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Short Answer Study Guide

by: Jenna Dawson
Jenna Dawson

GPA 3.0

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10 possible short answer questions and questions from readings ( week one and two: historical context and theoretical perspectives, reaction #1: social class and family programs, reaction #2: tran...
Family & Parenthood Acroos the Life Cycle
Ashley Harvey
Study Guide
Mintz, Hartman, Markham, Kumpfer, Skolnick, Lareau, Cowan, Stadlen, Lamb, Mindell
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Dawson on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 334 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Ashley Harvey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Family & Parenthood Acroos the Life Cycle in Human development and family studies at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
1. Explain what postmodernism is and give three examples from history as to how parenting perceptions/recommendations were socially constructed in the past in a way that we might disagree with today.  Postmodernism – o knowledge is socially constructed o no neutralities o multiple realities  changes across time o feeding practices o crying o discipline o sleeping: position, location, waking o bad habits 2. According to Mintz (“Beyond Sentimentality”), what are three myths about childhood in the past? 1. Childhood and youth used to be a carefree adventure 2. Home was a haven and bastion of stability in an ever-changing world 3. Childhood is the same for all children 3. Briefly explain how infants who are securely attached, insecure-avoidant (avoidant/dismissing), and insecure-resistant (anxious/preoccupied) behave differently in the Strange Situation Procedure?  Stranger situation procedure o Looks at:  How much the child explores the room on their own  How the child responds to the return of caregiver  Securely attached (70%): A child is securely-attached if he/she is confident of their caregivers support. The attachment figure serves as a secure base from which the child care confidently explore the world o How they react:  Child explores the room freely when parent is present  May be distressed when caregiver leaves  Explore less when caregiver leaves  Happy when caregiver returns  Comforted by being held  Ready to resume exploration  Insecure- avoidant: o How they react:  Doesn’t explore much  Doesn’t show emotion when caregiver leaves  Shows no preference for caregiver over a complete stranger  when caregiver comes back, child tends to avoid or ignore them  insecure-resistant: o how they react:  doesn’t explore much  wary of strangers  very distressed with caregiver leaves  child is ambivalent when caregiver returns  resentful and angry at caregiver for leaving them  may reject caregivers advances 4. Using lecture material or information from the video, Attachment: Why it Matters, describe the parenting behaviors associated with each of these attachment styles: secure, dismissing/avoidant, and anxious resistant/preoccupied.  Secure attachment o High quality communication o Maternal sensitivity during infant play o Has insight into a child’s mental and emotional states o Sensitivity to an infant’s distress o “baby-wearing” o Emotional availability  Avoidant/dismissing o Emotional unavailable or unresponsive o Disregard or ignore children’s needs o Discourage crying o Encourage premature independence  Anxious resistant o Inconsistent and unpredictable o Can be nurturing at times, and respond to distress o Other times intrusive, insensitive, or emotionally unavailable (preoccupied) o Push/pull 5. Explain the diathesis-stress framework, the differential susceptibility framework, and the difference between them. Explain how children who are dandelions or orchids respond to positive or negative parenting practices.  Diathesis-stress framework: o Amount of genetic risk X Amount of environmental Stress = likelihood of problem  Moderate genetic risk of depression X low life stress = no depression  Moderate genetic risk of depression X high life stress = depression  Differential susceptibility framework o Genetic influence how susceptible people are to environmental factors  High genetic sensitivity X harsh parenting/abuse = above average aggression  High genetic sensitivity X supportive parent = below average aggression  Compare o Diathesis stress-genetic variants are risk alleles  Some individuals are more vulnerable to adverse social conditions o Differential susceptibility – genetic variants are “plasticity” alleles  Some individuals are more responsive to the environment, either positive or negative o Both models suggest that peoples development and emotional effect are differentially susceptible to experiences or qualities of the environment  Dandelion children – fine regardless of environmental influences  Orchid children – more sensitive to the environment, flourish in positive environments and react negatively to poor environments 6. Please describe each of Baumrind’s four parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged. Please describe typical parent behaviors as well as common corresponding