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Final Study Guide

by: Lily Heller

Final Study Guide Soci 1080-03

Lily Heller
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover the material on the final exam for this course
Deviant Behavior
Robert Kappel
Study Guide
Deviant Behavior Final Sociology Tulane Robert Kappall
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lily Heller on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soci 1080-03 at Tulane University taught by Robert Kappel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Deviant Behavior in Sociology at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
•Sexual Norms •mainly influenced by religion •as religious beliefs change, so do sexual morals •pre-marital sex and masturbation now considered norm but before shamed upon •based on relationship with parter •physical setting •social situation •in the past, we had sex to reproduce, but now that is challenged •4 different deviant acts with sexual deviance •1. Degree of consent (deviant if partner does not consent) •2. Identities of participants (ex: priest would be deviant) •3. Relationship of participants (ex: siblings would be considered deviant) •4. Type of act and setting (ex: are you doing it outdoors?) •its hard for people to deviate from sexual norms because of fear of stigma •you have to be willing to tell someone else •Extramarital Affairs (Adultery) •marriage provides context for most norms because people that are married have sex more often (majority rules) •typically male affairs are more tolerated than female affairs •Kinsey Institute Survey •tested if you are homosexual or heterosexual on scale of 1-6 •no one is a 1 or 6 •found extramarital affairs are the most disapproved heterosexual act •35% of men and women claim to have had affairs (probably more though) •females are more likely to admit to having affair than males •males are more permissive of women affairs today •older people more tolerant of affairs than younger people because they’re more set in their place •those with higher education/upper class are more tolerant of affairs •Why are people having affairs? •Female reasons •Reassure desirability •Better sex •Achange of routine •Sexual variety •Sex without commitment •Male reasons •Sexual variety •reassure desirability •change of routine •better sex •sex without commitment •Phone sex- stimulation of yourself via the phone •very few people do this, but some people do because it’s more anonymous, they can avoid stigma, less guilt, safer •Cybersex- stimulation via technology •skype, chatrooms, snapchat •Prostitution- having a lot of sex, for money, without commitment •been seen as public concern and moral panic •media fueling how we view prostitution •Streetwalker- doing sex publicly •found in urban areas •cheapest type of prostitute •established territories and clients •Deviant Street Network- neighborhood of deviant people doing deviant things (robbery, burglary, prostitution, etc.) •Social disorganization •many women prostitutes grow up in these neighborhoods •women start as shoplifters/runaways and end up being prostitutes for money •ages 17-24, peak earnings at 22 •most of these women come from lower socioeconomic class, and from inner cities •child prostitutes become involved in the business due to older sibling that initiated them •prostitutes think they’re no worse than anyone else and think they’re less hypocritical •think they’re performing a necessary social function •think that this is a way they’re going to achieve dominant financial values •Bargirl- prostituting in a bar •bar employees •success in the business based solely on attractiveness •small number of clients bc they’re getting they’re clients from where they work •Call girl/escort- highest status •greatest amount of privacy •highest income •wealthiest clients •Road Whores- travel with their clients •truck stopes •travel long distances with their clients •groupies for bands •Party Girls/ Mistresses/ Career Climbers •all prosituting in a workplace •using sex to advance themselves in the workplace •party girl- doing it for money •mistress- doing it for job security •career climber- promote their career •People oppose prostitution because: •Promiscuity with strangers •It damages social relationships because it’s commercializing sex without emotion •Unwholesome social effect as result of it •Threatens public health through venereal disease • Makes women seem not worthy of marriage • Requires police protection • Pornography • becoming more and more present • holds same stigma as prostitution • Kink • furrys- people dressing up in animal suits • people associate other deviant acts with furrys • Suicide- deliberate destruction of one’s own life • 3rd leading cause of death • between ages 15-24 • can be positive if viewed as an obligation • alcoholism can be seen as suicide because you’re slowly killing your body • public attitude is that suicide is selfish • people feel stigma if suicidal • religious people very against suicide, condemn it • as a Jewish family becomes more secular, the likelihood of suicide and alcohol increases • religious people can justify their suicide • women attempt suicide more often than men, but men are more successful than women (they use more violent, efficient ways to kill