Comm 3163 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Comm 3163 Midterm 1 Study Guide 3163
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Dahlin on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3163 at Ohio State University taught by Zheng Wang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see Industry Research in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
03/07/2016 ▯ INDUSTRY RESEARCH STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM 1 ▯ ▯ Difference between Theory and Hypothesis Theory: a series of logically interrelated premises/assumptions that are meant to explain a phenomenon in the world (i.e answers the question of why) o Ex: Cognitive Dissonance people are motivated to maintain their pre-existing attitudes/beliefs, information that challenges pre-existing attitudes causes mental discomfort Hypotheses: concise statements about what you expect to happen in the world (given the premises/assumptions that constitute the theory) o Must logically follow from the set of premises and assumptions of the theory o Ex: If you show voters negative information about a candidate they like… they will like the candidate o Ex: Texting while driving increases your likelihood of a car accident (if you ask WHY, the answer is the theory) ▯ Difference between Validity and Reliability of Measures Validity: the extent to which a measurement procedure measures what it intends to measure o Are you measuring what you are supposed to measure? o If you define intelligence as verbal ability and measure it using math test – not a very valid measure Reliability: the extent to which a measuring instrument consistently measures whatever it is that it is measuring o It is possible for a measure to be reliable BUT not valid o Ex: Body Mass Index Scale (BMI) o Consistently measures obesity by looking at your height and weight… BUT doesn’t consider whether weight is fat or muscle We want our measures to be reliable and valid! ▯ Difference between independent and dependent variables Independent Variable: the factor that is going to influence another factor (ex: smoking) Dependent Variable: the factor that’s going to be influenced (ex: Cancer) ▯ Random assignment and what it does Random Assignment: People you are studying have an equal chance of being assigned to your study’s conditions (in this case, treatment or no-treatment groups) What it does: o Distributes the confounds equally across your conditions o If we find that people who smoked for a year had, on average more incidents of lung cancer, we can say that it was b/c of smoking – AND NOT people’s diet! o There is potentially a huge number of confounds that we don’t know about o Random assignment distributes them equally across our conditions ▯ Difference b/t random assignment and arbitrary assignment Arbitrary assignment: non-random assignment o Ex: If participant’s last name starts with A to L, assign to condition 1… if last name M to Z, assign to condition 2 o Not random: distribution can vary by ethnic group (two conditions may have different ethnic composition) Random means you have an equal chance of being assigned to each condition ▯ Difference b/t an experiment and an observational study If you have a study where the independent variable is randomly assigned, than you have an experiment Experiments are designed to eliminate confounds via random assignment… making them considered the “gold standard for showing cause and effect” ▯ What is a confound and how do you minimize its effects? Confounds: factors other than your main treatment that may affect your outcomes How to minimize: random assignment ▯ Difference between internal and external validity External validity: the extent to which the research findings can be applied to settings, people, treatments, etc. in the real world o Does the study actually help us to understand real world phenomenon? Internal validity: the degree to which a study has effectively demonstrated cause and effect (X causes Y) o Are the changes to the IV responsible for the changes to the DV? o Experimental studies generally considered to be very high in internal validity (b/c of random assignment) o Threats to internal validity are factors other than the IV that can influence the DV ▯ Demand characteristics Demand characteristics: potential problem for lab experiments, participants form an interpretation of the study’s purpose and change their behavior to fit that interpretation Solutions: o Don’t tell participants the study’s hypothesis o Deception (tell them a fake purpose of the study) o Post-study questionnaires (ask them to guess the study’s purpose) ▯ Difference between a lab, field, and natural experiment Lab Experiment: conducted in a very well-controlled environment (not necessarily a lab) o Researcher has control over: Where it takes place What time Which participants Nature of treatment What point participant exposed to treatment Field Experiment: experiment that occurs in a natural environment for