Soc100Y Exam 1 Study guide
Soc100Y Exam 1 Study guide Soc 100Y
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Ricco on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 100Y at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Wallace in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology (FYE) in Sociology at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Mackenzie Ricco Dr. Wallace 15 February 2016 Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Define C. Wright Mill’s sociological imagination: a. The term culture refers to the group’s shared practices, values, and beliefs. Culture encompasses a group’s way of life, from routine, everyday interactions to the most important parts of group members' lives. It includes everything produced by a society, including all of the social rules. Sociologists often study culture using the sociological imagination, which pioneer sociologist C. Wright Mills described as an awareness of the relationship between a person’s behavior and experience and the wider culture that shaped the person’s choices and perceptions. It’s a way of seeing our own and other people’s behavior in relationship to history and social structure (1959). (1.1) 2. Compare using “the sociological perspective” to viewing the world through a lens other than your own: a. When looking from the point of view of a sociologist the filter is more analytical and fact based. Sociologists know the numbers of what the rates are of marriage and divorce and what is common from one area to another. Sociologists also look at society as a topic or information group--the scientists separate themselves from their topic while the normal eye understands that they are a part of it all. “Regular” individuals base their conclusions off of past experiences and knowledge. 3. What types of explanations does sociology teach you to look for and develop? a. Sociology teaches an individual to think critically and look at all of the factors in a situation--it teaches someone to think deeply and to not take the simple answer. There are so many variables in life and sociology teaches you to try and take each one into consideration. 4. What is the difference between ascribed, achieved, and master statuses? a. Ascribed Status- what you are born into or with, e.g. gender, race, ethnicity, body build, sexual orientation b. Achieved Status- one that you change or achieve later in life, e.g. different social status that your parents, changing your gender or sexual orientation, job/career c. Master Status- one factor that changes that cannot necessarily be changed by you but is seen by others, e.g. age, disability status, pregnancy, sentencing 5. Provide an example of how our behavior depends upon the agreed-upon definition of the situation-- social construction of reality: a. Students in a classroom versus outside on a playground. The children are aware that inside the classroom they must sit quietly in their seat and obey the teacher. While on the playground, the students know that they may run and scream, but are still guided by the monitor. 6. Explain what W.I. and Dorothy Thomas meant when they wrote, “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.” What is this quote called? a. Institutionalization, Thomas Theorem (4.3) 7. What is “Class consciousness”? Do the people that you know have it? a. The awareness of one’s rank in society (4.2) b. Class consciousness is alive and well in my society. People are well aware of who is lower class and who is middle class. 8. What is social stratification? What is the system of stratification used in our society? a. A socioeconomic system that decides society’s members into categories ranking from high to low, based on things like wealth, power, and prestige. (9.1) b. The Class System 9. How has income and wealth distribution changed from 1970 to today in the U.S.? a. The income for the middle and lower class has diminished and the top 1% of Americans hold most of the money that exists in the U.S.A. The income gap between the middle and upper class and grown exponentially leaving America with a bigger poverty rate. 10. Whis is the poverty line/level? How is it determined? a. The estimates minimum level of income needed to secure the necessities of life. The Annual poverty Guidelines in 2015 for the average family of four was $24,250.00 (Medicaid Link) For one person it was $11,770.00 annually. Those equal out to $2,020.83 and $ 980.83 respectively. b. The U.S. Census Bureau determines poverty status by comparing pre-tax cash income against a threshold that is set at three times the cost of a minimum food diet in 1963, updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index, and adjusted for family size, composition, and age of householder. (Institute for Research on Poverty) 11. What is the social structural explanation for poverty? a. Unemployment, recession 12. Contrast medical care as either a right or a privilege/commodity: a. The industrialized countries, excluding America, medical care is seen as a constitutional right for all citizens. America sees medical care as a privilege for those who can afford it and can access it. 13. What is medicalization? a. The process by which aspects of life that were considered bad or deviant are redefined as sickness and needing medical attention to remedy (19.3) 14. What is fragmentation? Why is it such a key problem in the U.S. healthcare system? a. Fragmentation is the division of units or insurance coverage within a country's healthcare system. This also applies to the subdivision of any system. b. Fragmentation is a problem in the U.S. healthcare system because it makes it difficult for patients to understand the system and to become a part of it. 15. How is the medical model different from the social constructionist model of health? a. Social functionalism focuses on the way that parts of a society function together, the American healthcare system contradicts this because it works separately and almost against the other healthcare divisions. 16. Explain how illness is a defiance: a. Illness is a break from the “normal” balance of an individual’s health status. 17. Provide one example of each of the things that have been medicalized that were previously understood as 1) a Deviance or as criminological and 2) a natural process. a. ADD, ADHD, Schizophrenia, marijuana, Tourettes, Fibromyalgia b. Red Hair, Menstruation, Childbirth, Aging 18. Using the labeling theory, provide an example of how defiance is created through the labeling process. a. Once someone achieves a label they either embrace it or do what they can to get out of it. For example, in some instances when a child receives the label of Juvenile Delinquent it pushes them to continue to take part in bad behavior. Extra Information ❏ Structural Functionalism- Macro or Mid, The way each part of society function together to contribute to the whole ❏ Conflict Theory- Macro, the way inequalities contribute to social differences and perpetuate difference in power ❏ Symbolic Interactionism- Micro, one-to-one interaction and communications ❏ C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological imagination to study how society affects individuals ❏ The difference between positivism and antipositivism relates to whether sociological studies can predict or improve society ❏ Positivism- the scientific study of social patterns ❏ Antipositivism- the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values ❏ Weber believed that humans could not be studied purely objectively because they were influenced by culture ❏ Karl Marx believed that the history of society was one of class struggle ❏ A symbolic interactionist may compare social interactions to theatrical roles ❏ Organic solidarity is most likely to exist in Industrial societies ❏ The Protestant work ethic is based on the concept of predestination ❏ The concept of the iron cage was popularized by Max Weber ❏ Emile Durkheim's ideas about society can best be described as functionalist ❏ According to Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, society is based on habitual actions ❏ The looking glass self- when you change your outside to show people what you think that they want to see ❏ Intergenerational mobility is the change of status between generations not within it. E.G. parents in kids not cousins ❏ The premise of the Davis-Moore thesis that that unequal distribution serves a purpose in society ● 35-40 Multiple Choice and T/F ● There are 8 short answer options, only 4-5 have to be done. Each short answer is worth 5 points.
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