themselves) • most people that attempt suicide are adolescents and young adults • Sweden has higher rates of suicide than Norway because in Norway kids are encouraged more to express their emotions • lower rates of suicide in democratic nations than communist nations • ratio of men to women varies from country to country, but men will always commit it more than women • rate of women suicide remains consistent throughout life cycle, but for men, the highest suicide rates occur between ages of 15-24 and 65 and up • african americans have lower suicide rate than white people in US • white people make up 90% of suicides in US • native americans have high rates of suicide/alcoholism • Altruistic suicide- benefits others to take your life • relating to religion • individual will cause more harm to group than benefit for group, so it’s better that they die • not considered deviant • it would be deviant to NOT commit suicide • enuid- native populations from alaska and canada • harsh conditions, so if someone can’t hunt anymore then its more beneficial to that person to kill themselves and not burden their family • Egoistic suicide- doing it for personal reasons • eldery have higher rates • not as many interpersonal relationships • correlation with depression • Anomic suicide- lack of regulations/integrations in society •ex: bombing •work related •unemployment, reduced incomes •abrupt changes in lifestyle •Honor/Virgin suicide- modern and older views clash •elderly person bashes someone for not taking on family name •Predicted suicide syndrome •stop seeing solutions, can’t escape problems •aggressive response that people direct toward themselves •indulgence in suicidal fantasies (playing out suicidal act in your head) •lack of objective views •Douglas 1967- social meanings of suicide •way to transform soul from one world to another •it has a form of revenge (other people feel blame) •escape pattern to avoid responsibilities •self-destructive after killing another person •most mental disorders prevent people from being able to plan ahead (except depression), and suicide requires planning ahead •hopelessness you don’t see a way out- so it’s a better indicator of suicide than depression •most common form of suicide prevention= suicide hotlines •doesn’t work long term •Physician assisted suicide- person wants to die •Euthanasia- person doesn’t have a say in it •considered illegal in most states •Impairment- loss of ability caused by physical reason •Disability- loss of function that accompanies an impairment •causes isolation •no established social identity •local demands (ex: ramps, lifts, etc.) •Handicap- limitation on normal activities of self care and mobility •Sick Role •Responsibility- don’t attribute responsibility to the person who’s sick •Exemptions from obligations- don’t have to go to work, school, etc. •Undesirable- being disabled is undesirable despite its benefits •Heal/Help- obligation to heal, stigma if not treated •Appearance Norms- norms that determine that we think is appropriate appearance •differs by culture •US- being thin is good •Africa tribes- being bigger is more powerful •Involuntary Disabilities •blind, deaf, etc. •Not Involuntary Disabilites •you have ability to overcome it •ex: obesity, stutter, etc. •Blindness •Totally blind- total absence of light/image •Legally blind- visual acuity not 20/20 •near sided, short sided, etc. •Functionally blind- inability to do smaller tasks like reading small letters, but can still do normal everyday functions •historically, blind people seen as beggars, dependent •Intellectual Disabilities •don’t learn as quickly/as much as others •weak powers of mental abstraction •3/100 people have it in US •stigma •no matter what they do, their behaviors are related back to their disability •Obesity •labeling theory •people don’t think that they have a problem until other people label them •self-fulfilling prophecy •find treatment of themselves juste • •Mental Illnesses •sympathy and stigma •view by society that people with mental illnesses are responsible for their own condition •not treated the same way as people as physical illnesses •more malicious labels (crazy) •Organic Mental Disorders •physiological problems •memory loss (Alzheimer's), psychosis •Neuroses •compulsive behaviors w/ no control •ex: avoiding stepping on cracks, anxiety, OCD •Manic-Depressive Behavior •bi-polar disorder •intense mood swings •Paranoid Behavior •paranoid delusions •Schizophrenia •hallucinations, delusions, diminished ambition, social withdrawal •not very common •Residual Norms/Residual rule breaking •uncomfortable change in our behavior because we encounter something different than what we expect •society’s reaction to disability •can’t predict who will react/how they will react •Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia •most likely females, white, young, upper/middle class •also athletes- weight requirements for certain sports like gymnastics •bulimia harder to identify •two years of maintaining normal weight to recover from anorexia •1.5 years for bulimia •result of attempt of conformity •Mental Institutions •goal of these institutions is to treat mentally ill, and keep people from hurting themselves or somebody else •problems with mental institutions •Rosenhan Experiment •3 women and 5 men