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HLTH130 Exam 1 Review

by: Jordan Kotler

HLTH130 Exam 1 Review HLTH130

Jordan Kotler

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Introduction to Public and Community Health
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Kotler on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH130 at University of Maryland taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public and Community Health in Health Sciences at University of Maryland.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Health 130: Exam 1 Study Guide     Know the W.H.O. definition of health and how that definition compares with the ones by the  Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, Parsons, and Turnock.   ● WHO​ definition: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental or social well­being and  not merely the absence of disease.”  ● Ottawa Charter for Health Promotio​ “Health is seen as a resource for everyday life,  not the objective of living.”  ● Parsons: “Health is the ability to perform certain valued social roles.”  ● Turnock: Disease is a relatively objective, pathologic phenomenon, whereas   ● health and illness are subjective experiences.”  ● In summary: WHO and Turnock focus on both disease and the absence of disease, and  Ottawa and Parsons do not mention disease.    Be familiar with the theories of disease causality throughout history, including models to address  infectious disease and non­infectious (e.g., The Germ Theory, Epidemiologic Triangle, and Web  of Causation).   ● Sins and the Wrath of Gods Disease was seen as tied to religion, such as due to the  wrath of god. This was found in the book Exodus, along with the Iliad.   ● Origins of Environmental Theory idea that the environment plays a role in human  health, citedOn Airs, Waters and Places, circa 400 BC.  ● Humoral Theory​: disease was seen as an imbalance of blood, black and yellow bile, or  phlegm. Medicine was thought to restore the balance.   ●  Mysticism and the Church:ideas of demons and mysticism were thought to cause  “disease”.  ● Influence of the Renaissance and Scientific Revolutio​ody was a machine, brain  and body not fully linked.   ● Germ Theory (Louis Pasteur):diseases are caused by microorganisms   ● Multi­causal Theory or Etiology of Diseas​here is not one sole cause of disease    Have an understanding of current health issues that were not previously seen as diseases or  public health problems.   ● Hygiene, sanitation, cancers, heart disease, cigarette smoking, intentional self harm, etc.     Be familiar with the Illness­Wellness Continuum.         Know the definition of the mission of public health. Be able to discuss the elements that  comprise this definition, i.e. fulfillment, society’s interest, conditions, health.   ● Public health: science/art of preventing disease, prolonging life, promoting physical  health through the environment, education, community, etc.   ○ Increases life spans, decreases prevalence of disease  ○ 3 core functions  ■ Assessment­​ identify community health issues, diagnose, investigate  ■ Policy development inform/educate about issues, make policy  ■ Assurance­ enforce laws, give people what they need, evaluate programs  ○ Focuses on preventative medicine, while medicine focuses on healing the ill  ● Provide services for protection of community’s health, like environmental/educational/  basic medical services    Know the 4 overarching goals ​ealthy People2020 and what​Healthy Peopl​epresents.   ● Health People: national prevention initiative that identifies opportunities to improve  American people’s health, uses scorecard for monitoring health status  ○ US contribution to WHO’s Health for All strategy  ○ Goals:   ■ Attain high­quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability,  injury, and premature death.  ■ Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all  groups.  ■ Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.  ■ Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors  across all life stages.  Be able to identify the 5 disciplines that comprise the professional field of public health and what  each discipline focuses on.   ● Epidemiology­​ study of the distribution and determinants of disease and injury in human  populations  ● Biostatistic (inferential statistics)­ making inferences from a small group to a larger  population  ○ Help to understand causes/results, patterns in society, etc  ● Health Policy and Administratio​ focus on organization, access, quality, financing,  affordability, types of services, service delivery, marketing  ● Environmental health sciences­ focuses on the natural and built environment  ○ Natural: air, water, soil, geography, topography  ○ Built: public health infrastructure, schools, businesses, green space  ● Social and Behavioral Sciences​ focuses on factors that shape and reinforce individual  and collective behavior    Be able to define and discuss the following terms:   ● Population­based​: looking at the entire population’s health, not just a single person’s  individual health issues. Look at life expectancy, infant mortality, demographics.    ● Evidence­based​ :  use rigorous methods, objectivity, evidence for policy and practice  ● Prevention​: working to change community behaviors  ○ Primary: washing hands, vaccinations   ○ Secondary: screening for a gene  ○ Tertiary: rehabilitation, palliative care (end of life, pain management)  ● Social justice​: founding principle, involves trying to get rid of health disparities and  inequality reflected on health care by society.     Have a general familiarity with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) diagram “Guide To Thinking  About The Determinants of Population Health”; ie know what the different spheres address.       