Intro Biology 2 Exam 1 Study Guide
Intro Biology 2 Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 10513
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sijil Patel on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 10513 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Demarest in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 493 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Week 1: Phylogeny Phototroph Use solar energy to produce ATP Chemotroph Use already established source of chemical energy to produce ATP energy Chemoorganotroph- use organic molecules for energy Chemolithotroph- use inorganic molecules for energy Autotroph Fix their own carbon from inorganic CO2 (primary producers) Heterotroph Obtain carbon from already fixed source (organic molecules) (consumer) Linnaeus Father of taxonomy, identified two kingdoms of life (plants and animals), developed binomial naming system Haeckel Proposed third kingdom Protista Chatton Recognized prokaryotes vs eukaryotes Copeland Proposed fourth kingdom in separate superkingdom (Prokaryota with Monera bacteria) Monophyletic All members descend from same common ancestor Whittaker Proposed fifth fungi kindom Woese Discovered archaea 6 Kindoms 1) Bacteria-one kind of prokaryote 2) Archaea-another kind of prokaryote 3) Plantae-plants, multicellular autotrophs 4) Animalia-animals-multicellular heterotrophs 5) Fungi-fungi, multicellular decomposer heterotrophs 6) Protista-Protozoa (heterotrophic protists) and Algae (photosynthetic protists) – no longer technically exists 3 Domains Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Subdivisions: -Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Unified species Considers appearance (morphological species concept), degree of approach regular successful interbreeding (biological species concept), degree of shared genetics/evolutionary history (phylogenetic species concept) Species A group of organisms that can interbreed naturally to produce viable, fully reproductive offspring, and/or which share sufficient characteristics (genetic similarity) Prezygotic barrier Hinders mating or fertilization (habitat isolation, temporal isolation, behavioral isolation, mechanical isolation, gametic isolation) Postzygotic Hinders hybrid offspring from successfully developing into viable, barrier fertile, adult (reduced hybrid viability/fertility) Adaptive Single species can spawn multiple new species that “radiate” out to radiation capitalize on availability of new resources/problems Punctuated Evolution moves through spurts of rapid change equilibrium Ex: colonization and environmental change result in new selective pressures Gradualism Species diverge gradually as they acquire unique adaptations along this slow march overtime Evolutionary All species are in transitional forms, there is no missing link between theory the beginning and end of time Extra Useful Notes: -plants and animals do not share a multicellular common ancestor -animals do share a common multicellular ancestor with fungi -animals are most closely related to singe-celled choanoflagellates Week 2: Prokaryotes DNA: -DNA changes overtime -mutations arise (replication error 10^6 to 10^8 per bp) -genes exhibit different levels of variability (more variable=more distinguishing of close relatives) (use for paternity test) -more crucial genes are highly conserved (use for large scale phylogeny) 16srRNA=16srDNA -highly conserved and tracks relatedness Prokaryotes: -everywhere, even in extreme environments -lots of metabolic processes Ex: chemoautotrophy, nitrogen fixation, sulfur redox, methanogenesis and methanotrophy -important to biosphere (most biogeochemical cycles are dominated by prokaryotes) -horizontal gene transfer (conjugations, transformation, transduction) ruins lineage Ex: endosymbiosis (bacterial intrusion to eukarya as mitochondira/chloroplasts) Bacteria: -huge direct impacts on living things Ex: reduced egg production bc of reduced gut bacteria diversity -bacterial cells outnumber our own 10:1 -.3-.4% known species cause disease Chemotrophic Use electrons from chemical compounds for cellular respiration -organic or inorganic electron donors (H2, H2S, S8, CH3, Fe, Mn, NH3, glucose) and acceptors (O2, NO3, SO4, CO2, Fe, Mn) -anaerobic prokaryotes use less electronegative and less favorable compounds Chemoautotrophic Oxidize chemicals from the vent to obtain energy and reduce carbon compounds -chemosynthesis instead of photosynthesis -mutualism with tube worms Hyperthermophilic High temps (greater than 100 C) adaptations: chemoautotrophy -DNA with high G and C content -stabilization, compact proteins with hydrophobic