in mental institutions •goal was to see what happens when they’re in there, and what it takes to get our •took between 7-52 days for people to leave institution •before leaving, they were forced to admit they had a mental illness and had to take anti psychotic •flushed their meds and nurses didn’t notice •one nurse reported that a patient was showing pathological writing behavior •when released, they were said to be in “remission” •they’re never truly going to be cured •keeping label/stigma of mental •tells us that mental illness is another social construction •we’re choosing what behaviors to hold an illness responsible for •Being American can make you receive stigma outside of America •Stigma- negative connotations toward something •Racism- discrimination/oppression towards a particular race •Discrimination- negative behaviors towards people/groups •Prejudice- negative attitudes towards people/groups •Tribal Stereotypes •stereotyping ethnic/racial groups •Antisemitism- being against people who are Semitic (jews) •Xenophobia- irrational fear of people from other countries •Genocide- mass killing of a group of people of the same category •most extreme expression of tribal stigma •Ethnic Stigma- prejudice that’s expressed through political, cultural, educational, or media institutions •expressed by members of one category against members of another category •collective not individualistic •sentiment and behavior •dominant group will defeat minority •Reciprocal Denunciation- members of a certain side stigmatize and deviantize one another •power plays a significant role •ex: how whites treated blacks during slavery •time period •more stigma for african americans before than now • Race is a social term • we have chosen one phenotype • we chose skin color to mark superiority • Jews/Italians considered a race in 1900s, but now considered white (race definition changes over time) • Institutional Racism- race with jobs, government • Direct Racism- policies that are constantly designed to have a discriminatory/ direct effect • Indirect Racism- ex: racial profiling • Residential Segregation • studies found that it exists, integration has existed in the past years, cities with larger minority populations have less integration and more segregation • segregation that do exist give minorities less advantage of nicer facilities (schools) • Racial Profiling- targeting someone because of their race • Symbolic Assailant- someone pictures themselves as vulnerable to death because of someone else that is dangerous/attacker • stigma that is not actually there • ex: police • Pragmatic Racism- people are trying to logically justify their racism • Incarceration and Racism • violent crimes have dropped • yet incarceration has quadrupled in US • increase of those in jail for substance abuse • less parol for prisoners • Criminogenic- causing crime • high rates of incarceration increases this • 28% of arrests are african american but they get incarcerated the most • stigma of being black makes being in jail easier • don’t have money for legal representation • higher unemployment rates which lowers people’s opinions of you • 78% of arrests are white but not many incarcerated • Islamophobia • many Americans are anti-islam and don’t want muslims as neighbors/in court • Pipes argued that people are fearing radical islam, not muslims • people are categorizing all muslims as radical • Islam most disliked group, except in Islamic countries • Islamic countries have high anti-semitism and low Islamophobia • Palestinians (deviantized by Israeli population) • views not uniquely held by Israel • no official recognition of Palestine as country today • used to exist • Israeli-Arabs that are citizens are allowed to vote as of recently • Stateless Palestinians receive less discrimination • Arab cannot become Israeli citizen • No new Arab communities have been established in Israel • Knesset- Israelis could reject residence based on cognitive deviance •Israel has laws born in every country to gain citizenship in Israeli, but Arabs or people in Arab countries will struggle to do this •Arab schools are overcrowded, understaffed, or nonexistent •Roadblocks and checkpoints that prevent Palestinians from getting to Israeli lands •Anti Semitism/Israel •Zionist movement said to be interfering with American government •belief that Jews killed Jesus •belief that Jews only care about themselves •belief that Jews cheat/steal •belief that Jews engineered 9/11 •Judaism •ethno-religious group •Jewish culture kept despite different backgrounds from other countries •ancient Israelites were nomadic people •homeland was carved up into imperialistic groups •pushed out into other areas as an ethnic minority •after WWI jews wanted a homeland, and after WWII they got it •most Jewish societies are considered deviant because they represent an “other” •low anti-semitism in US, Canada, the UK, Italy, France •when you are anti-semitic in these countries you are considered deviant •Jewish people blamed for bubonic plague •less of an education is associated with greater chance of anti-semitism •hispanics born outside US held more prejudice towards jewish people compared to those born inside US •African Americans have most negative view of Jews in US •social construction •higher levels of anti-semitism