HISt 225 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
HISt 225 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE HIST 225 0021
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 225 0021 at James Madison University taught by Richard Meixsel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 292 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
HIST 225 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE lnClass went over in class and you should probably know it Might need to know found in textbook but not mentioned much in class httbswwwvoutubecomwatch v6E9WU9TGrecamplistPL8dPuuaLthMwmeijTSG593eG70sz7s Crash Course Might need to know Meso Americas 0 Means between the Americas Mexico and Central America Maya Lived in Guatemala Belize and Southern Mexico Produced a lot of food and eventually was able to trade it Aztecs Lived in Guatemala Belize and Southern Mexico 0 Powerful empire builders TenochUUan o Aztec capital city very large now Mexico City Wealthy Huitzilopochtli A God followed by the Aztecs In uenced human sacri ce Montezuma II 0 Emperor of the Aztecs in 1503 Christopher Columbus 0 Wanted a direct water route from Europe to Asia but never found one 0 Wanted wealth and exotic luxuries like drugs spices and perfumes Silk Road 0 More like Silk routes because it wasn t a straight voyage Passed through Central Asia Caravaners paid tolls bribes Emperor Charles V the Spanish king Conquistadores Ecomenderos The Columbian Exchange lnClass Hernan Cortes Comes to New World in 1504 Encomiendas laborers working for him Learned from the Natives by translator Malinche Leaves wife to conquer the Aztecs Describes Native Americans as brutal Sees himself as the liberator from their repression from the Aztecs Gets other Native Americans to conquer the Aztecs Makes himself monarch of Mexico Blames Natives for not giving the King his share Encomiendas Conquistadors were given this The right to have the native lndians work for them Fra ncisco Piza rro Captured the lncan emperor Bartolome de las Casas He was a European but understood the pain that the Indians went through Comes to New World in 1502 to Dominican Republic encomienda officer of the king Recognizes that he is part of the problem and becomes a priest Died of smallpox Attributes not to the Spanish himself but to the power of God Describes Indians as harmless humans like himself they share their food they are Christians or open to the idea Diseases that affected just native Americans that were brought over from the Europeans Smallpox Measles Bubonic plague In uenza Pneumonia Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Typhs Cholera Might need to know httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vo69Tqudegampindex2amplistPL8dPuuaLthMwmeijTSGSQ3eG70b 2075 Crash Course John Cabot Verrazano Protestant Reformation King Henry VIII English Reformation Sir Humphrey Gilbert Roanoke Island Armanda Sir Walter Raleigh Virginia Company Dutch West India Company Peter Miniut lnClass httpswwwyoutubecomwatch v39lTYOOOSoDOampindex3amplistPL8dPuuaLthMwmeijTSGSQ3eG70b 2075 Crash Course Jamestown 0 First settlement that didn t fail Founded from gentlemen trying to get wealth Life was hard bad environment poor location can t grow food disease marshy land starvation people turned to cannibalism lndians attacked in 1622 large population ofJamestown was killed 0 By 1624 America meant death John Smith 0 Strong leader ofJamestown Given as a slave to Princess Brough into office at Jamestown Forced people to make food and get jobs 0 He wasn t well liked but he helped turn the colony around John Rolfe Brough tobacco over from West lndies Was a growing demand in Europe 0 Tobacco was desirable but there were also rules against it English RevolutionCivil War 0 King versus Parliament 0 Parliament wins Struggle of power Labor in Chesapeake 16305 16405 16505 0 Indentured servants young Englishmen was the dominant type of labor 0 75 of Englishmen coming to America came as indentured servants o Servants didn t work hard because they already got their money 0 Masters were forceful 0 Masters could extend term Triangular Trade Slaves to US Raw material to Europe pots pans guns alcohol horses to Africa where Caribbean is 0 Many slaves died en route Slaves were crammed in boats 0 1112 million total slave imports Might need to know Pilgrims the Separatists The New England Colonies Squanto quotMay ower Compactquot httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vp47tZLlbdagamplistPL8dPuuaLthMwmeijTSGS93eG70sz7sampindex 4 Crash Course lnClass Puritans indepth page 62 predestination your fate is determined ahead of time unhappy that others don t agree with them 0 They should leave England and go to America 0 1630 and 1640 Puritans came to America New England quickly formed a thriving community 0 Didn t suffer like indentured servants because better climate in New England better location than VA not many Native Americans lived there but either way they had friendly relationships no conquistadores came over in families 0 Far more successful than VA 0 RELIGION o Strict religion 0 No fun 0 Couldn t tolerate difference of opinion o builtin democracy tendency William Penn 16441718 Founded the colony that best represented America Establishes colony as a refugee for Quakers Wanted a safe place for Quakers and other whose religions weren t tolerate Quakers Rambunctious broke up church meetings 0 Some got exiled Pennsylvania Colony that best represented America Religiously tolerant founded by Quakers o Multiethnic Germans and ScotIrish o Politically inclusive everyone can