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PSY1010 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Nazeerah M

PSY1010 Exam 2 Study Guide 1010

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Psychlogy > 1010 > PSY1010 Exam 2 Study Guide
Nazeerah M

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These notes really helped me for the exam #2
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Amy Kohl
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nazeerah M on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Amy Kohl in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
HEREDITY  Chromosome = Thread like structure in the nucleus of a cell that contain genetic material  (The human egg and sperm both contain 23 chromosomes)  Heredity = Physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another  (Ex: Dad has black hair and grey eyes…these traits will get passed onto the son/daughter)  Autosome = First 22 pairs of Chromosome ~Any chromosome that’s not a sex  chromosome~ (AKA the autosomal chromosome)  Sex chromosomes determine the child’s sex and is the 23  pair of chromosome                  ( XX → Girl       XY→ Boy)  DNA = Molecule composed of 4 nucleotide bases that is the biochemical bases of  heredity. DNA are distinct qualities that are unchangeable and it makes genes   Gene = Molecular unit of heredity comprised of sections of DNA. Genes tell your body  how to make the proteins that a person need. It tells the body to make muscles or bones  Heredity has a double helix structure (Thymine bonds with Adenine, Guanine bonds with Cytosine)  Genotype = the set of genes an individual carries in their DNA. Each person carries their  own set of genotype. (A mom has their own genotype and the dad has their own)  Phenotype = The person’s observable physical, behavior and psychological features  (height, eye color, hair color)  Monozygotic Twins = Identical twins; came from one egg that split into two (Mono =1)  Dizygotic = Fraternal twins; comes from two separate eggs and two sperm (Diz = 2)  Heredity and environment play a big role in development  The same genotype can produce different phenotypes  PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT STAGES   Period of Zygote (Week 1 –2)  Period of Embryo ( Weeks 3 – 8)  Period of Fetus (Weeks 9 – 38)  Prenatal development = The many changes that tur a fertilized egg into a human baby   The zygote begins with fertilization and ends when it goes in the uterine wall  Once the zygote is in the uterine wall it is called an "Embryo"  During the time of the Embryo the body structure and internal organs begin to develop   The Ectoderm(Outer layer) makes the hair, the outer layer of skin and the nervous system  Mesoderm forms the muscles, bones and circulatory system (organ system) '  Endoderm forms the digestive system and the lungs   The fetus grows fast ( begins at 1 oz ends at 7­9 lbs) and body system begins working   Age of Viability ( 22 –28):  Most systems function well enough so that a fetus can live  In 3  month hormones cause penis growth or female genitilia   5­ 6 months the eyebrows, scalp hair and skin thicken  GENERAL RISKS FACTORS IN PRENATAL STAGE   Pregnant women have to consume 10 – 20% more calories   Spina (Spinal) bifida: The embryo's neural tube does not close in first weeks of  pregnancy and can cause damage to the nervous system and spinal cord   Poor diets from the mother can cause the child to be premature   Stress = a person's physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging  situations   Stress affects the fetus in a bad way. They can be premature or even die   Teen pregnancies have most problems during pregnancy, labor and delivery  Older women have a harder time getting pregnant and are less likely to have successful  pregnancies  TERATOGENS   Teratogens are an agent that cause abnormal prenatal development (drugs and diseases)  Bisphenol A ( BPA) is a chemical that is found in plastic, food and drink cans, thermal  paper, CD's, DVD's etc  Prenatal exposure can lead to problems with the reproductive organ, cancer risk and  urogenital malformations  Teratogens have different effects on the fetus at different stages of development   Different teratogens harm different parts of the body system  Men who smoke or drink have been shown to damage sperm and lead to increases in  miscarriages and birth defects   Amniocentesis is where they stick a needle in the abdomen to sample of amniotic fluid  that surround the fetus  ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY   (Nature vs. Nurture) , (Continuity vs Discontuity) , (Universal vs context specific)    Continuity examples are infant growth and vocab growth in toddler. Discontinuity  examples are growth spurts and achieving developmental milestones.  