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LS Midterm #1

by: Wynetta McIntosh

LS Midterm #1 Legal Studies 400

Wynetta McIntosh

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Study Guide
Civil Rights
Professor Ion Mayn
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Wynetta McIntosh on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Legal Studies 400 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Professor Ion Mayn in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Civil Rights in Law and Legal Studies at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
STUDY GUIDE – CIVIL RIGHTS CLASS (LS 400) ­ 2016 Description of exam: You will be asked two questions. For each question, you are permitted to write two  pages (single­sided). Paper will be provided. Paper will also be provided if you need  to make notes/outline. Study Guide Question One  What did the Civil Rights Act of 1875 attempt to prohibit?  o full and equal enjoyment of accommodation, advantages, facilities, and  privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters and other  places of public amusement  o description of stopping Jim Crow from happening o attempted to prohibit exclusion of african americans to jury services and  give equal treatment in public accommodations and public transportation    In the Civil Rights Cases of 1883, how did the Supreme Court limit the reach of  the Equal Protection Clause, and how did this reasoning lead to the overturning of the the Civil Rights Act of 1875? o said CR act of 1875 was unconstitutional: act regulates private acts of  individuals which is subject to regulation by states  o The Thirteenth Amendment, according to eight of the nine justices, did not give Congress the broad authority claimed by the U.S. government:  Private discrimination was neither slavery nor involuntary servitude. o In addition the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited state actions of a certain character — for example, depriving citizens of the right to vote or serve on juries or hold property. The kinds of discrimination banned by the Civil  Rights Act, Bradley said, could not be touched by congressional action  because they dealt with individual businesses.   How did the Plessy decision further limit the reach of the Equal Protection Clause and permit Jim Crow laws to flourish?  o what kind of constraints did equal protection provide for federal  government and state o Plessy forced to move from white to black train car but refuses to o equal protection does not protect the “right” to sit on the white car because there is a black car; equal burden based on race; separate but equal  accommodations o consequence of plessy → separation by state law in all places of public  accommodation  Although Brown v. Board overturned Plessy, why did the case fail to prevent  businesses from discriminating on the basis of race?  o notion that separate but equal is unconstitutional (overturned plessy) o a compromise (even though it was an important milestone in civil rights  movement) o segregation creating badge of inferiority   psychological trauma/harm  against equal protection clause in 14th amendment  o does not touch on economic harms which is main issue o one of the biggest white washes seen at moment of supposed civil rights  history  o one long history of thievery→ white benefiting from work labor of african  americans o not about psychological harm o does not dismantle active exclusion of african americans in public  accommodations   What did Title II and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplish that  could not be accomplished under the Equal Protection Clause?  o They mean that Congress, through Title II, can ban any racial  discrimination, even purely private racial discrimination, so long as the  underlying activity substantially affects interstate commerce. o Title 2:   All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the  goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and  accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination on the ground of race, color,  religion, or national origin.  It defined “any place of public accommodation” broadly, to  include all manner of inns and hotels, restaurants, lunch counters,  soda fountains, gas stations, theaters, concert halls, and sports  arenas that affected commerce, or that were supported by state  action.   authorized the Department of Justice to bring suit, to enforce its  provisions. o In short, these rulings meant that owners of places of public accommo­ dation could no longer discriminate with impunity. They could no longer  shield themselves with the state­actor requirement in the Fourteenth  Amendment. And they could no longer perpetuate the slowly dying Jim  Crow, even through private (not state­sanctioned) discrimination. o Title 7:  It is unlawful to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to  his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment,  because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national  origin  Under what authority could Congress pass Title II and Title VII? o commerce clause: [the congress shall have power] to regulate commerce  with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with indian tribes o racial discrimination in places of public accommodation did just that— affected interstate commerce o They also argued that sit­ins and demonstrations, themselves a response to racial discrimination, had a substantial effect on interstate commerce Study Guide Question Two  What does Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibit?  o It is unlawful to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or  otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his  compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of  such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin o prohibits employers from discriminating against employees on the basis of sex, race, color, national origin, and religion. It generally applies to  employers with 15 or more employees, including federal, state, and local  governments.  Explain the differences between a disparate treatment claim and disparate impact  claim. What do the parties attempt to argue in bringing or defending against each  type of claim? o disparate treatment claim  it is unlawful to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to  compensation, terms, and conditions, or privileges of employment,  because of such individual’s race, color, sex, religion, or national  origin  nature of claim: plaintiff was subject to adverse employment  decision (failure to hire, failure to promote, decision to terminate)  on account of race, sex, national origin, religion, color  Plaintiff’s burden: must show intent to discriminate  Defendant's burden: show a non­discriminatory basis for the  adverse employment decision  o disparate impact claim  It is unlawful to limit, segregate, or classify his employees or  applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or  tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or  otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of  such individual’s race, color, sex, religion, or national origin   Nature of the claim: plaintiff cannot meet the qualifications of the  job because these qualifications have a disproportionate impact on  a protected class  Plaintiff’s burden: show that qualification disproportionate  negative impact on a protected class  Defendant's burden: demonstrate that the exclusionary devices is  job­related (to important aspects of the job) and consistent with a  business necessity   Procedural Hurdle: must be brought as a class action (on behalf of  yourself and others)­ more difficult  Remedies: limited (no compensatory/punitive damages permitted)   What must a plaintiff eventually prove to prevail under either theory?  o disparate treatment claim  Plaintiff must make a showing that discrimination was intentional   By direct evidence:  written policy (unequal terms and conditions)  verbal statement   statement directed at plaintiff   statement that evidenced a general animus   evaluate­actionable  Descriptive­ not actionable  By circumstantial evidence (pretext clause)  first step: show that employer made a decision that cannot  be explained by legitimate reasons  second: employer's proffered legitimate reasons for  decision   third: employee shows that the employer’s proffered reason for adverse decision should not be believed  By statistics   pattern and practice (surrounding area is 35% african  americans but no african americans have jobs) o disparate impact claim   show that qualification disproportionate negative impact on a  protected class (have to have a HS degree and get a certain score  on administered test)  do not care about intent of employer  Explain how the Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins case expanded Title VII’s  coverage?  o in this case the stereotyped remarks can be evidence that discrimination  played a part (sex stereotypes) o even if there were legitimate reasons not to hire her the sex related  motives puts this in discrimination pool (mixed motive cases) o she was discriminated against because she did not comply with gender  norms that her employers expected her to abide by (did not act as a lady  should)   If you represented a plaintiff who was fired for letting her supervisor know that  she was going to undergo procedures to become a male, how would you argue  that Title VII applies? o employer cannot terminate employee because they choose to not conform  to gender norms of biological sex o despite changes his work performance is pretty good o sex is synonymous with gender   If you represented defendant in the same case, how would you explain why the  termination does not violate Title VII?  o doesn’t matter if female or male, you’d still treat each category the same  way (not singled out because biologically female but because of behavior  in the workplace) 


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