child outcomes. Parenting Style Definition Child Outcome Authoritative  Setting limits  Independent (high demandingness, high  Positive consequences  Creative responsiveness)  Reward systems  Self-assured  Praise  Socially-skilled Authoritarian  Establish the rules  Dependent (high demandingness, low  Because I said so  Passive responsiveness)  Punishments instead of  Conforming consequences Permissive  Lenient  Irresponsible (low demandingness, high  Few consequences  Conforming responsiveness)  More of friend than a  Immature parent Disengaged  Do not meet child’s  impulsive (low demandingness, low needs  behavior problems responsiveness)  Little knowledge about  involved in sex/drugs their child earlier  Tend to be few to no rules  uninvolved 7. Describe three ways that the pathway to parenthood has changed in recent years.  Decoupling in childbearing and marriage  Increasing number of unmarried women having children  Varying order of cohabitation, marriag,e and childbearing 8. Describe two documented differences in child rearing between poor and middle-class parents. Describe one general (on average) characteristic each of African-American, Asian-American, and Latino parents.  Parents in poverty: poorer parents have less time and fewer resources to invest in their children, which can leave children less prepared for school and work, which leads to lower incomes  Parent in middle class: see their child of projects in need of careful cultivation. They try to develop their kids skills through close supervision and organized activities, and teach children to question authority figures and navigate elite instructions  African American parents: more egalitarian  Asian American parents: emphasis on academic and career success,  Latin American parents: depends on acculturation (less acculturation = more strict, control, intrusive), 9. Marital satisfaction and the transition to parenthood for heterosexual couples: a. In the U.S., what are the trends for heterosexual couples and gender roles (i.e., for paid and unpaid labor) following the transition to parenthood?  Dads are doing more housework and childcare; moms more paid work outside their home. b. What is the general trend for marital satisfaction (increase, decline, stay the same) following the transition to parenthood?  Decline (expectations, communication, strain in the marriage) c. According to lecture material, approximately what percentage of couples experience declines in marital satisfaction, what percentage stay the same, and what percentage experience increases in marital satisfaction following the birth of their first child?  45-50% declined  30-35% stayed the same  20% improved d. Explain two correlates of marital satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the transition to parenthood.  Declines in marital satisfaction depends on o How happy the couples were to start with o How planned the pregnancy was o Fathers involvement o Mothers perceptions of unfairness in division of labor 10. Lareau’s qualitative research (“Unequal Childhoods”) on the influence of class and race on parenting suggests two forms of parenting dictated primarily by social class: “concerted cultivation” and “accomplishment of natural growth.” Please identify which social class each form is associated with, and explain two ways these two forms of parenting are different. Concerted cultivation (middle class) Accomplishment of natural growth (working and poor class)  Orchestrated activities  Hangs out  Homogenous child age grouping  Heterogeneous child age groupings  Weak extended ties  Strong extended family ties  Reasoning/ negotiations  Directives  Assertive w/ professionals  Differential with professionals  Seeking intervention  Distrust  Sense of entitlement  Sense of constraint Questions from the readings Week one and two: historical context and theoretical perspectives Beyond Sentimentality (Mintz) 1. What are some myths about childhood in the past? a. Childhood and youth used to be carefree adventure b. Home was a haven and bastion of stability in an ever-changing world c. Childhood is the same for all children 2. How has childhood in the U.S changed over the last two centuries? a. Premodern era: (1600s-mid 1700s) i. Colonial ear ii. Children are adults in training; need to be hurried to adult status iii. Infants viewed as unformed or animalistic iv. Childhood a time of deviancy or incompleteness v. No nostalgia about children b. Modern era (mid 1700s to 1960/70s) i. Children regarded as innocent, malleable, and fragile ii. Childhood viewed as septate stage of life iii. Invention of adolescence in late 19 / early 20 century c. Postmodern Era (1960/ 70s – present) i. Breakdown of dominant norms ii. Children not opposites of adults iii. Children are knowledgeable iv. Children and independent consumers 3. What does the “childhood as a social construct” mean? a. Something which is made or constructed by society b. Sociologist argue that childhood is not fixed, it differs between, time, place, and culture c. Childhood is socially constructed, it is, in other words, what members of particular societies, at particular times and in particular