Kinesiology 2850 Kine 2850
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Popular in Kinesiology
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Reed Howard on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Kine 2850 at East Carolina University taught by Mr. Rider/ Collin Bowersock in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see Structural Kinesiology in Kinesiology at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Kinesiology Lecture 1 Structural Kinesiology: Study of human movements by identifying the anatomical elements The skeletal system -Not completely ridged -Not completely flexible joints -Axial Skeleton: Trunk and spine, neck, head -Appendicular Skeleton: Upper and lower extremities -5 Major functions 1. Support to maintain posture 2. Movement by serving as points of attachment for muscles and activate as levers 3. Protection 4. Storage for minerals 5. Blood formation The muscular system -Function: exert force through contraction -3 Types of contraction 1. Isometric: Same length (Stabilizes joints) 2. Concentric: Shortening (Starts Movement) 3. Eccentric: Lengthening (Stops Movement) Connective Tissue -Tendon: Attaches muscle to bone -Ligament: Attaches a bone to another bone (Forms a joint) Anatomical Position: Palms facing forward Sagittal Plane Right and left halves Medialateral Flexion/ extension Dorsi/planarflexion Frontal Plane Front and back halves Anteroposterior Adduction/Abduction Depression/Elevation Transvers Plane Top and bottom halves Longitudinal External/internal rotation Pronation/supination Protraction/retraction Anterior: Front of the body Posterior: Back of the body Medial: Towards the middle Lateral: Towards the side Superior: Towards the head Inferior: Away from the head Proximal: Near the trunk/origin Distal: Away from the trunk/origin Superficial: Near the surface Deep: Beneath the surface Prone: Face downward Supine: Face upward Lecture 2 Shoulder Girdle The shoulder girdle and shoulder joint are NOT the same thing. Shoulder Girdle: Scapula, Clavicle, and surrounding muscles. Connects upper extremity to trunk. Provides stability the movements of the shoulder joint. The shoulder complex lacks bony stability but has a large range of motion (Relies on muscles for stability) Sternoclavicular joint: Only point of attachment to trunk SCAPULA -Acromion -Glenoid Fossa -Labrum -Coracoid Process -Spine JOINTS -Sternoclavicular= Sternum and clavicle -Acromioclavicular= Acromion and Clavicle -Coracoclavicular= Caracoid (top of scapula) and clavicle LIGAMENTS -Acromioclavicular -Sternoclavicular MUSCLES -Trapezius (tension muscle held in back of neck) Upper Middle Lower -Levator Scapulae (Side of neck, from ear to back of neck) -Rhomboid (Back of shoulder blade) Minor Major (NOTE: All attach to the clavicle or scapula, none attach to the humerus) Lecture 3 Shoulder Joint The Shoulder Joint movement is almost always accompanied by movement of the shoulder girdle. It has a large range of motion because it lacks bony stability. The shoulder joint has 3 degrees of freedom. (Circumduction) Movements of the shoulder joint -Flexion (going away from the body, upwards) -Extension (going backwards, pushing arm backwards) -Adduction (arm bent at 90 degrees) -Abduction (Move arm to horizontal length) (arm length) -External (Lateral) rotation -Internal (Medial) rotation HUMERUS -Greater/ lesser tubercle -Interttubercul Groove -Deltoid Tuberosity -Capitulum -Trochlea -Medial/Lateral epicondyle GLENOHUMERAL JOINT (shoulder joint) -Ball in socket joint HUMERAL MUSCLES (Working the shoulder Joint) -Anterior Anterior Deltoid Pectoralis Major Coracobrachialis Biceps Brachii (long head) -Posterior Posterior Deltoid Latissimus Deltoid Teres Major (Attaches to “bottom” of scapula) Triceps Brachii (Long head) -Abductors Supraspinatus (above the spine) Middle deltoid -Adductors Subscapularis Pectoralis major Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major HUMERAL MUSCLES (Special Emphasis on rotator cuff) -Anterior Subscapularis -Posterior Teres Minor Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Lecture 4 Elbow Elbow has 1 degree of freedom Humeroulnar: Elbow flexion and extension Radioulnar: Forearm pronation and supination HUMERUS -Capitulum -Trochlea -Medial/Lateral Epicondyle ULNA (Pinky side) -Olecranon RADIUS (Thumb side) -Radial Head -Radial Tuberosity JOINTS OF THE ELBOW/FOREARM -Humeroulnar and Humeroradial Joint (Elbow) Flexion and extension -Proximal Radioulnar Joint (Near Elbow) and Distal Radioulnar Joint (Near wrist) Pronation (Ulna and radius cross) and Supination (Ulna and radius parallel) LIGAMENTS -Ulnar Collateral Ligament Anterior Bundle Oblique Bundle Posterior Bundle -Radial Collateral Ligament -Annular Ligament ELBOW FLEXORS -Brachialis -Biceps Brachii (Strongest in Supination) -Brachioradialis ELBOW EXTENSORS -Triceps brachii -Anconeus FOREARM MUSCLES (pronators/supinators) -Supinator -Pronator Teres -Pronator Quadratus LECTURE 5 WRIST Extrinsic movements. Used for large movements Gripping Intrinsic movements. Used for small detailed movements Wrist has 2 degrees of freedom (Sagittal and frontal plane movement) Movements of Wrist -Hyperextension: Bending the back of the hand towards the wrist -Flexion: Palm to forearm, wrist bent downward -Extension: From flexion to horizontal plane, wrist bent backwards -Circumduction: Combination of other wrist movements -Radial Deviation: Bending wrist to thumb -Ulnar Deviation: Bending wrist to pinky -Pronation: Twisting wrist inwards to thumb -Supination: Twisting wrist away from thumb (Outwards) Movements of fingers -Abducted: Spreading fingers, palm opened -Adducted: Fingers closed together, palm opened -Hyperextension: Fingers in extension form but bent further to the wrist and forearm Movement of Thumb -Extension: L shape of the index and thumb -Flexion: Thumb is next to index -Hyperextension: Crossing thumb over palm -Abduction: Thumb in front of palm -Adduction: Thumb next to index -Hyperadduction: Thumb behind index -Circumduction: Collective movements of the thumb -Opposition: Thumb to pinky BONES OF WRIST AND HAND -Wrist= Carpal region (8 bones) -Hand= Metacarpal Region (5 bones) -Fingers= Phalanges Proximal (5) Distal (4) Middle (4) -Sesmoid Bone LIGAMENTS Used as a pulley system and to house tendons -Flexor Retinaculum -Extensor Retinaculum Extrinsic Muscles -Muscle bellies located in the forearm and the tendons reach past the wrst and ito the hand or fingers -Flex and extends both wrist and fingers -Relatively large and strong -Produce gripping forces in the hand Intrinsic Muscles -Whole muscles-tendon unit is located entirely within the hand -Relatively smaller and weaker than extrinsic -Stabilize hand bones and joints -Provide some small finger movements EXTRINSIC FLEXOR MUSCLES OF THE WRIST- ANTEROMEDIAL ASPECT OF FOREARM -Act on wrist Palmaris longus (wrist flexor) Flexor carpi radialis (flex wrist, radial deviation) Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (wrist flexion, ulnar deviation) -Act on wrist and fingers Flexor digitorum superficialis (Flex’s fingers, P.I.P., M.P., Wrist) Abductor pollicis longus (thumb, abducts and flex’s) Flexor Digitorum profundus (Flex’s D.I.P., P.I.P., M.P., wrist) EXTRINSIC EXTENSOR MUSCLES OF THE WRIST- POSTEROLATERAL ASPECT OF FOREARM -Acts on wrist Extensor Carpi radialis brevis (abducts and extends) Extensor carpi radialis longus (Extends, radial deviation) and abducts) Extensor carpi Ulnaris (Wrist extension, ulnar deviation) -Acts on wrist and thumb Extensor Pollicis Longus (extends thumb) Extensor Pollicis brevis (Shorter, only extends one thumb jont) -Act on wrist and Finger Extensor digitorum (Extends didgits 2-5) Extensor Digiti Minimi (Pinky) Extensor indicis (Index digiti) INTRINSIC HAND MUSCLES - Dorsal Interossei (abduction of finger, spread) - Palmar interossei (adduction of fingers) - Abductor pollicis brevis (abducts thumb) - Opponens digiti minimi (Opposition of pinky and thumb) - Adductor pollicis (Adducts thumb) - Opponens Pollicis (Opposition of thumb) - Lumbricals (Flex’s joints to make fingers horizontal, flexs M.C. joint, extends P.I.P., and D.I.P.) EXTRA NOTES Flexor retinaculum: Wrist ligament that wraps around the anterior surface and acts to hold the flexor tendons in place. Flexor Pollicis Longus is the muscle that causes movement of the thumb P.I.P.: Proximal Interphalangeal Joint D.I.P.: Distal Interphalangeal Joint I.P.: Interphalangeal Joint M.P.: Metacarpophalangeal joint Lower extremity: Ankle and foot joints, hip joints and pelvic girdle, knee joints Upper extremity: Elbow and radioulnar joints, shoulder girdle, shoulder joint, wrist and hand joints Sternum: Breastbone Clavicle: Collarbone Coracoclavicular Joint: Between the clavicle and coracoid process if scapula -Ligament stabilizes AC joint -Attachs collarone and coracoid Glenohumeral Joint: Group of muscles known as rotator cuff, muslces are: Supraspinatus, Subscapularis, Infraspinatus, teres minor. (S.I.T.S.: S= Anterior, I.T.S.= Posterior) -Subscapularis: Internal Rotation (Transverse), adduction (Frontal), Extension (Sagittal) -Infraspinatus: External Rotation, horizontal abduction (Transverse, extension (Sagittal), diagonal abduction (Diagonal) -Teres Minor: External Rotation, horizontal abduction (Transverse, extension (Sagittal), diagonal abduction (Diagonal) -Supraspinatus: Abduction of rotator cuff (Frontal) Bones in Wrist -Ulna - Lunate - Triquetrum - Pisiform - Hamate - Capitate -Radial - Scaphoid - Trapezoid - Trapezium
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