in muslim countries •anti-semitism depends on where you are/what culture you’re in •Protocols of the elders of Zion •forgery document •mimics of a supposed meeting that took place •conspiracy that Jews were going to take over the world/conquer Muslim world •belief that Jews at world trade center were told about 9/11 and told to stay away, some even claim that Jews carried out 9/11 •claim that Jews are taking over media/world using terrorism and violence •Rudeness •ex: Kanye interupting Swift •creates a climate of interpersonal disrespect •rudeness is increasing because our society is coming more informal •ex: how a teacher conducts a classroom (lax setting vs. strict) • base norms on ideas of interpersonal respect •changes over time •Cyber Deviance •hacking •grades, emails, banks, etc. •sexting becoming more common •Bullying •intentional repeated hurtful acts,words,behaviors by one or more children against another •creates imbalance of power •mobbing- group of kids ganging up on one kid •anti-bullying movements necessary •we need positive involvement by adults •set clear limits on acceptable behavior •consistent application for behaviors •Pirates •war-like act committed by private citizens •not representing a government •includes robbery and criminal violence •Somalia •board and vessel and hold both crew/cargo for ransom •causes: •widespread poverty •lack of central government •strain/instability leading to piracy •Extreme Deviance •behaviors, beliefs, or physical traits that are far outside the norm •tattooing large parts of your body •believing you were kidnapped and abducted by aliens •morbidly obese •endorsing adult/child sexual contact •greater amount of stigma •intense reactions •based on reactionist definition of deviance READINGS Doll reading research questions: why people form relationships with life-size dolls methods: interviews over phone and in person, convos in chat rooms with people that have dolls, questionnaire on several iDollator websites conclusions: • people carry out these relationships completely on their own, inventing feelings, behaviors, and desires for their loved ones • they are often rejected/wary/sad, sexually unfulfilled, physically disqualified, fearful, or ashamed • the dolls alleviate these problems • people that have sex with dolls are just sexually curious • people that have sex with dolls aren’t dangerous/psychotic or rapists as some psychologists have thought Subculture/Community Pain and Authenticity in SM Play Reading • research questions: ways in which participants in sadomasochism construct and preserve their experiences of power imbalances through the framings of pain and its meanings for them • methods: researcher joined SM organization and attended lectures, demontrations, workshops, parties, social lunches, and participated in political and social activities, she conducted ethnographic interviews of people that were at these clubs via email, telephone, web blogging, and instant messaging about their life histories and SM related questions • conclusions: use painful experiences to create powerfulness without sacrificing authenticity, they want to get as close to rape as possible, different techniques for viewing pain Gender Roles at Male Strip Show reading • research questions: whether the gendered dynamics of power and dominance play out similarly in the gender roles of male strippers and audience vs. female strippers • methods: ethnographic methods, fieldwork at a stripclub, conversations with male and female strippers, also in-depth interviews with men who were employed as strippers • conclusions • male strip shows reflected and reproduced socially constructed notions of what it means to be a “man” in society • physically dominated and controlled female patrons, felt in control • participants did not express feelings of trauma or psychological stress after physical mistreatment • male strippers were obsessed with creating a manly appearance • even when males are subjected to aggressive women they still remain in control and dominate the customers ‘The Dawn of a New Era: Renewed Prospects for the Sociology of Deviance in the Internet Age’ reading • Question: How the internet has changed deviance • Methods: Qualitative studies (work that other people had already done) • Conclusions: • Internet creates new opportunities for deviance • Learning environment for people to become deviant • Deviance is going to be more apparent in post-modern society • Subcultures can expand Female Pornography Use and Sexual Coercion Perpetration reading • question: examine the relationship between use of pornography and female sexual aggression among college students • methods: data collected through surveys of undergrad students enrolled in certain sociology courses, subjects were asked questions about their experience with sexual aggression and its correlates • conclusions: women who use pornography more frequently are also more likely to use sexual coercion, regardless of their level of drug and alcohol use, sex and dating behavior, history of abuse, or demographics Cybercommunities of Self-Injury reading • question: differences between face-to-face relationships and those developed in the anonymity, intimacy, and invisibility of cyberspace • methods: interviews via-email, exploring of websites, bulletin