places say it is. There is no single universal childhood experienced by all. So childhood isn’t “natural” and should be distinguished from mere biological immaturity Hartman & Belsky (2012) 1. What is the difference between the diathesis stress and differential susceptibility models? a. Diathesis-stress framework: individuals are predisposed towards particular behavior traits i. Due to genetic differences which may become “triggered” during times of stress ii. Adverse environments may impact us more or less depending on our genetic inheritance b. Differential susceptibility theory: individuals are sensitive to the environmental context i. More “plastic” or malleable individuals are more susceptible to environmental influences ii. For better or worse iii. Sensitivity to adverse environmental contexts is associated with negative outcomes iv. Sensitivity to enriching environmental context is associated with enhanced outcomes v. Less sensitive individuals are less affected by both adverse and enriching contexts 2. What are temperament / personality characteristics of people who are more “plastic” or affected by their environments? a. Temperament and negative emotionally b. Highly sensitive personality 3. What does it mean to have 1, 2, or no “plasticity alleles? Markham 1. How does connection (or lack thereof) between a parent and child affect a child?  Children who don’t have a close relationship with a parent are at risk for teen pregnancy, more likely to drink alcohol or smoke cigarettes, and more likely to live a sedentary life. They are also more likely to be withdrawn or suffer from depression. 2. She lists lots of ways to “connect” with kids. Which ones do you already use? Which ones are new ideas that you would try?  Personal opinion Reaction #1; social class & family programs Kumpfer & Alvarado 1. What are the key characteristics of behavioral parent training, family skills training and family therapy?  Behavioral parent training – being limited to parents only however the parents are encouraged to increase positive play with their child  Family skills training – utilizes both parents and children. Usually the parents and children start off in separate training groups, focusing on tuning their own skills, and the come together to incorporate their learning into actual interaction  Family therapy – includes similar therapy sessions between parent and their children with a psychologist rather than a behavior specialist 2. After reviewing the 13 principles of effective family-focused interventions, what would be your priorities as a helping professional?  Personal answer Skolnick 1. How are economic insecurity, stagnant wages, and job loss effecting middle-class families?  in today's economy many middle class parents are losing their jobs, or having pay decreases which is affecting their ability to grant their children all the advantages that a concerted cultivation parent would want to provide. Without stable jobs, they can't ensure that their child will have all the resources they need to be involved in extra-curricular activities or have a lavish Christmas. As a result, this is putting a lot of pressure on parents and tensions have been rising between family members. 2. What is the myth of overconsumption? What is the reality?  The myth of over consumption states that middle class families are spending too much on things like clothing and food  The reality is the amount of money spent on these things have remained stagnant and instead, most of people’s money is going towards technology expenses like cell phones and internet Lareau 1. How are these two forms (concerted cultivation and accomplishment of natural growth) of parenting different and which social class do they typically correspond with?  concerted cultivation is very much about keeping your children stimulated and constantly busy with all sorts of extracurricular activities in the hopes that you will be raising them to be more confident in their interactions with peers and elders, and eventually have the upper hand when it comes to applying to colleges and interviewing for jobs o usually corresponds with middle and upper class  Accomplishment of natural growth is more about making ends meet and making sure that your children have all the essentials in order to survive. This form of parenting is definitely more family focused where children are more likely to be spending time with family and relatives rather than being over stimulated with other activities. o Usually corresponds with the working and poor classes 2. What are the pros and cons of each? Concerted cultivation Accomplishment of natural growth Pros  Have resources to be  More emphasis on the in extra-curricular importance of family activities and extended family  Constant interaction Cons  Little quality family  Don’t have access to time extra-curricular activities  Lack of interaction with adults Reaction #2: transition to parenthood, infancy, & coparenting Cowan & Cowan 1. What are current stressors facing middle-class heterosexual couples during the transition of parenthood?  