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Inventing Arguments CH1-6

by: ysu34

Inventing Arguments CH1-6 ENGL 1551

GPA 3.8

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Chapter 1-6
Writing 2
Matthew M. Feehley
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by ysu34 on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENGL 1551 at Youngstown State University taught by Matthew M. Feehley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Writing 2 in Foreign Language at Youngstown State University.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
English 1551: Writing 2 Spring 2016 Youngstown State University Professor: Matthew M. Feehley Easy Writer (Lunsford), 5th ed. Inventing Arguments (Mauk & Metz), 4th ed. Inventing Arguments Book Notes Chapter 1 - Inventing Arguments • Argument- act of asserting, supporting, and defending a claim • Fact- claim about existence or the nature of something • Value- Intensity/worth of something • Policy- what can/might be done about something Three Claims: Fact, Value, Policy Three Supports: Evidence, Examples, Appeals Three Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, Logos • Inquiry- leads to discovering new ideas • Advocacy- involves supporting existing idea • Invention- discovery/development of ideas • Arrangements- organization of ideas in a fashion • Style or voice- personal use of language conventions with attention to the appropriate topics • Memory- recollection of prepared points • Delivery- presentation of ideas • Rhetoric- process of recognizing and using the most effective strategies for influencing Rhetorical Situations - refers to an opportunity to address a particular audience about an issue also includes: • tension • arguer • audience • method of communication • rules of communication • text or message Chapter 2 - Claims Basic Argument Complex Argument Claim Main Claim Support Supporting Claim Support Chapter 3 - Support Evidence- authorities, testimony, facts, statistics Examples- allusions, anecdotes, illustrations, scenarios Appeals- to logic, character, emotion, need, value • Evidence- type of support that already exists • Authorities- experts who offer specialized knowledge • Testimony- eyewitness or firsthand account • Facts- agreed upon bits of knowledge • Statistics- figures drawn from surveys, experimentation, and data analysis • Examples- specific occurrences • Allusions- references to some public knowledge • Anecdotes- short accounts of a particular event • Illustrations- graphic descriptions • Scenarios- fictional or hypothetical examples • Appeals- major form of support in an argument Logical Fallacies: a. Ad hominem- personal attacks b. Straw Person- misrepresenting a position and dismissing it wrong c. Post hoc- faulty cause-effect d. Either/or- an issue claiming only two options e. Hasty generalizations- draw conclusions on little evidence f. Non sequitur- skips or confuses logical steps g. Slippery slope- claim a certain way of thinking or acting will lead to more of the same h. Begging the Question- supporting claim by restating the claim itself i. Red herring- attempts to change subject j. Bandwagon- since everyone else does it so should you k. Association fallacies- claim two people or things share a quality because they are somehow associated l. Golden age fallacies- characterize the past as inherently better Chapter 4 - Opposition • Counter Argument- refute claims or positions opposed to those that the writer or speaker is forwarding • Concession- opposite of counter argument and is like “good point” • Qualifiers- close to concessions, but focus more on arguers ideas • Rogerian Argument- based on confrontation and hostility Chapter 5- Values and Assumptions • Claim- statement making an assertion, thesis is main claim of an essay • Grounds- particular facts (evidence, data, observations) to support claim • Warrant- link between grounds and claim (warrant not always state) • Backing- support for warrant • Rebuttal- circumstance that could invalidate the claim • Qualifier- words that modify (might, could, sometimes, etc.) the claim o Examples: some, many, often, sometimes, rarely, always, seems, perhaps, possibly, very possibly, quite possibly, usually, presumably, probably, normal, certainly, necessary, likely, plausibly, as far as we can tell, at first, maybe, should, definitely should, probably should, everybody, nobody, some people, and so on • Propaganda- complex set of strategies used to drive audiences into a uniform way of thinking and feeling Chapter 6- Analyzing Argument • Analyzing an argument- requires reading with a specific goal: to understand how the argument works • Summary and Analysis- to understand how an argument works (analysis), we must understand what is arguing (summary) • Summary vs. Analysis- summary is important to good analysis but can also become a problem, it can overshadow the analytical moves • Four common pitfalls- o rhetorical analysis comes with a few unique dangers to avoid, some writers get lured inside the points of the argument they are analyzing rather than remain outside of the argument, they begin making a case for the argument o the second pitfall involves describing the effect of the original argument o third is describing the author's intent o fourth is evaluation, we make and defend judgements about the worth of an argument • Advertising- images and words are meticulously crafted to form intensive arguments Inventing a Rhetorical Analysis 1. audience 2. claim 3. line of reasoning 4. other appeals 5. examples and evidence 6. opposition 7. values and assumptions


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