the behavior being studied o Researcher does not have same level of control over study o People often not aware that they are in the study (minimizes demand characteristics) o Studying people in their “natural” environments Natural Experiment: treatments not assigned by experimenter (sometimes by “nature”) BUT assignment of treatments is random o Researcher usually has no control over any feature of the “study” (they try to find instances of “natural experiments”) ▯ Idea of a confederate ▯ Know the different types of observational studies (5 of them) Observational Studies: studies in which the treatment (IV) is NOT randomly assigned Used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct an experimental study o Simple non-equivalent group design Hypothesis: Being female causes someone to be more likely to possess liberal political beliefs. Recruit Males and Females Measure then compare political beliefs Suppose we find that: Females more liberal than males Threats to internal validity Potentially huge number of differences b/t the groups This design makes no attempt to deal with confounds o Matching Designs For each treated unit, find another untreated unit with similar attributes Example: being female causes someone to be more likely to possess liberal political beliefs 41% of women identify as Democrats vs. 32% of men Confounds: income, age You can only match on attributes that: (1) You are aware can be potential confounds! (2) AND you actually have a way of measuring the potential confounds o Pre-Post Test Without Comparison Group Measure dependent variable before treatment Measure dependent variable after treatment But, lack a comparison group that did not receive treatment Example: legalizing abortion can cause a decrease in crime Roe vs. Wade = treatment (court case that made abortion legal in US) Pre measurecrime rate before Roe v. Wade Post measure crime rate after Roe v. Wade If crime rate decreases from before and after treatment, it IS problematic to conclude causation b/c there are lots of potential confounds (huge number of other changes in environment) o Reversal without Comparison Group Design Measure of dependent variable before treatment Treatment Measure of dependent variable after the treatment Remove treatment Measure of dependent variable after treatment removal Ex: measuring % of fatalities when helmet law is put in and when it is appealed More compelling than pre-post test w/o comparison group design (more pieces of information) Does not completely rule out other changes to the environment o Pre-Post Test With Comparison Group (Difference-in- differences approach) Measure of dependent variable before treatment Treatment Measure of dependent variable after treatment COMPARISON GROUP gets measured before and after on dependent variable but with no treatment in between Ex: Hypothesis removing unhealthy foods from campus causes an increase in school performance Measure GPA, remove all junk food, measure GPA again (calculate pre and post test difference) Increase of .3: BUT, could be effect of national trend of eating healthy, not necessarily effect of the policy If there is also an increase in the control group that didn’t receive treatment than you may conclude that it is effect of national trend of eating healthy ▯ Immutable Characteristic and why this is important Immutable characteristic: you can’t change it – therefore prevents you from randomly assigning it Some argue that sex is an “immutable characteristic”, therefore you can never show that sex can be a cause in an experiment ▯ Difference between open-ended and close-ended questions Open-ended questions: respondents can answer in their own words o Ex: What is the most important issue facing this country? ______________ Close-ended questions: questions with predefined responses o Ex: What is the most important issue facing this country? Economy, terrorism, energy policy, healthcare ▯ Good practices in writing survey questions (what to do and what to avoid) Question Wording o Avoid double negatives “I don’t not know anything about that” “Do you favor or oppose not allowing gays and lesbians to legally marry?” “Does it seem possible or does it seem impossible to you that the Nazis extermination of the Jews never happened? o Avoid double-barreled questions Asking about two issues in one question and requiring one response Ex: “How satisfied are you with your pay and job conditions? Very satisfied, satisfied, neutral, unsatisfied, very unsatisfied “How much confidence do you have in Obama’s ability to handle domestic and foreign policy” o Avoid leading questions Questions that are phrased in a way that makes the respondent feel that the researcher expects a particular answer Ex: “Like most Americans, do you prefer to purchase products manufactured in the United States?” o Avoid words that may induce bias Ex: “Should the gov.t force citizens into a universal heal care system?” “Are we spending too much, too little, or about the right