Universal: up until 8 months, infants can tell between phonemes, distinct unit of sound, in any language   Context­specific: Shortly after 8 months, infants become better at telling phonemes in  their native language and worse in not their native language   Critical periods: brain is set to acquire a function during a limited period of time. If a key  experience doesn't occur, function may develop. (Neglect and abuse can impact these  critical periods) RESEARCH DESIGNS USED BY PSYCHOLOGIST  Cross­sectional: compare group of different age at same time (used to determine age  related differences)  Longitudinal method: Compares same group of children at multiple times (used to  determine age related changes)  Sequential studies Examines different age groups at multiple times (used to determine  both age related changes and differences) PIAGET (PJ's) THEORY  Thought that children were "naïve scientists" trying to make sense of the world  He had four stages (Sensorimotor Period  0­2 yrs) , (Preoperational Period 2­7 yrs) ,  (Concrete operational 7­11 yrs) , (Formal operational period 11+ years)   Six stages of infancy: Exercising reflexes (0­1 months) , Primary circular reactions (1­4  months) , Secondary circular reactions (4­8 months) , Coordinated reactions/Behaving  intentionally (8­12 months) , Tertiary Circular Reactions (12­18 months) , Using symbols (18­24 months)    Object Permanence: An object continues to exist even if it’s not in sight    Egocentrism: Inability to see the world from another’s perspective  ATTACHMENT  Attachment: Emotional tie between a child and caretaker   Secure: Children feel free to explore, but uses mother as a secure base  Avoidant: Children explore a little, but don’t use mother as secure base  Ambivalent: Clings to mother and doesn’t explore   Disorganized: Doesn’t develop an attachment strategy (Due to abuse and neglect) PARENTING STYLES  4 styles of parenting: Authoritarian, Permissive, Authoritative and Uninvolved  Authoritarian: Places high value on obedience and respect for authority   Permissive: Impose minimal controls on children, more like a friend  Authoritative: Enforces standards, but encourages verbal give and take   Uninvolved: Minimum controls imposed on the children ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT   Puberty: The changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak  (growth for girls 10.5 and for boys 12.5)  Imaginary audience: Belief that someone is always watching their actions  Personal fable: Belief that they are very important, invulnerable and unique   Identity crisis: Trying to figure out who you are and what you want to be  ADULTHOOD  Midlife crisis: Time when adults are going through a traumatic reevaluation in their life  Midlife transition: Adults assess their past and make goals for the future   Menopause: A woman’s menstruation basically stops   Andropause:  A gradual drop in testosterone CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING  Classical conditioning: Learning process which a subject responds in a specific way to a  previous neutral stimulus after its been paired with another stimulus   Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that consistently triggers a particular,  naturally occurring response   Unconditioned Response (UCR): Unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS  Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Originally, a neutral stimulus. After repeated pairing with  UCS, this previously neutral stimulus becomes the CS  Conditioned Response (CR): Learned response to previously neutral conditioned stimulus  Operant conditioning: associations between behavior and consequence    Reinforcement: Any consequence that makes a behavior more likely to occur in the  future   Positive Reinforcement: The consequence of the behavior is the addition of something  pleasant   Negative Reinforcement: The consequence of the less likely to occur in the future   Punishment: Any consequence that makes a behavior less likely to occur in the future   Positive punishment: The consequence of the behavior is the addition of something  unpleasant  Negative punishment: The consequence of the behavior is the removal of something  pleasant  MORE NOTES   Sensory memory: Brief recording of sensory information   Encoding: Processing information   Serial Position: Remembering words based on the position that they’re in (Words that are listed first and last are remembered more while words in the middle are easily forgotten)  Flashbulb memory: Being able to remember something very vividly   Forgetting: Failing to retrieve information   Memory Strategies: Chunking, grouping, spacing, mnemonics  Prototypes are mental images you create   Problem solving: Trying to find solutions when stuck (Trial and error) , (algorithms) ,  (Heuristics)  Fixation: Inability to see problem from new perspective  Mental set: Tendency to use strategies that has worked before    Theories of intelligence #1: Gardner thought that they’re 9 components of intelligence  and each intelligence was controlled by different parts of the brain  Theory of intelligence #2: Sternberg said they’re 3 parts of intelligence (Analytical,  creative and practical)  Theory intelligence #3: Mental abilities appear to be independent   


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