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General Biology I Exam Review Notes

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by: Sabrina Chung

General Biology I Exam Review Notes 01:119:116

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Biology > 01:119:116 > General Biology I Exam Review Notes
Sabrina Chung

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I have detailed descriptions of notes on what are on the exams.
General Biology
Study Guide
general biology, exam, notes
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabrina Chung on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 01:119:116 at Rutgers University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 869 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
 Neuronal plasticity o Define: Short term memory is placed into long term, ability to pull it  out from the long­term to the associate it or "chunk" it with other things.  Makes memory more efficient and regurgitating it.  o Importance: be able to associate what’s in your memory with new  information and broaden knowledge efficiently  How to increase post­synaptic response  o Increase activity, most efficient  Memory o Long term memory o Short term memory o Long Term Potentiation  Biological organization o Reductionism and emergence o Everything we do in bio is emergence o Put in order (ecosystems, communities, populations, etc.)  Inductive and Deductive reasoning o Difference?  Scientific Method o Steps? o What does it mean when a hypothesis is fiab?e  Not exact and true  Chemistry o Elements o Electron distributions (table) o Atomic number o Basics  Partial positive and Partial negative (delta) changes on a molecule (like  water and ammonium) o What property does their arrangement confer on each molecule? o Water = hydrogen bonding  Bonds o Covalent (non­polar/polar) difference? o Ionic o Hydrogen o Van der waals o Hydrophobia  Water o Properties?  High specific heat?  Adhesion/cohesion  Hydrogen bonds  High hear of vaporization?  Plant using this to renew its system  Evaporative cooling…universal proerties  Other bonds o Peptide (amino acids C=O, N­H)  Covalent bond o Glycosidic (sugars C­O­C) o Ester (glycerol and a fatty acid C­O­C=O)  o Phosphodiester (PO4) Describe within the molecules that use those bonds (where are the  o bonds?)  Functional groups o What happens to hydrocarbon (hydrophobic) skleton and does it  change its properties  Since its originally hydrophobic, the adding of an OH bond will make it less hydrophobic  Difference b/w dehydration (condensation) polumerization vs hydrolysis o Which are endergonic and which are exergonic  Proteins: o Amino acids added together o Primary, secondary and tertiary structure (folding and bending upon  themselves) Know difference   When are H bonds and R groups important in structure  formation  R = tertiary structures Sugars  o Monosaccharides  o Development of:  Starch  Glycogen (alpha 1­4)  Cellulose (beta 1­4)  Plant cell walls o Alpha/beta linkages/ o Which can be breakdown and why?  Lipids o NOT polymers o Sterols  Cholesterols  Polar grouping at one end, is partnered with the  membrane and moderates o Saturated: less fluid o Unsaturated: more fluid o Whis is cholesterol important to fluidity of membranes  Phospholipids and triglycerides o Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and their role in membrane  fluidity. o Does cholesterol play a part? o What helps a membrane in arctic weather to remain intact if there  aren't enough saturated FFA to limit Van Der Waals Forces?  Cholesterol helps membranes not be too fluid or solid in  extreme temperatures  Origin of Life o First cells? How were they produced? o First atmosphere for early earth? o First informal molecule? Why? o First DNA or NA ?  Stability  RNA is easier to be reproduced First organisms use oxygen? Evolve later?   NO. Organisms in the water photosynthesized  Endosymbiosis theory  First guys to make connections from Earth Earth o Miller and Urey o Oparing and Haldane o Roles?  Endosymbiosis theory o Define o Evidence that mitochondria and chloroplasts came from prokaryotic  sybionts?  Pland and animal cells  o Combat the effects of hypertonicity  o Water in the cell will go out in hypertonic environment, cell will  shrivel and die o Seek balance inside and outside  Lysosomes o Degradation and redistribution of complexes in the cell o Autophagy, phagocytosis and why intact membranes are so imp?  Microscopy o Resolution o Magnification o Viewing and organism o Electron microscopy  Useful for living organisms? Justify o Green flourescent protein o Staining techniques  Inside the cell o Chloroplasts and mitochondria photosynthesis  o Nucleus o Nucleoli o Ribosomes o Endoplasmic reticulum o Golgi apparatus o Where are they, describe functions  When something implanted in membrane, sugar side is toward  the extracellular side  Glycosigenation o Which are contiguous?  Which merge with each other in order to allow for passage of  molecules o Which are dependent on SVR (surface to volume ratio)  Mitochondria o Increase in SVR carrying out excessive functional activities  Protiens o Main 6 functions  Transport  Signaling  Transduction  Cell­cell recognition  Channels  Attachment o Transmembrane vs periferal protein  Trans: across membrane  Extracellular end, intracellular end    Peripheral    


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