Appreciation of Architecture
Appreciation of Architecture ARCH 301
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This 1 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kent Chrest on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 301 at Kansas State University taught by David Seamon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Appreciation of Architecture in Architecture at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
AppreciationofArchitecture,Test1,StudyTopics —3 classical orders: I. Defining architecture: Vitruvius' definition: (1) firmness; (2) commodity; (3) delight 1. Doric (no base, masculine) 3. Corinthian (acanthus, 2. Ionic (volutes, feminine) feminine) II. Aesthetics and architecture Places & buildings to be identified: —definition of aesthetics 1. Acropolis (literally, “high city”) — eyebeam 2. Propylaia — form, space, surface 3. Temple of Athena Nike —motion, weight, substance 4. Erechtheion (“Porch of Maidens”) —two weekend-retreat houses as examples (Palladio’s 5. Parthenon (intentional irregularities) Villa Capra & F. L. Wright’s “Fallingwater”) 6. Houses in Greek Revival Style (U.S., 1830-50) Greek architecture: emphasis on beauty, harmony, symmetry, III. Egyptian architecture clarity, balance, regularity. —Old Kingdom (pyramids) Greek Revival architecture: features. —New Kingdom (tombs and temples) —key elements of landscape: Nile, desert, sun V. Roman Architecture —culture: conservative, rigid, deeply religious —Romans a practical people & good at: —Pharaoh (“King”): both man and god 1. Utilitarian construction (e.g., aqueducts) —ba—”spirit soul” that survived death 2. Architecture to express power —tombs literally the house of the dead —Roman Empire (44 BC-476 AD): by 200 AD Rome —earliest tombs: mastabas is capital of greatest empire in world —mortuary vs. cult temples —building materials of Romans: stone, brick and, Old Kingdom: buildings to be identified: especially, concrete (perfected by Romans 1. Step Pyramid of Saqqara using pozzolana) 2. Three Great Pyramids of Giza —structural elements used by Romans: 3. Cheops Pyramid (Giza) 1. arch (arcuation & symbolic meaning) 4. Great Sphinx of Chephen Pyramid 2. vault (barrel or tunnel; cross or groin) 5. Valley Temple of Chephren Pyramid (post-and 3. dome lintel construction system or trabeation) Buildings to be identified: New Kingdom: buildings to be identified: 1. basilicas (large public halls) 1. Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut (harmonizes 2. Colosseum in Rome—has 3 classical orders, one with natural landscape) above the next; engaged columns. 2. Mortuary Temple of Ramses II (pylon) 3. Pantheon: “an interior that is single, unified, self- 3. Great Temple of Amon at Thebes (cult temple) sufficient, & unbroken by supporting solids.” 4. Temple of Khonsu (smaller temple in Amon 4. Roman baths—heating technology—hypocaust. complex) Roman architecture: a practical, secular architecture often used —hypostyle hall, clerestory, axial plan to symbolize military and political power; first builders Egyptian architecture: tombs as striking in scale and grandeur as to think in terms of space as well as form: enclosure of the river and desert. An architecture that is massive, vast interiors (e.g., the Pantheon). simple, regular, permanent. VI. Hassan Fathy’s Architecture for the Poor IV. Greek Architecture —Fathy given task of building a village for 7,000 Egyptian peasants (the Gourni) robbing tombs near Valley of Kings —characteristics of Greek culture: democratic, importance of individual, self-knowledge, —exemplifies “self-help” and “owner-built” housing balance in all things —design of village (divided into 4 neighborhoods arranged for —diversity of landscape: belief that each place has its the 5 tribes of Old Gourna) (pp. 69-73 & fig. 66) —neighborhood design based on badana (family unit) own divinity—temple as dwelling place of god or goddess. —design of house (organized around courtyard) —temple plan: naos & pronaos —importance of courtyard & badana—pp. 54-59 —thermal value of mud brick: p. 45 —4 parts of temple: 1. stylobate (base) —mud-brick vault construction. 2. columns (base, shaft, capital, flutings, entasis) 3. entablature 4. pediment —Classifying temples: number of columns of main façade: hexastyle and octastyle, two major examples
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