amount on…” o Avoid using absolutes “always”, “never” Do you always go to the gym? Do you always eat breakfast? Should say: How often do you eat breakfast? o Use Simple Words Avoid using complicated words Exhaustedtired Candidhonest Employmentwork Responsesanswers o Keep Questions Short 1 to 2 short and clear sentences ▯ Different types of survey response scales (dichotomous; Likert; semantic differential) Dichotomous Scale: two-point scale which presents options that opposite each other o Yes – No, Disagree – Agree Likert Scale (rating scale): respondents rate their agreement with an item o Odd number of options with middle option as “neutral” or “no opinion” Semantic Differential (rating scale): presented with two bipolar adjectives separated by typically odd number of spaces o Rating on a continuum (traits) o Not as susceptible to acquiescence bias ▯ Acquiescence bias Evidence that this may occur in Likert Scales (especially among individuals low in socioeconomic status) Acquiescence bias: tendency to want to agree with the statement ▯ Question Order Effects People’s responses to questions change depending on the order in which they answer the questions How to deal with it: randomize order of questions ▯ Social Desirability Bias Social Desirability Bias: Tendency for people to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably People may give the “socially desirable” answer instead of the “real” answer Bias most prevalent for “sensitive” topics Ex: beliefs that may be viewed as racist, sexist, violent or illegal behaviors ▯ Approaches to dealing with social desirability biases (list experiment, randomized response technique, bogus pipe-line procedure) Put sensitive questions toward end of survey (people are scared if you put threatening idea at beginning and may not be forthcoming with other questions) Change mode of survey: answering surveys in lab or online (at home) If question involves asking about potentially racist or sexist beliefs, race and sex of researcher matters o Ex: Do you thinks that Whites work harder than Blacks or Latinos? (Don’t use researcher that is Black or Latino) If possible, write question in a way that deflects attention away from respondent o Ex: instead of what do YOU think about a female president… what does your NEIGHBOR think about a female president? “Specialized” surveys to minimize/eliminate social desirability bias: o “List Experiment” (Kuklinski, 1997) 1970s and 1980s-“New South” thesis-South no longer a bastion of racial prejudice Recruit participants from the South-people randomly assigned to either control condition or treatment condition Control Condition: Now I am going to read you a list of things that sometimes make people angry or upset. After I read all three, just tell me HOW MANY of them upset you. I don’t want to know which ones, just hOW MANY. The federal gov.t increasing the tax on gasoline Professional athletes getting million-dollar contracts Large corporations polluting the environment Treatment Condition: Same Instructions The federal gov.t increasing the tax on gasoline Professional athletes getting million-dollar contracts Large corporations polluting the environment A black family moving in next door (critical item) Took average in Control and average in Treatment If average in Treatment condition is higher than average in Control condition that means people are picking the critical item in the treatment condition Average in control: 1.93 Average in treatment: 2.37 2.37-1.93=.43 43% of people in treatment condition were estimated to be angered by critical item (black family living next door) Have also done this test using critical item as : A woman serving as president 26% angry or upset in treatment group about a woman serving as President o Randomized Response Technique Would you be upset if your child told you he/she was gay or lesbian? Yes or No Give subjects a Randomization Device (ex: coin) If heads, automatically answer “yes” to any question If tails, answer question truthfully Subjects are only ones who know outcome of coin flip This is supposed to facilitate them answering question truthfully 200 took survey: 160 said “yes”, 40 said “no” You can assume that… 50% automatically said “yes” 50% answered truthfully Number of subjects who had to give true opinion: 100 Number of “yes” responses when giving true opinion (total yes-automatic yes) 160-100 60/100 means 60% truthfully said “yes” o Bogus Pipeline Procedure Participants strapped to what they think is a functioning “lie detector” “Lie Detector” machine does not actually work Assumption is that if people think you can detect their lying they more likely to tell the truth People tend to admit more socially uncomfortable things using this method ▯ Difference between a self-report and non-self-report measure Self-report measures: measures that ask people about their attitudes, beliefs, knowledge o Open/close-ended questionnaires o List experiment o Randomized response technique Non-self-report