Being more isolated from extended family having more ambiguity because of more choices, parents sense of self, parent-grandparent and parent-child relationships, work and friend conflicts 2. What couples are more at risk for declines in relationship satisfaction?  Couples who felt forced into a family or had an unexpected family are at risk at having lower marital satisfaction 3. What policy or intervention do you think might make the most difference?  Personal opinion Stadlen 1. How common do you think “shock” is? In what ways is the experience of becoming a mother is shocking? Do you think it is shocking for fathers as well?  Mothers that are shocked once becoming a mother is totally common. For a lot of mothers it is totally shocking to now be totally responsible for a baby. For most new mothers this shocked feeling will happen. The new experience of becoming a mother is shocking because a lot of mothers do not have the education of human development. A lot of mothers do not realize that babies are a lot of work; they can’t walk or talk or even sit up by themselves they need their mothers to take care of them in all ways.  I think fathers experience shocking feelings with not realizing how much they have to do as parents to take care of a baby. 2. How well does society help prepare women to become mothers? Men to fathers?  Even mothers that read books and attended classes still felt as if nothing could prepare you for this. Grandparents seem like a very good resource for new parents. Men becoming fathers seem to have even less support than women Lamb 1. How has the conceptualization of the father role changed over time?  Right after the great depression, Fathers thought it was their responsibility to be the breadwinners in the family and to teach their children to do the same when they grow up. It was all about being a good leader during this time and not so much about love and affection  Nowadays, it is said that a father’s role is more affectionate and playful with their children. When children do not have this attention that they need they may develop connection problems later in life and be considered to be neglected 2. Does lamb suggest that fathering is more similar or more different than mothering? Why?  Fathers’ roles are similar to mothers’ roles because both parents should play roles of companions, care providers, spouses, protectors, models, moral guides, teachers, and bread-winners. 3. When father absence is harmful, why is it harmful? Is it true that the lack of a male role model is the primary cause of harm?  Evidence suggests that an “absent father” or paternal nonresidence is harmful because the economic, social, and emotional roles are not being filled anymore. The lack of a male role model might not be the primary cause of harm, but it is definitely very influential in the child’s development and without a father role it can affect the child. 4. What are the benefits of father involvement?  If the father is not around, children were most likely to have problems in gender identity development, sex roles, school performance, and control of aggression  Involvement of fathers led to many positive attributes like a higher cognitive competence, higher empathy, lower sex-stereotyped beliefs, and a higher internal locus of control Mindell 1. What are the pros and cons of teaching a child to soothe themselves at the actual moment of sleep?  There are pros to teaching a child to soothe themselves at the actual moment of sleep. If the baby can soothe themselves when falling asleep they can soothe themselves back to sleep when they wake up in the middle of the night.  Cons of this is your child typically will cry and it will be hard to get your child into this routine after they have been so used to their caretaker soothing them or nursing them or whatever they used to associate sleep with. 2. How does classical conditioning (social learning theory) relate to this reading?  The classical conditioning theory relate to this reading a lot because of the sleep associations Mindell mentioned. Babies associate the night routine with falling asleep similarly to classical conditioning making associations. 3. Do you think Mindell is too rigid in her approach? Is this intensive focus on babys sleep just too “over the top”? should parents just “relax, already”?  Personal opinion  Rigid opinion: In my opinion her position on bedtime is a bit rigid. She had great points about having a consistent bed time for the child to try to easy bedtime. I liked the idea and research behind the changing of the negative sleep associations for positive associations. The one thing that I feel could be hard is letting your child fuss and cry at nighttime without checking one them. 4. How does thinking from an attachment perspective affect your thoughts on Mindell’s approach  From an attachment perspective I know that the more the parents soothe and comfort their crying baby the stronger their attachment pattern. A securely attached baby knows that when they need something their parent will come and give them attention. With promoting attachment Mindell seems a little too harsh but some of her ideas would promote a good night sleep.


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