interiors -membrane with saturated tetraether phospholipids with cyclopentane rings (tightly packed, single layer) Phototrophic -water allows photosynthesis to occur -cyanobacteria use water as electron donor -H2O is best electron donor -organism who use other molecules are more limited purple, green, heliobacteria -electrons come from various reduced molecules (S, H2, Fe) -photoautotrophic or photoheterotrophic Archaea (halobacteria) -halophiles found in salty water -bacteriorhodopsin- membrane protein changes shape when hit with certain photons, change moves protons across membrane forming cellular battery (proton motive force) -photoheterotrophic (cannot fix CO2) Gut bacteria Bulk of microbiome (3.3 million microbial genes) -help with digestion, crowd out pathogens, make vitamins, help immune system, metabolize drugs, help appetite Genome Entire set of genes Metabolites Metabolic products Metabolome Entire set of metabolic products (metabolites) Hologenome Entire set of genes contained in organism (host and symbionts) Conjugation Plasmid encoded mechanism that involves genetic transfer with cell- to-cell contact (plasmid stand moves while being copied) Donor Cell: contains conjugative plasmid (F plasmid integrates in chromosome, R plasmid carries resistance gene) Recipient Cell: does not contain plasmid Transformation Uptake of free DNA by other competent cells (genetic ability) -DNA binding proteins grab DNA, cell wall autolysin creates opening, nuclease brakes DNA into one strand, RecA protein splices foreign DNA into chromosome) Transduction Transfer of DNA from one cell to another via virus Week 3: Eukaryotes Eukaryotes: -prokaryotes have a lot of metabolic abilities, but not very much morphological diversity -eukaryotes have little metabolic activity, but a lot of morphological diversity -dynamic cytoskeleton and membrane system (bulk transport, wild shapes, move along substrate, endosymbiosis possible) -photosynthesis arose several times in different branches via separate endosymbiont engulfing events -most events involve engulfing eukaryotic cells with chloroplasts (4 membranes sometimes around chloroplast) -Eukaryotes never evolved oxygenic photosynthesis, only cyanobacteria did that -linear packaged chromosomes (better carry non crucial DNA, allows complex multicellularity and specialized cells) Multicellularity 1) cell-cell adhesion Development 2) communication 3) cell differentiation -accumulation of O2 in atmosphere allowed meeting of higher energy demands (anaerobic eukaryotes usually unicellular) -larger size (less vulnerable) -collaboration/division of labor (exploit resources) -simple associations -nourishing interior cells gets harder as complexity increases (more complex, more need to rapidly transport) Simple -cells stick together, but little coordination multicellularity -cells in good contact with external environment (reproduce independently) -nonclonal: genetically different -clonal: genetically identical Aggregation and Colonialism -Biofilms- aggregate and make polysaccharides -Slime bacteria- myxobacteria aggregate, digest food, generate touch spores -slime molds- eukaryotic bacterivores, amoeba, needed food and reproduction -chain forming diatoms- slow sinking against herbivores -filamentous cyanobacteria- hetercysts for N fixation and akinete survival spores -Pandorina (green alga)- 8,16,32 identical cells held together by mucilage, flagellated with identical eyespot, coordinated divisions -Volvox (green alga)- larger, flagellated in ball, eyespots developed, cytoplasm connections -Choanoflagellates- most closely related to animal, filter feeders, clonal with incomplete cytokinesis Complex -somatic cells permanently specialized to where they can never Multicellularity reproduce whole -multiple cells, single-celled propagules, division of labor -gene regulation -evo devo biology understands this -only eukaryotes achieved this (25 times) Life in Water Sponges: -outer cells in sea, pores bring water in, choanoflagellates draw water throught Jelly: -biologically inactive, gelatinous support material -seaweeds live in nutrient bath (minimal structural support, no roots ,leaves, material transporting system) Life on Land -uptake and dessication are obstacles -earliest colonizers were fungi and green algae (intertidal algae and bryophytes) Week 4: Plants Plants: -new challenges on land -take up and hold onto water, take nutrients, transport materials, exchange gases, fertilization and dispersal Reproduction (algae, -alternation of generations between haploid gametophyte and moss, fern, etc.) diploid sporophytes 2n sporophyte meiosis 1n spores mitosis 1n gametophyte mitosis 