participate in politics Purchased land from Native Americans on open terms no tricking Economically prosperous diverse economies Might need to know Triangular Trade King Charles II Mercantilism East India Company nCass Navigation Acts 16601663 0 All colonial trade had to be shipped in English or colonial merchant s ships 0 European goods that are being sold in the colonies have to go through English ports to be monitored and taxed 0 GOAL part of European or African sales go to England Oliver Cromwell o Puritan Becomes dictator of England after King Charles II was exiled Similar to bluelaws no theatre no games on Sundays Governor William Berkeley 0 Virginia s governor Sent families or quotdistressed cavaliersquot to go to Virginia Somebody with land can live a good life and grow tobacco but he needs slaves Bacon s Rebellion 1676 0 Nathaniel Bacon recent immigrant Recently freed 0 Angry men who have nothing Slavery after 16605 Lots of English settlers immigrated from Barbados ln urban areas NYC Boston Virginia population grows o More civil rights in the north John Smith Puritan Protestantism King Philip s War lndentured servants TransAtlantic Slave Trade httpswwwyoutubecomwatch v5vKGU3aEGssampindex5amplistPL8dPuuaLthMwmeijTSG593eG70b 2075 Crash Course Samuel de Champlain Thirty Years War 16181648 German Immigrants their in uence on America The Scotlrish Slave Rebellions Salutary Neglect The Molasses Act of 1733 0 Goal was to regulate trade NOT pay back for war debt British quotThe Great Awakeningquot 1730s40s King George s War William Pitt General James Wolfe Might need to know George Grenville lnClass The Proclamation Line of 1763 o No settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains 0 Way of moving the population Sugar Act of 1764 American Revenue Act 0 Goal was to raise money George Grenville Stamp Act of 1765 0 Tax on paper parchment anything used for public purchase 0 quotInternal actquot tax within the colonies as opposed to foreign People began boycotting goods The Townshend Duties Britain still needed money 0 Made smuggling hard if not impossible Might need to know Patrick Henry of Virginia Benjamin Franklin Militiamen French and Indian War Lexington and Concord 0 In War for Independence Battle of Bunker Hill Misnamed In War for Independence Ticonderoga Second Continental Congress Paul Revere Battle of Golden Hill New York InClass httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvt QDDZMRCDQSLiStPL99D6C5B49835D4F6 School House Rock httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvEytc92aNWyc Crash Course The Boston Massacre 0 Boston Tea Party 1773 The Tea Act Monopoly on the sale of teas 0 High price tea price went down Colonists were angry because they didn t want any tax on their tea The Intolerable Acts Ridiculous acts after Boston Tea Party Britain punishing Massachusetts colonists for Boston Tea Party State delegates met and tried to end it Repealed after the Battle of Saratoga why Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson Roger Sherman John Adams Benjamin Franklin Robert Livingston quotWe hold these truths to be selfevident that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are life liberty and the pursuit of Happinessquot httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvHlUiSBXOHCw Crash Course Might need to know Continental Army Henry Knox of Massachusetts Valley Forge Daniel Boone o Frontiersman and Indian ghter Accused of being a Loyalist In Virginia militia Claimed many parts of land Not interested in the war lnClass Loyalists 0 Most Anglicans were Loyalists o Bullied for their loyalty to the British Crown Patriot 0 Alexander Hamilton httpsWWWy0 utube comwa tch vZr99HUc9Hra 0amplistPLU5Rfo 0cUe4a vCXPq6 thdeuhBX U YX This is the soundtrack to the new rap musical Hamilton It will tell you a bunch of facts about Alexander Hamilton and his ideas relationships and background The Battle of Saratoga 0 most important event of the year and maybe even the war 0 America won against the British French Alliance The Battle of Yorktown o Ended the war 0 George Washington knew the land well Lord Charles Cornwallis British Army officer 0 Under him British captures Charleston 0 Wins battles but doesn t leave them any land 0 Doesn t achieve anything concrete 0 So he goes to Yorktown Virginia with a large army 0 But since he was on the coast he could be surrounded by America French navy could seal off Cornwallis and leave him without reinforcements America trapped him as well Cornwallis surrenders British is still not defeated though they have more troops than French and America combined George Washington John Adams The Treaty of Paris 0 Ended the American Revolutionary War httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vbO7FOchbD8ampindex8amplistPL8dPuuaLthMwmeijTSGSQ3eG70b 2075 Crash Course Might need to know Articles of Confederation State Constitutions Disestablishing the Church of England Bill of Rights Confederation Congress Northwest Ordinances quotContinentalsquot Delegates Conservatives 0 AntiBritish movement Voting Laws 0 Every state but 3 GA PA MA required that voters own property 0 Some blacks could vote depending on their property 0 Women who had x amount of property could vote in NJ Abigail Adams letter to John quotremember the ladiesquot in regards to power Slavery MA first state to abolish slavery Against the Declaration of Independence Articles of Confederation 17761777 0 Same principles as the state constitutions Each state equal in Congress Levying a tax required all 13 states to approve 0 Extra money being printed that had next to