Intro to Communication, Study Guide for Test 1
Intro to Communication, Study Guide for Test 1 CO 1013
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Smith on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CO 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Emily Cain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Into to Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Intro to Communication Study Guide Test 1 Chapter 1- Communication Basics Needs met by Communication Instrumental (everyday) needs Spiritual needs Identity needs Relational needs Physical needs Communication Models Action Model Sender: encode Message through a channel Receiver: decode (noise) o Two people involved o Two types of noise Physical Actual sound Psychological Daydreaming, worried, hungry, mind Interaction Model Sender: encode Message through a channel Receiver: decode Context (noise) Feedback (noise) o Adds context (setting or previous interaction) Transaction Model Sender/Receiver: encode Message through a channel Receiver/Sender: decode (noise) Feedback (noise) Context o Adds conversation in both directions simultaneously Chapter 4- Language Arbitrary Nature Arbitrary o No real, meaningful connection o Meaning comes from how people use it Layers of Meaning Denotative o Definition o Literal Connotative o Association o Feeling Semantic triangle Loaded language Ways we use and abuse Humor Euphemisms Slang (jargon) Defamation (libel and slander) Profanity Hate speech Chapter 2- Culture Culture vs. Co-Cultures Mutual interests or characteristics other than national citizenship Age, religion, sexual orientation Activities, major, physical abilities Effects on Communication Individualistic o All about self Collectivistic o People don’t want to stand out Low-context o Prefer direct communication High-context o Context plays big role Low-power distance o Close to people of power High power distance o Used to great distance between people with power and the subordinates Masculine o Very defined roles of genders Feminine o Position of genders is based on skills not pre-designed roles Monochronic o Very punctual o Sees time as valuable Polychronic o More fluid and relaxed o Relationships are more important than being on time Uncertainty avoidance o Deals with comfort level of ambiguity o High- want to avoid it o Low- more comfortable with questions Chapter 3- Perception and Self-Concept Self-Serving Bias Errors in explaining our own behavior Success o Stable, internal causes o It’s all because of me Failure o Unstable, external causes o It’s not my fault We extend this to our loved ones too Fundamental Attribution Error Attributing behavior to internal causes instead of external Crediting or blaming who a person is rather than the situation they’re in Community service because o We think: Nice people o But really it’s a class requirement Taking server long time because o We think: Older, slower o But really they’re covering someone else’s shift too Johari Window We define ourselves in many ways The Johari Window illustrates this open blind hidden unknown Self-Fulfilling Prophecy A prediction that cause us to act in ways that make it come true “I’m shy” than isolating yourself from others Identity management Face o Our desired public image Face needs and face threats Our image is collaborative o We don’t get to decide what our image is o Others accept is or they don’t It is complex o Our image needs can conflict Chapter 6- Listening Listening vs. Hearing It’s not the same as hearing o Physical process o Perceiving sound waves o Not optional o You don’t have to want to hear to actually do it Listening o Making meaning from another person’s spoken message o Though rare, we can “listen” without actually hearing o You have to want to listen Types of Listening Informational o Listening to learn Critical o Purpose of evaluating/analyzing Empathic o Trying to identify with a person Inspirational o Keynote speakers o Sermons Appreciative o Music o Stand-up comedy o Sound machine Barriers to Effective Listening Noise o Physical o Psychological o Distracts you Information overload o Too much information being received Glazing over o Like daydreaming o Hearing but the mind is wandering Pseudo-listening o Hide the fact that you’re not listening Rebuttal tendency o Instead of listening to whole message, you are already thinking of what to say next Competitive interrupting o Trying to dominate conversation Close-mindedness o Not being open to other’s opinions Chapter 5- Nonverbal Communication All different types of nonverbal communication Physical appearance o Judge each other on how they look Face displays o Shows emotion Eye behaviors o Used to show attraction, credibility, and intimidation Movements and gestures o Use body language and gesticulation to communicate Touch behaviors o Different types of touch from affection to aggressive Space o People have personal bubbles Time o Whoever controls time has the power Smell o Tied to memories and sexual attraction Artifacts o Objects can communicate common interests Vocal behaviors o Emphasis on how you say things Chapter 7- Social Relationships Attraction Theory How/why we are attracted to certain people and not others There’s different forms of attraction Physical attraction o You admire clothes and vibes Social attraction o You like their personality o Get along with the way they make us feel Task attraction o You like what they can do for you Similarity o Similar interests and backgrounds Complementarity o Opposites attract Proximity o Near-by people Cyberattraction o Like online traits Uncertainty Reduction Theory What are we uncertain about? o How person thinks or behaves Uncertainty is unpleasant and uneasy so we try it reduce it o By learning about them We use many different strategies o Passive Notice and observe them o Active Ask others about them o Interactive Talk and ask questions to them Reduced uncertainty= liking the person? o Not always true Social Exchange Theory We want the benefits to outweigh the costs Comparison level: your relationship versus what you expect More than expected Less than expected Comparison level of Better than Happy, stable Unhappy, stable alternatives: you alternatives relationship versus Worse than Happy, maybe Unhappy, unstable other options alternatives unstable Equity Theory We want to benefit equally Good relationships= partners have equal ratio of positives and negatives/ gives and takes Social Penetration Theory Breadth o How great are the variety of topics Depth o Know core level of topics not just surface Good relationships= both breadth and depth of topics are covered and known Self-Disclosure Varies among relationships Usually reciprocal Culture and gender play a role Benefits o Intimacy o Support o Connection Risks o Black mail o Vulnerability Chapter 8- Intimate Relationships Knapp’s Model of Relational Development “coming together” o Initiating When you first meet someone You feel nervous Tells you if you want to continue/pursue the relationship further o Experimenting Try to find common ground Can take long time A lot of relationships never go past this step o Intensifying Start to gently challenge other’s point of view Might develop nicknames, inside jokes, do favors, or buy gifts Express level of commitment (value relationship) o Integrating You and other people see the couple as a unit o Bonding Make outward public commitment about staying together Very few relationships get to this stage “Coming apart” o Differentiating Start to notice all the differences Doesn’t have to be negative o Circumscribing Avoiding topics that will cause fights Keep with safe topics Ignoring problems o Stagnating Stop communicating Feel distanced, misconnected Living lives independent of each other Not moving forward or breaking up This stage can last a long time o Avoiding Physically avoiding each other Purposefully scheduling things Sleeping in separate rooms o Terminating Both get hurt at different points Use 3 party to help process it Issues in Romantic Relationships Communication issues o Conflict Can be good sometimes o Privacy Hard to navigate what to tell to others and what not to tell o Emotional communication How much positive and negative aspects Gottman found the perfect 5:1 ratio For every 1 negative there needs to be 5 positive interactions to overcome This ratio produces a happy, stable relationship Four Horsemen of Apocalypse o If a relationship reaches these points then it can’t get better o Criticism Attacking person negatively o Contempt Disgust with the other person o Defensiveness Always playing the victim Not owning responsibilities o Stonewalling Completely shutting out the other person
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