1n gamete syngamy 2n zygote mitosis 2n sporophyte -for moss, some alga and fern, 1n spores differentiate from mitosis to form an egg and pollen spore which undergoes more mitosis to form sperm Gymnosperm life cycle -gametophytes in cones on sporophyte -dry -pollen dispersed and meets ovule with egg on sporophyte, leads to seed formation Fertilization Male gametophyte produces a pollen tube, sperm passes through it -ovule develops into multicellular seed after Angiosperms -90% of plant species today -lower rates of extinction bc animal pollinators, more species, and double fertilization-fruits attract herbivores and flowers attract pollinators -flower growth coordinated with pollinators and seasons -light conditions-photoreceptors -chemical cues- chemoreceptors -mechanical influences- mechanoreceptors- statolith -hormonal control Angiosperm life cycle -flowers are modified leaves carpels- make ovules stamens- make pollen -pollen delivery using animals -coevolution- angiosperms diversity flourished with bees and butterflies Double fertilization Resources only invested in fertilized ovules -specific to angiosperms Seedless fruit Cross plants of different ploidies to achieve fertilization without successful seed production Parthenocarpy Unfertilized ovules go on to produce fruit anyway Plant growth -hormonal (germination, division, elongation meristem- tissue of actively dividing undifferentiated totipotent cells from which plants grow apical- primary lengthening growth floral- flower lateral-secondary growth (new xylem and phlowem made by vascular cambium and epidermis/bark made by cork cambium) -branching from meristems -ferns/horsetails with apical split -seed plants with axillary buds Monocots vs Dicots -palm trees are monocots (overlapping sheath leaves and anomalous secondary growth) Plant defense -against herbivores -mechanical thorns, etc. and chemical (secondary metabolites) -capsacin makes pepper spicy -tannins makes tissue undigestible -browning—barrier against desiccation -against pathogens -prevention (barriers), containment (hypersensitive response ), counterattack (antimicrobials) Plant Transformation Rhizobium radiobacter- caused gall disease, mechanism for injecting DNA into plant (put gene in bacterium and use it as vector to put gene in plant) -plasmid contains genes for biosynthesizing amino acids, hormones, opines -out of control hormones=improperly controlled cell growth= tumor (home for bacteria) -genetically engineer Ti plasmid (keep virulence genes, get rid of tumor genes, put in markers and desired gene, transform radiobacter, transform plant -infect single protoplast, very small tissue, gametes Week 5: Fungi -heterotrophic like animals, absorb nutrients like plants, digest like bacteria, cell walls of chitin, reproduce through spore without gametes --- more like animals than plants ---- Lichens -hyphae with layer of phosynthetic symbionts -fungal hyphae- anchorage, uptake of water, protection -algal/cyanobacterial cells- provide carbohydrates and some fixed N -nutrients from rainfall/rock surfaces -tolerate desiccation, but not pollution (indicator species) for pollution -15% of known fungi Mychorrhizae -plant/fungi symbiosis -plants get water/nutrients especially phosphate (hyphae is thinner than root so penetrate micropore) -fungi get carbohydrate Fungi Morphology -multicellular fungi have filamentous hyphae -hyphae extend to form mycelium network Fungi as Decomposers -decompose organic waste -secrete enzymes to degrade material (cellulose and lignin), absorb nutrients -sometimes infect/invade plants Heterokaryosis n+n cell Plasmogamy 1n hyphae tips of different mating types meet, exchange enzymes, digest walls, and fuse cytoplasm to make n+n heterokaryotic cell Karyogamy Two nuclei may fuse to form 2n zygote -this later divides mby meiosis to make 1n spores carrying new gene combo, NO GAMETES Fungal Phylogeny Chytrids-unicellular mostly Zygomycetes- without septa bw cells (bread mold) Glomeromycetes- endomycorrhizae, no septa Dikarya (basidiomycetes, ascomycetes)- septa and dikaryotic stage with single cell maintained with two nuclei (98% of known species) Fungal Dispersal -spores dispersed via wind, water, animals -to get spores higher, erect hyphae, shoot spores, or zombify ant Fungal Reproduction -yeast divide via budding/fission -fungi reproduce sexually/asexually -98% species heterokaryotic (2 cells fuse to make cell with 2 different nuclei and karyotypes) Parasexuality Generate additional genetic diversity through crossing over of chromosomes during mitosis -20% fungi lack meiosis, 2n cells lose half chromosomes
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