PSY2012, Exam 2 Study Guide
PSY2012, Exam 2 Study Guide PSY2012
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012 at Florida State University taught by Melissa Shepard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 3: Biological Psychology The Nervous System o Central Nervous System (CNS) The brain and spinal cord Controls mind and behavior o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Sensory neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body Contains nerves that extend outside of the nervous system (sensory receptors) Two components: Somatic Nervous System o Interacts with the external environment o Contains nerves that connect the CNS to sensory organs Send signals from the sense organs to the CNS Sends signals from the CNS to the skeletal muscles to direct out voluntary movements Autonomic Nervous System o Regulation of internal environment o Connects the CNS to the involuntary muscles and organs and to the body’s hormone producing glands o Two components: Sympathetic Nervous System Triggers the “fight or flight response” Heart and breathing rate increasing, pupils dilating, digesting stop, etc. Parasympathetic Nervous System Returns the body to a stable state after using the sympathetic nervous system Breathing returns to normal, digestion begins again, general calming down after using a lot of energy “Rest and Digest” The Brain o Hindbrain Includes the Medulla and the Pons Medulla: regulates breathing, heart beat and other vital functions Pons: helps with motor coordination and triggers dreams o Connects the cortex to the cerebellum Connects the spinal cord to the brain o Cerebellum Coordinates voluntary movements and balance Allows for certain types of associative learning (making connections between things) Modulation of emotions Not a primary responsibility Discrimination of sounds and textures o Thalamus Sits on top of the brainstem “Sensory Switchboard” Receives sensory input and sends it to specialized regions of the brain All senses except smell o Limbic System Hypothalamus Regulates homeostasis o The Autonomic Nervous System o Releases necessary hormones o Regulates some emotions and drives 4 F’s (fighting, fleeing, feeding and sex) o If the hypothalamus is damaged, these drives would be gone Amygdala Tied to emotions (aggression and fear) Formation of emotional memories Hippocampus Storing and retrieving declarative memories Differentiates between declarative memories and procedural memories o Declarative memories: facts and knowledge Episodic memory: memories of experiences Semantic memory: factual information o Procedural memories: Unconscious memories (skills) Spatial memory (physical lay out; maps) Damage does not touch past memories, but damages your ability to form new memories Cerebral Cortex Outermost, wrinkly covering of the brain 80% of brain mass 2 hemispheres o Hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum o Each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes that are separated by fissures Frontal lobe: makes humans unique; helps with plans and judgments; helps us speak; helps with muscle movement; oversees all other brain functions Parietal lobe: Registers and processes body sensations (touch and perception) Occipital lobe: Processes visual information; we have a larger occipital lobe because we rely heavily on visual cues Temporal lobe: Processes auditory information and speech Brain-Mapping Methods o Actively “manipulating the brain” Electrical stimulation: Assume that the subject’s reaction is related to the part of the brain you are stimulating o Lesion studies Surgically destroying part of the brain to determine results Animals or tumors o Electroencephalograph (EEG) Measures electrical activity from electrodes placed on the skull Determines which regions of the brain are active during specific tasks o Brain Scans Allow us to “see” the brain CT and MRI scans: Do not show brain activity but can show the structure of the brain between different people PET scans: Show changes in brain activity due to stimuli fMRI studies: Uses blood oxygenation levels to visualize brain activity over brief time intervals o Magnetic Simulation and Recording Transcranial Magnetic Simulation (TMS) Applies strong and quickly changing magnetic fields to the skull that will either enhance or interrupt brain function to determine causation of functioning Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Measures tiny magnetic fields generated by the brain If you interrupt a certain brain function and a behavior stops, you know that part of the brain was needed for that behavior Nature vs. Nurture o Nature’s contribution (genes) Genotype (our genetic makeup) Remember some genes are not seen because they are recessive Phenotype (our set of observable characteristics not from genes) Intelligence The biology of the brain effects emotions and behavior (hormone levels) Influences psychological disorders o Nurture’s contribution How our experiences affect behavior Parenting styles affect self-confidence and social competence but also Political attitudes Religious beliefs Personal manners Siblings