Study Guide CHEM 100 002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heidi Archer on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 100 002 at Indiana State University taught by Jeeewandara in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Chemistry and Society in Chemistry at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Chemistry study guide Chapter 2 How is measurement recorded? Recorded with all certain digits and first uncertain digit What is a meniscus? the top of a curved water line in a graduated cylinder A fisherman describes his latest’s catch at 61.5 cm rainbow trout with a mass of 2.35 kg. What is the uncertainty? 61.5 and 61.6 so . . . 61.5 ±.1cm If you move the exponent to the right the exponent becomes ______ ? Negative Put 6,400,000 in scientific notation. 6.4 × 10 6 Convert 7.6 × 10 back to normal format. 0.00076 What is the formula for Density? Mass divided by Volume If the substance is less dense than water it will ____ ? Float If the substance is denser than water it will ____ ? Sink What is the density of the following wooden block . . . Mass=58g Width=4cm Height=2cm Length=10cm Find volume . . . L×W×H = 10×4×2=80 cm 3 3 3 So . . . Mass ÷ Volume= 58 g ÷ 80 cm = 0.725 g/cm How do you use displacement method? fill graduated cylinder with water then drop substance in the water to get your volume The mass of an object was 33.528g. So if the meniscus is at 10.6 mL before adding your object (your initial reading) then add object and shake out air pockets making your final reading 21.80 mL. Find density. take your final finding (21.80mL) – initial finding (10.6mL) = 11.20 mL (volume) Mass=33.52g Now take mass ÷ volume= 33.528g ÷ 11.20 mL=2.99 g/mL How do you find volume when given mass and density? Volume = Mass ÷ Density Convert 5.85kg ???g Conversion factor: 1kg=1000g 1,000g 5.85kg × = 5850g 1kg Convert 2.38g ???µg Conversion factor: 1µg = 1 × 10 or 0.000001 1µg 6 2.38g × 0.000001 = 2,380,000 µg o 2.38 × 10 µg Convert 85.0 kg to pounds Conversion factor: 1kg=2.20lb 2.20lb 85.0kg × 1kg = 187 lb What is a derived SI unit? The volume of an object is a measure of the amount of space it occupies So you have a box with a Length of 1cm Width of 1cm and Height of 1cm. Find volume 3 3 Simply take 1cm × 1cm × 1cm = 1cm so . . . V=1mL=1cm Chapter 3 All matter is composed of particles called ____ ? Atoms What did Ernest Rutherford have to do with chemistry? He Postulated that the atom consisted of a sphere of positive charge filled with small negatively charged particles called electrons The charge of the proton is assigned numerical value of ___ ? +1 The graphite in a pencil and the gemstone diamond are composed entirely of pure carbon atoms. Even though these substances appear and behave very differently, what about the nucleus do these carbon atoms have in common that identify them as carbon? Diamonds and graphite are composed of carbon atoms with six protons in the nucleus Symbols are an abbreviation of the chemical name can be based on: The English name for the element : Hydrogen is H The Greek or Latin name: Ferrum (iron) is Fe Their place of discovery : Europium is Eu The scientist honored by the naming: Curium is Cm New elements . . . Do not exist naturally +2 Convert Mg Mg p=12 p=12 e=12 e=10 You change the electrons to 10 so you get a positive charge (+2) for the element Convert O O2 p=8 p=8 e=8 e=10 ch=0 ch=2 You change the electrons to 10 so you get a negative charge (2) for the element Neutrons are almost as massive as protons but ____ ? carry no electrical charge What are Isotopes? Atoms with different number of neutrons The sum of neutrons and protons in an atom is called ____ ? the mass number Mass number is the ___ ? sum of protons + sum neutrons Atomic number is the ___ ? sum of the protons Neutral atoms have ________________? equal numbers of protons and electrons How do you find Average atomic mass? (Fraction of isotope 1) × (mass of isotope 1)+ (fraction of isotope 2) × (mass of isotope 2) Number of protons determines ____ ? the identity Number of electrons ?? Defines its ____ ? chemical behavior Orbits could only hold a maximum number of electrons determined by ____ ? the value of n N=1 2e N=2 8e N=3 8e Atoms with dull outer orbits are extremely ___ ? stable Atoms with outer orbits that are not full are unstable and will undergo chemical reactions attempting to fill _____________? the outermost orbit What are the Metalloids? B, Si, As, Te, Ge, and Sb Metals and Nonmetals: Separated by think line in periodic table left side are ____, right side are _____ ? Metals , Non metals What elements occur as diatomic molecules? Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine You Need 12,000 nails: 12 nails = 10 g 12,000 nails × 10g = 10,000g =10kg 12nails Molar mass is ___ ? the mass in grams of 1 mole of substance 1 mole = _____? 6.022 × 1023 6.022 × 1023 = 602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 Mass of 1 mol of an element is equal to its _____ ? atomic mass in grams
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