measures: measures that still try to determine people’s attitudes, beliefs, knowledge… but they DO NOT ask people ▯ Difference between explicit and implicit attitudes Explicit Attitudes/Beliefs: conscious beliefs and evaluations of people, objects, ideas, etc. o Beliefs that you can deliberate about and report o Ex: Do you like or dislike Donald Trump? o Do you enjoy taking naps? o Do you think people in the Midwest are nicer than people from the East Coast? Implicit Attitudes/Beliefs: unconscious evaluations or associations you have about people, objects, ideas, etc o Evaluations/associations you can’t consciously report o Can’t use surveys/self-reports to measure them ▯ Know how to measure explicit and implicit stereotyping Explicit Stereotyping: conscious and intentional endorsement of stereotype o Ex: “Sneaky goddamn Jews are all alike” o When people purposely dress up as stereotypes o Measuring it: surveys (BUT, remember social desirability biases) Implicit Stereotyping: you have an unconscious association b/t a group and a trait o What’s inside your head? Concepts are grouped/associated together o Links/associations that they have are not random at all o Associations are based on what you’ve been exposed to in your environment o Bottom line: whether you like it or not, if you are exposed to them, you will form these unconscious associations o Measuring it: IAT test ▯ Response times and the Implicit Association Test (what does the IAT measure) Implicit Association Test (IAT) o Uses response times=speed at which someone responds o Context of IAT, speed at which one presses the button o Important: Association DOES NOT IMPLY endorsement o Explicit attitudes do NOT equal implicit attitudes ▯ Psychophysiological measures (what makes them different from self- report, etc) Form of non-self-report measure Measure biological signals generated by different parts of the body Eye tracking, skin conductance response, fMRI ▯ Eye tracking (what kinds of things you can measure with it) Sensor technology that allows a device to determine what a person is looking at Most eye tracking devices shine an infrared light at the eye Eye movements composed of two events Fixations – when the eye makes quick stops Saccades – rapid movements of the eyes in between fixations Useful in measuring attention What are people looking at? How long are they looking at something? Technology has been used in advertising to determine which parts of the ad elicit the most attention ▯ Skin Conductance Response (what you can and cannot measure with it) Used as a measure of emotional arousal (heightened excitation or agitation) Two electrodes located on fingers Low electric charge passed b/t electrodes As participant becomes emotionally aroused, sweat glands produce sweat, and skin becomes better conductor of electricity Measures emotional arousal by determining how easy it is for electricity to pass through the skin Larger “bump” indicates higher level of arousal Caveat: emotional arousal could be due to: stress/anxiety, pleasure, disgust, joy, fear, etc. Skin conductance can’t determine if arousal is due to positive or negative emotions ▯ fMRI: functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (basic idea of what it is measuring) Very powerful magnet Can measure amount of oxygenated blood going into brain regions Subjects typically (at minimum) do 2 tasks Brain region “x” is “active” More oxygenated blood is in brain region “x” while subjects are doing Task 1 than Task 2 EX: if more activity is seen in the amygdala… amygdala associated with fear conditioning (more participants have fear response to African Americans) Problem: brain regions usually associated with many different psychological processes ▯ Control Question Test (Polygraph) 3 types of questions: o Irrelevant Qs=no real relation to what is being investigated (ex: “What’s your name?”, “How old are you?”) o Relevant Qs=pertain to what is being investigated (“Did you embezzle funds?”) o Control Qs=questions about misdeeds that are similar to those being investigated, but refer to subject’s past and are usually broad in scope (“Have you ever stolen anything in your life?”) Assumption: Innocent people are going to be more afraid of control questions than relevant questions o Level of arousal to relevant questions should be less than control questions Guilty Person: level of arousal for relevant questions should be higher than control questions ▯ Difference between population and sample Population: whole set of individuals you are interested in (defined by researcher) o Ex: all smokers in US Sample: subset of individuals from the population of interest ▯ Types of probability and non-probability sampling Probability Sampling: more likely to obtain representative sample o Need a sampling framelist of individuals that make up your population of interest o (1) Simple Random Sampling: each individual in the sampling frame has an equal chance of being included in the sample o (2) Stratified