labels to it, recognizing principles that underlie it, draw certain conclusions from it…  EX: Boy and Mother looking at dinosaur (sharp teeth, meat or plant)  Developmental trends in language development and the diversity you might see within children’s language development o Language & Culture  Mastering of language: phonology (words of sounds), semantics (meanings of many thousands of words), syntax (combining words to phrases), and pragmatics (social conventions and speaking strategies for effective communications)  Metalinguistic Awareness- ability to think consciously about the nature and functions of language (understanding poems, figurative natures in words, sarcasm, etc.) Grade Age-Typical Characteristics Example Suggested Strategies Level K-2  Knows of 8,000 words by age 6; 2 police officers visit a first-  Read age-appropriate understanding of some words only grade class to talk about how to storybooks as a way of partially correct go to and from school safely enhancing vocab  Difficultly understand lengthy, each day, the student listen  Give corrective feedback when complex sentences quietly and respectfully. After students’ use of words  Superficial understanding of being a the visit the students can recall indicates inaccurate “good listener” very little about what the understanding officers told them.  Literal interpretations of messages  Work on listening skills and requests  Ask follow-up questions to  Increasing ability to tell a story, both make sure students orally and in writing understand the important  Mastery of most sounds: some messages trouble with r, th, dr, sl, and str  Ask students to construct  Occasional use of regular word narratives about recent events endings (-s, -ed, -er)  Basic etiquette in conversations  Reluctance to initiate conversations with adults (for students from Asian and Mexican American background) 3-5  Incomplete knowledge of irregular Students in a third-grade class  Teach irregular word forms word forms love corny jokes and riddles that  Consult with a speech- involve a play on words. For  Correct pronunciation of all sounds language path. If articulation in one’s language (by age 9) example, “ Why did the cookie problems persist in the upper  Sustained conversation about go to the doctor? (He felt grades concrete topics crumby) and “Why couldn’t the  Use group discussion as a way  Increased ability to take listeners’ sailor play cards?” (Because the to explore academic subject prior knowledge into account during captain was standing on the matter explanations deck)  Have students create short  Construction of stories with plots stories that they present orally and cause-and-effect relations or in writing  Linguistic creativity 6-8  Knowledge of about 50,000 words at Students in a sixth grade class  Assign reading materials that age 12 write better persuasive essays introduce new vocab  Increasing awareness of when their teacher gives them  Introduce some of the terms terminologies used in carious direct guidance about elements used by some experts in academic disciplines to include, including (1) into various content areas statement, (2) supporting  Shows ability to carry on lengthy  Conduct structured debated to conversations about abstract topics evidence, (3) reasons why other explore controversial issues  Shows ability to look beyond literal people might disagree, (4)  Ask students to consider the interpretations; comprehend of explanations of why those underlying meanings of simple proverbs and increasing reasons are invalid common proverbs ability to detect sarcasm  Explore the nature of words and language as entities in and  Increasing proficiency in nonfiction writing, especially with teacher of themselves scaffolding 9-12  80,000 words When a ninth grader reads  Consistently use the  Acquisition of many vocab words Robert Frost’s poem “The Road terminology associated with related to particular academic Not Taken”, most students various academic disciplines disciplines realize that the poem is only  Distinguish between similar  Subtle refinements in syntax, mostly superficially about choosing one abstract words as a result of formal instruction of two paths through the  Explore complex syntactic  General ability to understand woods—that at a deeper level structures multiple embedded figurative language it’s about choosing among clauses various paths in life.  