tend to be as different as two random people Peers Learning to interact, cooperate and balance issues of social status with people their same age o Nature and Nurture interact with and affect each other Behavioral Genetics o Studies the relative impact of nature and nurture on psychological traits o Estimates heritability (% of variability in a trait across individuals due to genes) Some traits are highly heritable(height) and some are not (political beliefs) Refers to populations, not individuals Does not give information about fate How Nature Affects Nurture and Vise Versa o Babies temperament (personalities) are affected by their genes, but also by their environment How people interact with them can influence how they interact in the future o Nurture/environment can affect the brain Twin Studies o With twins, people study how differences in environment would affect genes Two sets of twins raised in the same environment If the identical twins are more similar than the fraternal twins after the study, genes are important in who they are Twins raised in a different environment (adoption) If the twins that are not sharing the same environment are less similar than the twins who were raised together, environment is important in who they are as well Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Sensation o The basic process by which sensory organs in the nervous system respond to stimuli in our environment o Detection of physical energy by sense organs, which send information to the brain o Psychologists study sensation because The initial building blocks of both behavior and mental processes are information we take in through our senses Our sense receptors convert (“transduce”) energy into electrical signals o Sensation happens through transduction (our nervous system converting external energies into a language our neurons understand) Sensory receptors Perception o The brain’s interpretation of raw sensory inputs about taste, sound, light, etc. After sensation occurs o Involves the integration of the outside world (external stimuli) and our inner world (previous knowledge or experiences) Closely tied to thought and memory o Our cognitive system actively works to create meaningful patterns o Two interaction processes: Bottom-up processes: sensory detection and encoding Constructing the whole from it’s parts Sense driven Focuses on object recognition We look for items/events that grab our attention and construct our reality Top-Down Processes: Conceptually-driven organization and interpretation of information Breaking the whole down into parts Thought driven Processing through experiences and expectations Focuses on items/events that we deliberately focus our attention on Thresholds o Absolute threshold Minimum stimulation/intensity needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time One way to measure perception Looks at how sensitive our sensory detections are o Signal Detection Theory Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) with background noise Noise is not necessarily always sound Signal-to-noise ratio Says there is no absolute threshold because the amount needed to perceive will be different in different scenarios How to determine whether or not a stimulus is present and whether or not you detect it True positives False positives True negatives False negatives o Difference Threshold Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time Measured with the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) Smallest difference in the strength of a stimuli that we can detect o Weber’s Law Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount) in order to be perceived as different The stronger the stimulus was to begin with, the larger the change must be for someone to detect a change Sensory Adaptation o Activation of your sense is strongest when a stimulus is first detected o Sensitivity diminishes after constant stimulation Occurs so we free up energies/resources to pay attention to other things and so our nervous system can attend to other stimuli Sensory Interaction o Cross-Modal Processing: When one sensory system may affect another o Parallel Processing: Simultaneous processing of multiple information streams by the brain When the brain engages in multiple subtasks at one time (processing multiple visual information at once or using multiple senses at once) Done outside of the conscious awareness Perceptual Organization o Perceptual Sets: When our expectations influence our perceptions (multiple meaning pictures) o Context Effects: A given stimulus may trigger different perceptions based on context (B vs. 13) o Perceptual Constancies: Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change (top-down process) Shape constancy A door is a door whether it is a rectangle or a trapezoid Size constancy We perceive objects as the same size no matter how far away they are from us Color constancy We perceive items as the same color despite how much lighting is being shown o In order to recognize individual items, we must perceive it as Distinct from it’s surroundings Having a shape or form Located somewhere