Random Sampling: way to make sure that sample represents population in some relevant dimensions Ex: 60% of voters in Ohio are female, 40% are male Want sample to have same distribution of males/females If voter registration list is sampling frame, create male and female lists Obtain 60% of sample by simple random sampling from list of females Obtain 40% of sample by simple random sampling from list of males o (3) Systematic Random Sample: Sampling frame is a list of individuals Pick a random individual as the starting point Every nth element of the list is selected Ex: Have a list of 100 people Randomly start at the 12 person of the list Decide othan thtervth ofth Pick 16 , 20 , 24 , 28 person, etc. One possible problem: Periodicity: the order of items in the list may bias the selection process Non-probability Sampling: more convenient to implement, less likely to obtain representative sample o (1) Convenience Sample Research participants are selected if they can be accessed easily and conveniently Ex: Undergraduate study pools Ex: Mall intercept – researchers in a shopping mall stop people passing by to ask them if they would be willing to participate in a research study Huge in terms of research! o (2) Volunteer Sample Participants have volunteered to take part in the study (sometimes give payment) Ex: Call-in or online polls in News or Talk shows o (3) Purposive Sample Participants selected due to characteristics they possess Individuals that do not meet the necessary criteria are not used Ex: want a sample of business executives Interview executives from a company located close to the University o (4) Quota Sample Researcher selects people according to some fixed quota (non-probability version of stratified random sampling) Ex: Want gender distribution of sample to reflect population (51% female, 49% male) Select 51 women and 49 men (using mall intercept) o (5) Snowball Sample Participants are encouraged to tell people they know about the study Word of mouth is then used to recruit further participants/ “referrals” Sometimes an incentive is offered to those whose friends do participate ▯ Representative Sample (Which sampling technique will give you this) Representative sample: sample that is similar to population in features relevant to research ▯ Semi-structured interviews (types of questions used) Have a set of pre-determined questions BUT, you can ask additional questions based on their responses (questions may differ based on respondents’ answer) Different from the structured interview Always the same set of pre-determined questions Types of Questions in Semi-structured Interview: o Essential Questions Central focus of study Ex: What’s you’re view on immigration? o Throw away Questions Used to develop rapport, demographics, cooling off Ex: Where do you work? o Probing Questions Ex: Could you tell me more? What happened next? Advantages: o Not limited by pre-determined answers o Allow respondents to come up with issues that you may not have previously considered o May be able to use this information to construct a close-ended survey Disadvantages: o Takes a long time to collect data o Tends to last 30 minutes-1.5 hours o Transcription can be slow and time consuming (need to transcribe audio recording) o On average and depending on skill level, it can take 5-6 hours to transcribe 1 hour interview o Shares some weaknesses with regular surveys o People can only share reasons they can consciously verbalize o People might not tell you the truth ▯ Focus groups (also problems) Group of people asked about beliefs, and attitudes towards a person, product, etc. Group of people with certain characteristics generate data in a focused discussion Members of group can speak to each other Designing a focus group: o Size: 5-10 participants per group o Fewer than 5, not as much discussion o More than 10, difficult for moderator to keep discussion flowing well o All participants may not have enough time to speak o May decide that some groups composed of certain individuals (ex: all men, all women) o Group composition important o Try to avoid power/status differentials (ex: one person has PhD, rest only finished high school) o Decide how alike or different you want the group to be o Ex: strangers vs. acquaintances, experts or novices Advantages: o Interaction and group dynamics o Can reveal how people can talk about an issue o Wider range of responses o Activate forgotten details (experiences) o Group exchange can remove inhibitions Disadvantages: o Might give a distorted view of people’s attitudes o Attitudes become more extreme over the course of discussion o Groupthink-everyone agrees with the dominant speaker o One of the reasons to avoid power/status differences among group members o Transcribe group discussion (time consuming) ▯ Basics of WikiSurveys Tries to have: o Some of the openness of a semi-structured interview o Ease of data collection characteristic of close-ended surveys o A single question associated