HLTH130 Exam 1 Review
HLTH130 Exam 1 Review HLTH130
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Kotler on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH130 at University of Maryland taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public and Community Health in Health Sciences at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Health 130: Exam 1 Study Guide Know the W.H.O. definition of health and how that definition compares with the ones by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, Parsons, and Turnock. ● WHO definition: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental or social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease.” ● Ottawa Charter for Health Promotio “Health is seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living.” ● Parsons: “Health is the ability to perform certain valued social roles.” ● Turnock: Disease is a relatively objective, pathologic phenomenon, whereas ● health and illness are subjective experiences.” ● In summary: WHO and Turnock focus on both disease and the absence of disease, and Ottawa and Parsons do not mention disease. Be familiar with the theories of disease causality throughout history, including models to address infectious disease and noninfectious (e.g., The Germ Theory, Epidemiologic Triangle, and Web of Causation). ● Sins and the Wrath of Gods Disease was seen as tied to religion, such as due to the wrath of god. This was found in the book Exodus, along with the Iliad. ● Origins of Environmental Theory idea that the environment plays a role in human health, citedOn Airs, Waters and Places, circa 400 BC. ● Humoral Theory: disease was seen as an imbalance of blood, black and yellow bile, or phlegm. Medicine was thought to restore the balance. ● Mysticism and the Church:ideas of demons and mysticism were thought to cause “disease”. ● Influence of the Renaissance and Scientific Revolutioody was a machine, brain and body not fully linked. ● Germ Theory (Louis Pasteur):diseases are caused by microorganisms ● Multicausal Theory or Etiology of Diseashere is not one sole cause of disease Have an understanding of current health issues that were not previously seen as diseases or public health problems. ● Hygiene, sanitation, cancers, heart disease, cigarette smoking, intentional self harm, etc. Be familiar with the IllnessWellness Continuum. Know the definition of the mission of public health. Be able to discuss the elements that comprise this definition, i.e. fulfillment, society’s interest, conditions, health. ● Public health: science/art of preventing disease, prolonging life, promoting physical health through the environment, education, community, etc. ○ Increases life spans, decreases prevalence of disease ○ 3 core functions ■ Assessment identify community health issues, diagnose, investigate ■ Policy development inform/educate about issues, make policy ■ Assurance enforce laws, give people what they need, evaluate programs ○ Focuses on preventative medicine, while medicine focuses on healing the ill ● Provide services for protection of community’s health, like environmental/educational/ basic medical services Know the 4 overarching goals ealthy People2020 and whatHealthy Peoplepresents. ● Health People: national prevention initiative that identifies opportunities to improve American people’s health, uses scorecard for monitoring health status ○ US contribution to WHO’s Health for All strategy ○ Goals: ■ Attain highquality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death. ■ Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. ■ Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all. ■ Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages. Be able to identify the 5 disciplines that comprise the professional field of public health and what each discipline focuses on. ● Epidemiology study of the distribution and determinants of disease and injury in human populations ● Biostatistic (inferential statistics) making inferences from a small group to a larger population ○ Help to understand causes/results, patterns in society, etc ● Health Policy and Administratio focus on organization, access, quality, financing, affordability, types of services, service delivery, marketing ● Environmental health sciences focuses on the natural and built environment ○ Natural: air, water, soil, geography, topography ○ Built: public health infrastructure, schools, businesses, green space ● Social and Behavioral Sciences focuses on factors that shape and reinforce individual and collective behavior Be able to define and discuss the following terms: ● Populationbased: looking at the entire population’s health, not just a single person’s individual health issues. Look at life expectancy, infant mortality, demographics. ● Evidencebased : use rigorous methods, objectivity, evidence for policy and practice ● Prevention: working to change community behaviors ○ Primary: washing hands, vaccinations ○ Secondary: screening for a gene ○ Tertiary: rehabilitation, palliative care (end of life, pain management) ● Social justice: founding principle, involves trying to get rid of health disparities and inequality reflected on health care by society. Have a general familiarity with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) diagram “Guide To Thinking About The Determinants of Population Health”; ie know what the different spheres address. Be able to discuss the differences between medicine and public health: Medicine Public Health Unit of interest Individual Population Place of work Hospital, office, lab Community orgs/settings Level of activity Patient care, disease Prevention, education, management, all down to research, intervention cellular issues Disciplines