in space Being constant in size, shape and lightness Gestalt Principles o We perceive objects as whole o Closure Principle If there are gaps in a picture, our mind tends to close them because we perceive that there is a complete object o Proximity Principle When there is close proximity with small objects, we are likely to see them as a whole object When they are spread out, we are likely to see them as discreet objects o Similarity Principle When there is similarity between objects, we are likely to see them as a whole When there is dissimilarity, we are likely to see them as discreet objects o Continuity Principle We perceive that objects continue and are whole even if other objects block part of them o Symmetry Principle We are likely to view symmetrical figures as being combined as a single unit o Figure Ground Principle The focus/forefront of a picture is the figure The background and scenery is the ground Bistable images can have either part be the forefront or ground Perception of motion o The brain perceives motion by comparing visual frames o Phi phenomenon: Perceiving motion from a rapid series of slightly varying images Illusions provide information about the ordinary method of perception Chapter 5: Sleep and Dreams, Psychoactive Drugs Consciousness o Your subjective experience of the world Each person’s consciousness is different from each other Each person’s consciousness is subject to continuous change o Consists of Our awareness of ourselves and of our environment All of our perceptions, thoughts and feelings ‘Internal monologue’ o Studied through attention The concentration of our mental ability We have a limited capacity for attention o Attention’s Limits Inattentional blindness: Our failure to notice unexpected objects that appear in our visual field Change blindness: the failure to detect changes in an object or scene Sleep o An essential, biologically motivated behavior o Why psychologists study sleep Sleep affects behavior (even though it is a behavior) It is an altered state of consciousness It is affected by psychological factors (stress) It affects psychological factors o Why we need sleep The night/dark is dangerous Sleep has important biological functions The pituitary gland releases a growth hormone so it is necessary for children’s maturation Hormones associated with appetite and metabolism are affected Sleep helps us recuperate (restore reserves of energy, repair cells, improve immune functions) Sleep aids out attention Lowers response capability When you pay attention to information, it is more likely to be stored in memory o When you sleep better, you are likely to pay better attention. Sleep allows for memory consolidation and protects from: Interference: Confusing memories Decay: Fading of memories Sleep affects our mood More sleep = higher levels of happiness Sleep feeds creative thinking o Circadian Rhythm Our daily cyclic rhythm is 24-25 hours Suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain Light triggers the increase or decrease of melatonin High light= low melatonin Low light= high melatonin o 5 Stages of Sleep Non-REM: stages 1-4 Minimal/no eye movements Fewer dreams Stage 1 o Easily woken o Theta waves o Quickly transitions into stage two Stage 2 o Autonomic system slows down o Body temperature decreases o Muscles relax Steps 3 and 4: o Deep sleep o No eye movement/muscle activity o Large amplitude delta waves REM: stage 5 Quick eye movements Vivid dreams “Rapid Eye Movement Sleep” or “paradoxical sleep” Autonomic activity picks up o The brain is most active o Pulse and blood pressure increase Dreams during REM sleep Adults cycle through all 5 stages in about 90 minutes EEGs Used to determine how vivid dreams are Measures frequency and amplitude of brain activity Dreams o NREM sleep Shorter and more repetitive Concerned with daily tasks (boring) o REM sleep More emotional and illogical Plot shifts More interesting o Why we dream Hippocampus and cortex Dreams are involved in Processing emotional memories Integrating new experiences with established memories Learning new strategies and ways of doing things Reorganizing and consolidating memories Freud’s Dream Protection Theory Dreams are wish fulfillments Dreams have an underlying meaning o Flying Sexual desire o Riding a horse or shooting a gun Desire sex No supporting evidence o Most dreams only are ordinary events o Dreams of wish fulfillment are more infrequent than you’d expect if this was true Activation Synthesis Theory Dreams reflect random neural transmission and interpretation Dreams start with input form the pons o The forebrain attempts to turn it into a story Contra Activation Synthesis Theory Emphasizes the importance of the forebrain in dreaming o The forebrain connects recurring dreams (they’re not always random) Dreams are driven by the motivational and emotional control centers of the forebrain Neurocognitive Theory Dreams are a meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which shape what we dream about o As our brain develops, our dreams will become more complex
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