Consider the underlying  Significant improvements in expository writing, especially with meanings and messages in experience and constructive poetry and fiction feedback  When students have a native dialect other than Standard English, encourage them to use it in informal conversations and creative writing; Standard English for formal situations o Diversity in Language  Specific Language Impairment- Disability characterized by abnormalities in the production or comprehension of spoken language, to the point that special educational services are required  Bilingualism – speak at least 2 languages  These children have a greater phonological awareness, ability to hear the distinct sounds that comprise spoken words o Teaching a second language  ELLs (English language learners) – limited exposure to English prior to enrollment in school  Immersion – second-language instruction in which students hear and speak that language almost exclusively in the classroom Chapter 3  Parenting Styles (pg. 49) o Authoritative Parenting o Authoritarian Parenting  Socialization (as developmental psychologists use it) o Culture has a more direct influence on children’s personal and social development through a process known as socialization  Members of a cultural group work hard to help growing children adopt the behaviors that the group holds dear  Children learn from parents and members of the group at a young age and then at a school age, teachers begin to play a bigger role in helping with the social behaviors  Sense of Self (and how it changes during development) o Your perceptions, beliefs, judgements, and feelings about who you are as a person  Self-concept (assessment about one’s own values, worth, strengths and weaknesses) & Self-esteem (judgments and feelings about one’s own worth and value) o Changes in Sense of Self (pg. 54-57)  Childhood  Concrete, easily observable characteristics and behaviors  Positive sense of self (most young children) and can overcome any initial failures  Early Adolescence  General, fairly stable traits, more abstract self-perception  More social acceptance and physical appearance is dotted on, self- esteem & self-concepts drops (more for girls than boys)  Imaginary audience  Personal Fables o Late Adolescence  Recover from puberty (mostly) to enjoy a positive self-concept and overall mental health  The imaginary audience & personal fables slowly decline (though remnants remain throughout high school)  Reflection on their own characteristics and abilities and begin to struggle with seeming inconsistences in their self-perceptions  Sense of identity  Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development (understand the developmental tasks central to each stage) (pg. 54) o People proceed through 8 stages over their lives, each unique developmental task, and how one addresses it influences her or his general mental health and progress through later stages 1. Trust VS Mistrust (infancy) 2. Autonomy VS Shame and doubt (toddler years) 3. Initiative VS Guilt (preschool years) 4. Industry VS Inferiority (elementary school years) 5. Identity VS Role confusion (adolescence) 6. Intimacy VS Isolation (young adult) 7. Generativity VS Stagnation (middle age) 8. Integrity VS Despair (retirement years)  Imaginary audience (As talked about in Sense of Self) o Belief that one is the center of attention in any social situation  Identity and Marcia’s Identity Statuses o Identity- a self-constructed definition of who is and what things are important to accomplish in life o Marcia’s Four Identity Statuses (pg. 57):  Identity diffusion. No commitment to particular career path or ideological belief system  Foreclosure. Made a firm commitment to an occupation, a particular set of beliefs, or both (based largely on what others have prescribed, without exploration)  Moratorium. No strong commitment to career or set of beliefs but is actively exploring and considering variety of professions and ideologies (identity crisis)  Identity achievement. After a period of moratorium, individual has emerged with a clear choice of occupation, commitment to particular political or religious belief, etc.  Personal Fables (As talked about in Sense of Self) o Belief that one is completely unlike anyone else and so cannot be understood by others  Peer Relationships influence a child’s development o Provide an arena for learning and practicing a variety of social skills, cooperation, negotiation, emotional support, and conflict resolution o Companionship and safety, and self-socialization o Serve as socialization agents that help to mold children’s behaviors and beliefs  Peer pressure o Friendship, larger social groups (cliques, crowds, subcultures), gangs, romantic relationships  Ethnic Identity o Awareness (and proud) of one’s membership in particular ethnic or cultural group, and willingness to adopt behaviors characteristics of the group  Social Cognition o To be effective in interpersonal relationships, students engage in social cognition, they must consider how people around them are likely to think about, behave in, and react to various situations o Those with high emotional intelligence tend to succeed in building relationships with those around them  Diversity amongst students’ social skills (as discussed in the book) o Gender differences  Boys behaviors VS girls o Cultural and ethnic differences  Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (and moral reasoning within each stage) (pg.74)  Concept of induction (as related to moral reasoning) o Children tend to make gains in moral and prosocial development when adults consistently