Be able to discuss the differences between medicine and public health:      Medicine  Public Health  Unit of interest  Individual  Population  Place of work  Hospital, office, lab  Community orgs/settings  Level of activity  Patient care, disease  Prevention, education,  management, all down to  research, intervention  cellular issues  Disciplines  Cardiology, Oncology,  Epidemiology, biostatistics,  Pediatrics, Dermatology, etc.   environmental health,  social/behavioral health  policy, public health  administration      Understand the meaning and application of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.   ● Primary: washing hands, vaccinations   ● Secondary: screening for a gene  ● Tertiary: rehabilitation, palliative care (end of life, pain management)    Be able to explain the philosophy of social justice.   ● “Implies eliminating disparities; involves examining how society is organized and how  this affects public health status.”  ● Essentially, differences in health care availability and treatment are inherently unequal,  just as our society is not all equal in many/most facets.     Be able to define health equity, health disparities and health inequity.   ● Health equity “concerns those differences in population health that can be traced to  unequal economic and social conditions and are systemic and avoidable – and thus  inherently unjust and unfair.”* (  ● Health disparities are he inequalities that occur in the provision of healthcare and  access to healthcare across different racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups.”  ● Health inequity is “differences in health status or in the distribution of health  determinants between different population groups.”    Be familiar with the Epidemiologic Transition of the 20th century.  ● Describes changing patterns of population age distributions, mortality, fertility, life  expectancy, and causes of death  ○ Changes in population growth trajectories and composition: age distribution  ○ Changes in patterns of mortality: increasing life expectancy, different causes of  death.  ● Seen in demography, public health, and epidemiology    Be able to list and discuss the “top ten” great public health accomplishments of the 20th century.   ● Immunizations   ● Motor­Vehicle Safety   ● Workplace Safety   ● Control of Infectious Diseases   ● Declines in Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke   ● Safer and Healthier Foods   ● Healthier Mothers and Babies   ● Family Planning   ● Fluoridation of Drinking Water   ● Tobacco as a Health Hazard     Be familiar with contemporary public health challenges.   ● New or renewed challenges like AIDS, antibiotic resistant sickness, foodborne  pathogens    Be able to define and discuss the termclass’​socioeconomic status), and its relationship to  health­ i.e., its definition, measurement, potential pathways by which it influences health  outcomes.   ● Class­ “the Ignored Determinant of the Nation’s Health”  ● The gap in health between haves” ​and have nots”   ● Concentrating on race as a way of eliminating disparities downplays the importance of  SES   ● Low income is a result of class and indicates higher rates of mortality, increased cycle of  poverty, less educational opportunities, more negative stress    Be able to list and discuss contemporary and 21st century public health challenges as were  mentioned in the class session on “Historical and Contemporary Threats”.   ● Resurgence of infectious diseases due to globalization, drug resistant microbes, and  bioterrorism  ● Past successes give rise to new threats   ○ Industrialization, deforestation, global warming   ● Challenge of understanding and altering behavior   ○ “Behavioral pathogens”, reformulation of “risk”   ● Continued emphasis on curative medicine     In relation to the fIs Inequality Making Us Sick: In Sickness and In We:  h​ ● Social determinants: socioeconomic status, education, income  ● How they are all related: Higher education = higher income = higher socioeconomic  status = less likely to be poor, sick, disabled  ● Economic and social conditions in which people get sick: intensive work, poverty  ● Role of stressors in relation to health: stress causes high levels of cortisol, which, over  time, can cause increased risk of heart disease, hypertension, etc.     Have a good understanding of the articl​ealth, Disease and Illness: Matters for Defin​nd n a the issues we raised in class in relation to the article, i.e., differences in definition of health,  illness, and disease; the complexity of defining health and illness.   ● Health­ described here as the absence of disease or a state of complete well­being  ● Illness­ can be diseased without being ill; physical signs of a disease = illness  ● Disease­  an internal state of impaired health, or reduced functioning    Have a good understanding of the articl​ealth and Societies: Changing Perspective​ook  Review and the issues we raised in class in relation to the Book Review, i.e., the importance of  social, political, and cultural context in determining health outcomes and definitions of health,  illness and disease.   ● “There is no single body of theory which is adequate to represent or explain the  complexity of factors relevant to health”  ● Factors like race, gender, and sexuality all affect the construction of health     Have a good understanding of the articl​udget Cuts and the Politics of Resear​articularly  in relation to: a) the debate over what constitutes fundamental knowledge;   b) why public health is inherently political   ● NIH’s goal is to increase “fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and  disability”  ○ Curing diseases, increasing longevity, etc.   ● Inherently political because they study real people and their lives, not just blood samples  in a research lab  ○ Representative of the effects of their environments, public policy, disparities, etc.     Have an understanding of the central theme of the essaLeft Behind, y Clarence Page of the  Chicago Tribune.   ● Inequality is defined more by class than race  ● There are more poor white people in America than poor black people   ● Inequality is about who gets left behind, not just skin color or economic status 


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