Cardiology, Oncology, Epidemiology, biostatistics, Pediatrics, Dermatology, etc. environmental health, social/behavioral health policy, public health administration Understand the meaning and application of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. ● Primary: washing hands, vaccinations ● Secondary: screening for a gene ● Tertiary: rehabilitation, palliative care (end of life, pain management) Be able to explain the philosophy of social justice. ● “Implies eliminating disparities; involves examining how society is organized and how this affects public health status.” ● Essentially, differences in health care availability and treatment are inherently unequal, just as our society is not all equal in many/most facets. Be able to define health equity, health disparities and health inequity. ● Health equity “concerns those differences in population health that can be traced to unequal economic and social conditions and are systemic and avoidable – and thus inherently unjust and unfair.”* (unnaturalcauses.org) ● Health disparities are he inequalities that occur in the provision of healthcare and access to healthcare across different racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups.” ● Health inequity is “differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups.” Be familiar with the Epidemiologic Transition of the 20th century. ● Describes changing patterns of population age distributions, mortality, fertility, life expectancy, and causes of death ○ Changes in population growth trajectories and composition: age distribution ○ Changes in patterns of mortality: increasing life expectancy, different causes of death. ● Seen in demography, public health, and epidemiology Be able to list and discuss the “top ten” great public health accomplishments of the 20th century. ● Immunizations ● MotorVehicle Safety ● Workplace Safety ● Control of Infectious Diseases ● Declines in Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke ● Safer and Healthier Foods ● Healthier Mothers and Babies ● Family Planning ● Fluoridation of Drinking Water ● Tobacco as a Health Hazard Be familiar with contemporary public health challenges. ● New or renewed challenges like AIDS, antibiotic resistant sickness, foodborne pathogens Be able to define and discuss the termclass’socioeconomic status), and its relationship to health i.e., its definition, measurement, potential pathways by which it influences health outcomes. ● Class “the Ignored Determinant of the Nation’s Health” ● The gap in health between haves” and have nots” ● Concentrating on race as a way of eliminating disparities downplays the importance of SES ● Low income is a result of class and indicates higher rates of mortality, increased cycle of poverty, less educational opportunities, more negative stress Be able to list and discuss contemporary and 21st century public health challenges as were mentioned in the class session on “Historical and Contemporary Threats”. ● Resurgence of infectious diseases due to globalization, drug resistant microbes, and bioterrorism ● Past successes give rise to new threats ○ Industrialization, deforestation, global warming ● Challenge of understanding and altering behavior ○ “Behavioral pathogens”, reformulation of “risk” ● Continued emphasis on curative medicine In relation to the fIs Inequality Making Us Sick: In Sickness and In We: h ● Social determinants: socioeconomic status, education, income ● How they are all related: Higher education = higher income = higher socioeconomic status = less likely to be poor, sick, disabled ● Economic and social conditions in which people get sick: intensive work, poverty ● Role of stressors in relation to health: stress causes high levels of cortisol, which, over time, can cause increased risk of heart disease, hypertension, etc. Have a good understanding of the articlealth, Disease and Illness: Matters for Definnd n a the issues we raised in class in relation to the article, i.e., differences in definition of health, illness, and disease; the complexity of defining health and illness. ● Health described here as the absence of disease or a state of complete wellbeing ● Illness can be diseased without being ill; physical signs of a disease = illness ● Disease an internal state of impaired health, or reduced functioning Have a good understanding of the articlealth and Societies: Changing Perspectiveook Review and the issues we raised in class in relation to the Book Review, i.e., the importance of social, political, and cultural context in determining health outcomes and definitions of health, illness and disease. ● “There is no single body of theory which is adequate to represent or explain the complexity of factors relevant to health” ● Factors like race, gender, and sexuality all affect the construction of health Have a good understanding of the articludget Cuts and the Politics of Researarticularly in relation to: a) the debate over what constitutes fundamental knowledge; b) why public health is inherently political ● NIH’s goal is to increase “fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems...to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability” ○ Curing diseases, increasing longevity, etc. ● Inherently political because they study real people and their lives, not just blood samples in a research lab ○ Representative of the effects of their environments, public policy, disparities, etc. Have an understanding of the central theme of the essaLeft Behind, y Clarence Page of the Chicago Tribune. ● Inequality is defined more by class than race ● There are more poor white people in America than poor black people ● Inequality is about who gets left behind, not just skin color or economic status
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