use induction  Explanation of why a certain behavior is unacceptable, often with a focus on the pain or distress that someone has caused another Chapter 4  Acculturation o Gradual process of adopting the values and customs of a new culture o Often critical for the success in the new cultural environment, but rapid acculturation can be detrimental to children’s social and emotional well-being  Cultural mismatch o Students who come from cultural groups with radically different norms and values may experience a cultural mismatch between home and school  Situation where a child’s home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for behavior  Cultural worldviews o General, culturally based set of assumptions about reality that influence understandings of a wide variety of topics  Cultural lens o A cultural lens is another term for viewing things from the perspective of a foreign culture. In order to apply a cultural lens on a situation, soft skills like empathy and understanding are needed  Strategies for addressing students’ stereotypes o Use curriculum materials that represent all cultures and ethnic groups as competent, legitimate participants in mainstream society, rather than as exotic curiosities who live in a separate world o Assign literature depicting peers from diverse cultural background o Explore the nature and complexity of various dialects o Conduct class discussions about prejudice and racism that exist in the school and local community o Expose students to successful role models from various ethnic backgrounds  Challenges students face associated with poverty o Poor nutrition and health o Inadequate housing and frequent moves o Exposure to toxic substances o Unhealthy social environments o Emotional stress o Gaps in background knowledge o Lower-quality schools  Stereotype threat o Negative stereotypes can also turn inward, causing a stereotype threat, which is awareness of a negative stereotype about one’s own group and accompanying uneasiness that low performance will confirm the stereotype; and leads (unintentionally often) to lower-quality performance  Characteristics of students at-risk o History of academic failure o Emotional/behavior problems o Lack of psychological attachment to school o Increasing dis-involvement with school Chapter 5  Different theoretical perspectives on intelligence o Spearman’s Concept of g  General intelligence (supported by contemporary psychologists)  Intelligence made up of 1) Spearman’s g and 2) specific factors o Cattell’s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligences  Fluid Intelligence- ability to learn new material and adapt  Crystallized Intelligence- Based on prior knowledge, experiences, culture o Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences  Suggests there are 8 distinct abilities, independent of one another  Supported by many educators because of optimism o Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory  Analytical Intelligence, Practical Intelligence, and Creative Intelligence  Influenced by: environment, relevance of prior experience to current task, and cognitive processes required by the task o Cattle-Horn-Carroll  Based on the idea that there are three strata’s (from top to bottom)  1) General intelligence/ g  2) 9-10 more specific abilities  3) 70+ very specific abilities o Currently used to predict student achievement in specific areas  Fluid intelligence o From Cattel’s Fluid and Crystallized intelligences, first people differ in fluid intelligence which is the ability to acquire knowledge quickly and adapt effectively to new situations  Distributed intelligence o Enhancement of thinking through the use of physical objects and technology concepts and symbols of one’s culture, and/or social collaboration and support  IQ score and how it relates to classroom performance o Correlation, not causation, between IQ and performance o IQ can change over time  Limitation of intelligence tests o General measure of current level of cognitive functioning; often used to predict academic achievement in the short run  Cognitive dispositions o General inclination and desire to approach and think about learning and problem- solving tasks in a particular way; typically has a motivational component in addition to cognitive component  Guarantees of IDEA (PL 94-142) o A free and appropriate education o Fair and nondiscriminatory evaluation o Education in the least restrictive environment o Individualized education program (IEP) o Due process  Inclusion o Practice of educating all students, including those with severe and multiple disabilities, in neighbors schools and general education classrooms  IEP o Students ages 3-21 is identified as having a disability, the multidisciplinary team collaboratively develops an instructional program called IEP tailed to the student’s strengths and weaknesses  Disability groups, characteristics and appropriate teacher strategies (on other document)


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