Appreciation of Architecture Exam 1 Study Guide
Appreciation of Architecture Exam 1 Study Guide ARCH 301
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kent Chrest on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 301 at Kansas State University taught by David Seamon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Appreciation of Architecture in Architecture at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Appreciation of Architecture Test 1, Study Guide I. Defining architecture: Vitruvius’ definition: (1) firmness: the material and structural properties of the building. (2) Commodity: the practical needs the building is meant to satisfy. (3) Delight: Relating to the aesthetics of the building. II. Aesthetics and architecture a. Definition of aesthetics: branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the beautiful. b. Eyebeam: the strand of attention between eye and the things being looked at. c. Form (shape of building), space, surface (outside element) III. Egyptian Architecture a. Old Kingdom (pyramids) b. New Kingdom (tombs and temples) c. Key elements of landscape: Nile, Desert, and Sun d. Culture: conservative, rigid, deeply religious e. Pharaoh (“King”): both man and god f. “ba”- spirit soul g. Tombs literally are the house of the dead h. Earliest tombs: mastabas i. Mortuary temple: for worship of Pharaoh. Cult temple: for worship of Gods j. Old Kingdom Buildings to identify: Step Pyramid of Saqqara, Three Great Pyramids of Giza, Cheops Pyramid (Giza), Great Sphinx of Chephren Pyramid, Valley Temple of Chephren Pyramid (post-and-lintel construction system or trabeation) k. New Kingdom Buildings to identify: Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut (harmonizes with natural landscape), Mortuary Temple of Ramses II, Great Temple of Amon at Thebes (cult temple), Temple of Khonsu (smaller temple in Amon complex). l. Hypostyle hall: a hall of columns. Symbolizes a “transition space” from dark chaos to order of creation. m. Clerestory: a wall or roof element that allows light into the interior. n. Axial plan: Building laid out as an axis that runs from more public to more private. o. Egyptian architecture: tombs as striking in scale and grandeur as the river and desert. An architecture that is massive, simple, regular, permanent. IV. Greek Architecture a. Characteristics of Greek culture: democratic, importance of individual, self-knowledge, balance in all things b. Diversity of landscape: belief that each place has its own divinity- temple as dwelling place of god or goddess. c. Temple plan: naos (main area) and pronaos (porch area) d. 4 parts of temple: stylobate (base), columns (base, shaft, capital, flutings, entasis), entablature, pediment e. Classifying temples: number of columns of main façade: hexastyle (6) and octastyle (8). f. 3 classical orders: (1) Doric (no base, masculine) (2) Ionic (volutes, feminine), (3) Corinthian (acanthus, feminine). g. Places to be identified: i. Acropolis (literally “high city”) ii. Propylaia iii. Temple of Athena Nike iv. Erechtheion (“Porch of Maidens”) v. Parthenon (intentional irregularities) vi. Houses in Greek Revival Style V. Roman Architecture a. Romans a practical people and good at: Utilitarian construction. Architecture used to express political and military power. b. Roman Empire (44 BC-476 AD): by 200 AD Rome is capital of greatest empire of the world, achieved by military and political conquest. Extended from Middle East to northern Africa to border of Scotland. c. Building materials of Romans: stone, brick, and concrete. ESPECIALLY CONCRETE (perfected using pozzolana: a volcanic ash that provides strength and durability. d. Structural elements used by Romans: Arch (arcuation & symbolic meaning), Vault (barrel or tunnel; cross or groin), Dome e. Buildings to be identified: i. Basilicas (large public halls) ii. Colosseum in Rome- has 3 classical orders, one above the next (1 story Doric, 2 ndstory Ionic, 3 story Corinthian, 4 story Corinthian); engaged columns. iii. Pantheon- “an interior that is single, unified, self-sufficient, and unbroken by supporting solids.” iv. Roman Baths- used for bathing, exercise, and socializing. Also meeting rooms, libraries, shops, eateries, and gardens. Hypocaust system: Hot air under floor from furnace that also heated hot water. v. Roman architecture: a practical, secular architecture often used to symbolize military and political power; first builders to think in terms of space as well as form: enclosure of vast interiors. f. Hassan Fathy’s Architecture for the Poor i. Fathy given task of building a village for 7,000 Egyptian peasants robbing tombs near Valley of Kings ii. Exemplifies “self-help” and “owner-built” housing iii. Design of village (divided into 4 neighborhoods arranged for the 5 tribes of Old Gourna) pg 69-73 & figure 66 iv. Neighborhood design based on badana (family unit) v. Design of house (organized around courtyard) 1. Importance of courtyard and badana – pg 54-59 2. Thermal value of mud brick- pg 45 g. Mud-brick vault construction
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