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Human Development Exam 3 review

by: Jazmine Morales

Human Development Exam 3 review NURS 10303

Jazmine Morales
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover chapters 7, 8, 9, and 10 in the book "Development through the Lifespan" by Laura E. Berk
Human Development
Susan Fife
Study Guide
Human Growth
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jazmine Morales on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NURS 10303 at Texas Christian University taught by Susan Fife in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Nursing and Health Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Chapter 7: Physical & Cognitive Development in Early childhood Hormones Pituitary gland =located at base of brain & releases these 2 hormones to induce growth Growth hormone & Thyroid-stimulating hormone→ TSH GH= necessary for development of all body tissues except CNS & genitals TSH= prompts thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxine Thyroxine= necessary for brain development & for GH to have full impact on body size Infectious Disease & malnutrition Poor diet depresses the body's immune system. Oral-rehydration therapy→ ORT Immunization= many US children lack immunizations reasons: cost, parents' stressful daily lives, misconceptions about vaccine safety Illness reduces appetite Diarrhea a danger in developing countries can be helped by: ORT & zinc supplements Childhood injuries/cause of death Factors: Gender & temperament Poverty, single parenthood, low parental education Societal conditions: international differences, teenage parents, shortage of high quality child care Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of childhood mortality in industrialized nations About 20% of US childhood deaths & 50% of adolescent deaths result from injuries Among injured children & youths who survive, thousands suffer pain, brain damage, & permanent physical disabilities Injuries occur within a complex ecological system of individual, family, community, & societal influences→ something can be done Make-believe play Piaget believed that through pretending, young children in early childhood practice & strengthen newly acquired representational schemes Benefits: Contributes to cognitive & social skills Strengthens mental abilities→ sustained attention, memory, language & literacy, creativity, regulation of emotion, & perspective taking Conservation = idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes EX: Preoperational children think quantity has changed Centration= preoperational children focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features EX: In conservation of liquid, the child centers on the height of the water, failing to realize that changes in width compensate for changes in height Irreversibility= inability to mentally reverse a series of steps Reversibility= part of every logical operation EX: Pritti spills her raisins, Sammy cannot reverse by thinking, “I know that Pritti doesn't have more raisins than I do. If we put them back in the little box, her raisins and my raisins would look just the same.” Class inclusion= Piaget's problem→ Preoperational children center on the overriding feature, red. They do NOT think reversibly by moving from the whole class (flowers) to the parts (red & blue) & back again Hierarchical classification Organization of objects into classes & subclasses on the basis of similarities & differences EX: failing to realize that both red & blue flowers are included in the category “flowers” Evaluation of preoperational stage and evidence of children’s cognitive capacities Development of logical operations is gradual **Piaget was partly wrong and right on children's cognitive capacities EX: When given simplified tasks based on familiar experiences, preschoolers show the beginnings of logial thinking→ suggests that they attain logical operations gradually **Operational thought is not absent at one point in time & present at another Over time, children rely on increasingly effective mental approaches to solving problems Disagreement over whether a preoperational stage really exists **Some experts deny the stage approach, others support a flexible stage notion→ competencies develop over time (Neo-Piagetian theorists) Piaget & education Discovery learning=children discover themselves through spontaneous interaction with environment EX: art, puzzles, table games, dress-up clothing, building blocks, books, etc Sensitivity to children's readiness to learn= activities that build on children's current thinking, challenging their incorrect ways of viewing the world Acceptance of individual differences Factors: home environment, quality of childcare, preschool, or kindergarten→ child- centered v. academic, educational media, early intervention programs Private speech Piaget= “egocentric speech” Vygotsky= foundation for all higher cognitive processes Serves a self-guiding function; increases during challenging tasks, gradually internalized as silent, inner speech Early childhood mathematical reasoning Ordinality=order relationships between quantities→ 14- 16 months Cardinality=when counting, last # is the total→ 3.5-4 years (sense of direction) Vocabulary (Language development) Fast mapping: object names, verbs, modifiers, coins new words, uses metaphors Grammar→ overregulization Conversation→ Pragmatics Supporting language development→ recasts & expansion Chapter 8 Erikson’s theory Preschool years= initiative v. guilt Initiative: new sense of purposefulness, eagerness to try new activities; join activities, play permits trying out new skills, strides in conscience development Guilt: overly strict superego, or conscience, causing too much guilt → related to parental (threats, criticism, punishment) Self-esteem Judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments Emotional behavior, future behavior, long-term psychological adjustment Self-conscious emotions (shaming) Depends on adult feedback, varies across cultures **Guilt helps children resist harmful impulses & it motivates misbehaving children to repair the damage & behave more considerately Mildred Parten’s social development-3 step sequence 1. nonsocial activity → unoccupied, onlooker behavior, & solitary play 2. Parallel play → child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior 3. Associative play → engages in separate activities, exchanges toys & comments 4. Cooperative play → more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal (acting out, make-believe theme) First friendships Someone who “likes you” plays with you, & shares toys Friendships change frequently Benefits: social support → reinforcement, cooperation, emotional expressiveness, favorable school adjustment Inductive discipline/Induction Induction= an adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others EX: effective as early as age 2, parents who use induction on preschoolers are more likely to refrain from wrongdoing, confess & repair damage after misdeeds EX: parent says, “She's crying because you won't give back her doll” ***Generally, warm parents provide explanations that match the child's capacity to understand, while firmly insisting that the child listen & comply Positive parenting strategies/alternatives to harsh punishment  Use transgressions as opportunities to teach  Reduce opportunities for misbehavior  Provide reasons for rules  Have children participate in family duties & routines  Try compromising & problem solving  Encourage mature behavior Alternative to harsh punishment= time out, withdrawing privileges, positive discipline Effectiveness of punishment= consistency, warm parent-child relationship, explanations Forms of proactive & reactive aggression Proactive (instrumental) → meant to help the child get something he or she wants; self initiated Reactive (hostile) → meant to hurt someone, defensive response to provocation Child-rearing styles Combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child – rearing climate 1) Acceptance & involvement 2) control 3) autonomy granting Authoritative= most successful approach, involves high acceptance & involvement, adaptive control techniques, & appropriate autonomy granting → joint decision, parent encourages child to express thoughts, feelings & desires EX: Parents are warm, attentive, responsive, & sensitive to their child's needs EX: Makes reasonable demands for maturity & consistently enforces & explains them Authoritarian= low in acceptance & involvement, high in coercive control, & low in autonomy granting EX: Parents are cold & rejecting, frequently degrades the child-> parents put down the child's ideas, decisions, & choice of friends EX: Parent rarely listens to child's point o view, makes demands coercively, withdraws love & affection Permissive= warm & accepting but uninvolved EX: Parents are warm but overindulgent & inattentive; engage in little control EX: Make few or no demands → permits child to make many decisions before the child is ready Uninvolved= combines low acceptance & involvement with little control & general indifference to issues of autonomy EX: Parents are emotionally detached & depressed (withdrawn) → overwhelmed by life stress EX: Indifferent on child's decision making & point of view Origins of child maltreatment/child’s reaction to abuse Physical abuse: assaults resulting in physical injury Sexual abuse: fondling, intercourse, pornography Neglect: failing to meets child's basic needs Emotional abuse: social isolation, unreasonable demands, humiliation, intimidation Factors related to child maltreatment: Parent, child & family characteristics Community/culture Consequences: Emotional → poor emotional self-regulation, impaired empathy/sympathy, & depression Adjustment → substance abuse, violent crime Learning → impaired working memory & executive functioning, low academic motivation Prevention: intervening with high-risk parents, social supports for families (parents anonymous, home visitation) *** When parents cannot change, separating parent from child Chapter 9 Nutrition  Well-balanced diet, plentiful diet to provide energy for successful learning in school & increased physical activity  Between ages 9 & 14, the percentage who eat dinner with their families drops sharply  Healthy foods makes children “feel better” & “focus better”  Eating junk food= “sluggish” like a blob  Mild nutritional deficits can affect cognitive functioning  Middle to high SES families with insufficient dietary iron & folate predicted slightly lower mental test performance Obesity health problems Rise in diabetes for children → leading to strokes, kidney failure & circulatory problems that put them at risk for blindness & leg amputation Symptoms in early childhood= high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels (LDL), respiratory abnormalities, insulin resistance, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease, cancer School recess research nd  7% of US schools no longer provide recess to students as young 2 grade  Usually once a day for most schools  Distributing cognitively demanding tasks over a longer time by introducing regular breaks enhances attention & performance at all ages  Students were more attentive in the classroom after recess than before it  Kindergartners' & 1 graders' engagement in peer conversation & games during recess positively predicted academic achievement ADHD origins Runs in families & is highly heritable:  Identical twins share it more than fraternal twins  Abnormal brain functioning, including reduced electrical & blood-flow activity & structural abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex & in other areas involved in attention, inhibition of behavior & motor control  Brains grow more slowly → about 3% smaller in volume  Environmental factors: prenatal teratogens → tobacco, alcohol & pollutants (linked to inattention/hyperactivity) Self-regulation  Process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes & redirecting unsuccessful efforts EX: grouping items when memorizing, rereading a complicated paragraph to comprehend better & relating new information to what is already known IQ/ Nature vs. Nurture  Adoption studies confirm the influence of both heredity & environment  Ethnic difference are largely environmental  Dramatic secular trend (generational rise in IQ) supports role of environment Classification  Children pass the class inclusion problems between ages 7 & 10  COLLECTING & CLASSIFYING items become common Seriation  Ability to order items along a quantitative dimension becomes efficient around 6-7 years  Transitive inference: ability to seriate mentally appears around 7 years Reducing cultural bias in IQ testing  Combine test scores with the assessment of adaptive behavior  Culturally relevant testing procedures dynamic assessment Social-constructivist classrooms Children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers & peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings  Children become competent, contributing members of their classroom community  Advance in cognitive & social development  Teachers & children as partners in learning  Many types of symbolic communication  Teaching adapted to zone of proximal development  Cooperative learning= small groups of classmates work toward common goals resolve differences of opinion, sharing responsibilities, providing one another with sufficient explanations to correct misunderstandings Chapter 10: Emotional & Social Development in Middle Childhood Erikson’s theory  Industry v. Inferiority (6-11 years) Industry= developing a sense of competence at useful skills & tasks; school provides many opportunities Inferiority= pessimism & lack of confidence in own ability to do things well; negative responses from family, teachers, & peers can contribute to negative feelings Self-concept  Organizing behaviors & observations & internal states into general dispositions  More balanced, fewer all-or-none descriptions  Social comparisons  Real v. ideal self  References social groups  Cultural variations Hierarchically structured self-esteem  Academic competence: language skills, math, other school subjects  Social competence: relationship with peers & parents  Physical/athletic competence: outdoor games & various sports  Physical appearance Achievement related attributions and influences  Mastery-oriented: crediting their successes to their ability characteristic they can improve through trying hard  Reason for success= ability  Reason for failure= controllable factors that can be overcome by effort  Learned helplessness: attribute their failures, NOT their successes, to ability luck, ability is fixed, cannot be improved  Reason for success= external factors  Reason for failure= ability, which cannot be changed by effort Development of prejudice  By age 5-6, white children evaluate their own racial group favorable & other racial groups less favorably/negatively  In group favoritism= children simply prefer their own group  Out-group prejudice= assigning positive characteristics to the privileged white majority, negative characteristics to their own group  After age 7 & 8, both majority & minority children express in-group favoritism  White children’s prejudice against out-group members often weakens  Factors: fixed view of personality traits, overly high self-esteem, a social world in which people are sorted into groups Categories of peer acceptance Popular  Popular-prosocial  Popular-antisocial Rejected  Rejected-aggressive  Rejected-withdrawn Controversial Neglected Reducing bullying  Encourage children to develop friendships Gender Identity behavior Self-evaluations affect adjustment gender typicality, gender contentedness, felt pressure to conform to gender roles Gender identity (3 -6 grade)  Boys=”masculine” identification strengthens  Girls= androgynous Sibling rivalry  Increases in middle childhood  As children participate in a wider range of activities, parents’ often compare siblings’ traits & accomplishments  Child who gets less parental affection, more disapproval, or fewer material resources is likely to be resentful & show poorer adjustment  For same-sex siblings, parental comparisons are more frequent, resulting in more arguments & quarreling  Financial worries, marital conflict, single parenthood, child negativity  To reduce rivalry, siblings often strive to be different from one another Parent-child relationships  Helping children adjust to divorce  Shield children from conflict  Provide continuity in daily life  Explain the divorce  Emphasize permanence of situation  Sympathize with children’s feelings  Authoritative reasoning  Promote relationship with both parents Maternal employment & child development Benefits:  Higher self-esteem  Positive family & peer relations  Fewer gender stereotypes  Better grades  More father involvement Drawbacks:  Heavy employment demands associated with ineffective parenting Fears & anxieties Common fears:  Poor academic performance  Peer rejection  Personal harm  Threats to parent’s health  Frightening media events School phobia:  5-7 years maternal separation  11-13 years particular aspects of school **Harsh living conditions promote severe anxieties Resilience in middle childhood Personal characteristics:  Easy temperament  Mastery orientation  Warm parental relationship Supportive adult outside family Community resources


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