no value The Shays s Rebellion 1786 0 Farmers wanted their property taxes reduced 0 Led by Daniel Shays quotA little rebellion now and then is a good thingquot Lasted 3 months The Constitution 0 Written and signed in 1787 0 Charter of the government different from the Declaration of Independence The Founding Fathers many in the army want stronger national government 0 George Washington 0 John Adams 0 Thomas Jefferson 0 James Madison 0 Alexander Hamilton 0 James Monroe 0 Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson 0 born from in uential Virginia family went to College of William and Mary elected to the House of Burgesses 1769 quotSummary view of the Rights of British Americaquot 1774 Member of Continental Congress 17751776 He was on what was thought of as the least important out of the three main committees OOOO 0 Governor of Virginia 17791781 2 days after he ed from the British army so obviously no election 0 He was not involved in writing the Constitution he was an American minister in Paris 0 He was the main author of the Declaration of Independence 0 He was elected not by choice to Secretary of State 1789 o Founded the University of Virginia Jefferson s View An Agrarian Republic Government will be virtuous if they are predominately agricultural in order to make sure the Americans survive Alexander Hamilton 0 Constitution gave states too much power and president too little 0 However it was an improvement of the Articles of Confederation o Hamilton s Grand Design Proposals to Congress First Plan Report on the Public Credit 1790 THE CRITICS SAID plan would enrich speculators but it was approved in exchange for locating the national capital in the South on the Potomac we don t know who originally paid us so we need to give the money we owe to the original holders Slave owners did not want to lose their slaves and move north which is why they wanted the capital in the south Second Plan Report on a National Bank 1791 THE CRITICS SAID national bank was not constitutional Hamilton responded with the doctrine of quotImplied Powersquot UNCONSTITUTIONAL if the Constitution doesn t say it the government cannot do it Hamilton argues The Constitution does not speci cally say everything we can and cannot do but it is implied quotLoose constructionquot of the Constitution versus quotstrict constructionistsquot Third Plan Report on Manufactures 1791 THE CRITICS SAID this was nothing more than governmentsponsored privilege for Hamilton39s pals in business and was rejected Hamilton thought that if you help the wealthy then they will spreadshare their wealth Hamilton basically says WE NEED A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT but people were fearful of a powerful government abusing its authority and possibly taking away their freedom Mid 17905 Hamilton s opponent was now Thomas Jefferson Federalists Followers of Hamilton 0 Had a program Controlled the press Circumvented the state assemblies 0 Only nine of the 13 states had to ratify the Constitution AntiFederalists Opposed the rati cation of the Constitution Might need to know XYZ Affair The Alien and Sedition Acts nCass httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvI39ITvaCyIFY Crash Course George Washington 0 First president 0 Hamilton requests 5 tax on imports Hamilton wanted to pay all debt at once to foreigners and American people French Revolution The Whiskey Rebellion 0 After Hamilton taxed Whiskey The Election of 1796 0 John Adams vs Thomas Jefferson Adams wins 0 Election of 1796 very close Eectora vote no popular vote yet 49 DemocraticRepublican 51 Federalist clear NorthSouth divide already The Election of 1800 0 Thomas Jefferson vs John Adams Jefferson wins Might need to know James Monroe Monroe Doctrine lnClass The Transportation Revolution Turnpikes major toll roads Steamboats on western rivers from 1815 travelling north from New Orleans 0 69 steamboats in 1820 727 in 1855 o Steamboats were useful because you can travel upstream Canals quotErie Canalquot the single most important nished 1825 o Reoriented western produce from south to east Railroads starting in 18205 by the 18505 8 times as many rail miles as canal miles 0 lines ran east to west Might need to know Industrial Revolution lnClass JQ Adams 0 Clay Secretary of State most of these would go on to become president so Clay was expecting to get it quotCorrupt bargainquot Adams was wealthy moody depressed not what people wanted Had a lot of haters so couldn t get much done After he left the presidency he was part of the House of Representatives so he was still involved in politics 1828 Election Adams vs Jackson Jackson won by a long shot Jackson was not a good president New political party based on hating Jackson Andrew Jackson Elected in 1828 Reelected in 1832 First president not from VA or MA Grew up poor Represented individualism the common man Age of democracy President s home was open to everyone httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvbeN4qE e508ampindex 14amplistPL8d Pu ua LiXthmebBiTSGS93eG70sz7s Crash Course Whig Party Everyone who did not like Andrew Jackson The party name was meant to refer to parliamentary opponents of the monarchy in 18th century Britain The rst Whig president was WH Harrison who had also run as a Whig in 1836 0 Wins presidency in 1840 0 Return of twopa rty system quotAmerican Systemquot JQ Adams we can use the power of the government to bene t ourselves Jackson using power of government was to the detriment of other people stay out of people s affairs commonwealth system
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