boards, and public postings of self-injurers (computer mediated communication) • conclusion • although people seek out online interaction in order to bond into relationships and communities, they are often lonely • internet offers both separation and connection, a time to be alone and a time to be with others • cyberworld offers hiding spaces where people can form their own cultures and communities, without risk of exposure or stigma • Anorexia and Bulimia reading • question: how people come to develop an eating disorder and what consequences result • methods: questionnaires, data from self-help groups by observing group meetings, and interviews with 15 group members for 2-4 hours that focused on what the respondents thought antedated and maintained their EDs • conclusions: • labeling with secondary deviance makes it become their master role, takes over life • people don’t notice their ED during primary deviance until they are extremely thin • mostly in women • typically people who are type A, controlling • defines these illnesses as social constructions • societal reaction to their behaviors leads to secondary deviance • to be recovered, normal weight for anorexia for 2 years • bulimic, 1.5 years without symptoms • Transable reading • question: to look at moral stigma by communities that undergo it • methods: qualitative analysis of blog posts, comments, content, and links to and from • conclusions: moral identity is not a binary state (moral/immoral) but instead operates along a continuum (more moral/less moral) • choose to be physically impaired • realized that the only way to counteract their problems was to claim that they needed to be impaired for medical reasons, or claims that they needed to do it to live their life to the fullest • IBD reading • question: role of self help groups in managing stigma for IBD • methods: attended support groups, seminars, social outings, and fund-raising drives in a CCFAchapter, participant observation, semistructured interviews with people that had IBD • conclusions: chronic illness becomes roll in your life, found that self help groups don’t work because people still censored themselves and watched what they were saying but it was a way to know you were not alone • Celiac reading • question: how stigmatizing symptoms facilitate diagnosis of CD by motivating respondents to initiate medical care • methods: field research with celiac support groups, attended meeting, took notes, attended lectures and seminars, conducted interviews with people with CD and non celiac gluten intolerance people • findings: the stigmatizing nature of GI symptoms (diarrhea and gas) and their negative impact on social interactions motivate many people to engage in a variety of stigma managing strategies (concealment, social isolation, and scheduling certain eating times to avoid stigma) and if these strategies failed, they sought treatment • people with severe GI symptoms are more likely to report symptom stigma and those with less severe symptoms are more likely to be distresses by the strict dietary changes they must acquire • conclusion: deaf people are committed to their community and believe that their performance is vital for the deaf community to grow and survive • Contesting stigma in sport: case of men who steal reading • male cheerleaders encounter gender stigma • question: do the same patterns and outcomes emerge when men participate in women’s sports compared to when women participate in men sports? how do males secure their masculinity? • methods: 8 men and 9 women in a college, one and one interviews and discussion • findings • there is stigma for men who are cheerleaders • men studied knew that their descent into girls’ realm will lead to gender stigma, and they take measures to forestall their deviant labeling • emphasizing masculine qualities of cheerleading like injury, and tried to show ownership and strength • reveals the hierarchy of gender stratification that positions hypermasculine men at the top, soft men in lower position, gay below them, and all women at the bottom • male cheerleaders demean the role of their female squad mates in order to distance themselves from them and enhance their own position • demeaning women is a way for them to maintain access to status and power • Passing as black reading • question: what are the motivations/strategies pass as certain race (esp: black) • methods: interviews with black-white biracial adults • discusses conditions under which biracial Americans cast themselves as either white or black • Results: there is a rise in black self-labeling, and motivations are: • some people can’t pass as white due to appearance • being white is often viewed with disdain by other blacks • passing as black let them fit in with black peers in adolescence • being black can have some advantages from an educational and employment standpoint (financial aid) • some passed as white to avoid prejudice and discrimination Movie • residual rule breaking- when we change our behaviors in response to someone else’s condition • person having sex asked more questions like “Are you okay” to enhance communication because the person needed them to • partner had to hold girls legs up because she wasn’t able to do it herself


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