with many responses o Respondents can add response options o Respondents usually “vote” for options two at a time Example: o When Bloomberg wanted to find ideas how to make NY a cleaner city o What do you think is a better idea for creating a greener, greater NYC? Advantages: o Some of openness of semi-structured interview (respondents can add responses) o Data collection is relatively easy o Potentially very useful for generating ideas (products, policies, etc.) o Crowdsourcing idea generation and obtaining people’s opinions on what they like Disadvantages: o Maybe of limited use for many questions in social sciences ▯ General procedures for content analysis Quantitative, objective, and deductive approach to analyzing message content Follows the scientific method (theory, hypothesis, etc) But, you’re studying messages instead of people Procedures in Content Analysis: o Start with theory o Generate hypothesis o Determine unit of analysis Major entity that is being studied For a all your proposals, individuals In this case, messages o Determine sampling technique Simple Random Sample Stratified Sampling Etc o Create code book (operationalize your concepts) o Train coders, Have them code the data Human or computer o Assess Reliability of Coding Consistency between coders ▯ Difference between Manifest and Latent content Manifest Content: elements that are physically present and usually countable o Relatively easy to classify (number of people on an ad, a character’s race, etc) Latent Content: Interpretive reading of the symbolism underlying the content o The intentions of the creator(s) when he/she/they created content (ex: how negative is the tone of the article, how radical is the speech) o More subjective than manifest content (can be VERY DIFFICULT TO CLASSIFY) ▯ Difference between explicit and implicit racial appeal ads “Explicit” racial appeal ads o Directly mention or refer to race in a way that takes advantage of people’s racial prejudice in order to advance the ads message “Implicit” racial appeal ads o Ads that make subtle references to race via images o DO NOT explicitly mention or refer to race o Goal of ad is to take advantage of people’s racial prejudice in a way that advances ads message o BUT racial appeal designed to be ambiguous (allows sponsor of ad to deny engaging in racial appeals) o Example of Latent Content: We’re trying to figure out the intent of the ad’s creator o One possible coding rule: If political ad portrays non-Whites in a negative manner and Whites in a positive manner, classify ad as an “Implicit Racial Appeal” ▯ Know major responses in history of research ethics (don’t need to know exact dates) 1947-Nuremberg code o Nuremburg Trials o Nazis officials tried o Included 23 Nazi doctors and scientists o Tried for murder of concentration camp inmates o One of the results: Nuremburg code Guidelines for researchers: Voluntary informed consent is essential (without coercion) Research needs to be conducted by qualified scientists Study has to be conducted in a way that avoids unnecessary physical and mental suffering There should be no expectation of death or disabling injury from the study 1964- Declaration of Helsinki o Nuremburg code focused on responsibility of independent scientist and had no legal enforcement o Declaration of Helsinki introduced the concept of an independent committee to evaluate the extent to which researchers are conducting studies in an ethical manner o This independent committee will eventually turn into the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in US universities o In most universities, studies need to be approved by the IRB 1979- Belmont Report o In response to syphilis study, Congress passed an act that created o National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research o Commission published the “Belmont Report” o Ethical principles for using any human subjects o Belmont Report Three fundamental ethical principles (1) Respect for persons Protecting autonomy of all people and treating them with courtesy and respect (2) Beneficence Philosophy of “do no harm” while maximizing the benefits of research and minimizing risk to participant (3) Justice Non-exploitive and well-considered procedures in selection of research subjects e.g are particular racial and ethnic minorities selected simply b/c of their easy availability or their compromised position, than for reasons directly related to the problem being studied 1981 : Development of the Common Rule o The Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects “Common Rule” o Applies to 15 Federal departments and agencies (and any institution that gets federal funding) o Two important elements: Requires researchers to obtain and document informed consent Requires an Institutional Review Board (IRB) to oversee review, and keep records of research o Also specifies additional protections for pregnant women, prisoners, and children ▯ ▯
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