Biology 1100 Midterm 2
Biology 1100 Midterm 2 Bio 1100
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by MiaJ on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1100 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Rao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 395 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology in Biology at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Midterm 2 Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8 1. Three ways monosaccharides differ from one another 2. Bond formed between two sugars in a disaccharide 3. Primary functions of carbohydrates in cells are: 4. Location of the carboxyl Aldose Ketose 5. What are polysaccharides and what are the 6 different types 6. Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 7. What distinguishes the Rough E.R. from the Soft E.R.? 8. What distinguishes plant cells from animal cells? Are plants and animal cells eukaryotic or prokaryotic? 9. β-1, 4-glycosidic linkages: Α-glycosidic linkages: 10. Multiple ___________ ______________ (simple sugars) make up ___________________ ______________ (complex carbs). 11. Cellulose, Chitin, and Peptidoglycan are all ________________, while Starch and Glycogen _________________. 12. A nuclear envelope has ___ membranes; also they contain __________ pores which allow things to come in and out of the nucleus. 13. All organelles have _________________ membranes. Ribosomes are not organelles because they_________________________________. 14. Enzymes work as a lock and ________ because they are _____________ and they bring substrates together in its ___________ site allowing the enzyme to change ______________. 15. Do enzymes work alone? _____________________________________________________________________________________ Things to remember: Oxidized (Lose electrons) “Oil Rig”-Oxygen is loss, Reduction is Gain Reduced (Gain electrons) Oxygen is ALWAYS reduced… Oxygen gains electrons, Carbon lose electrons A transport gradient exists when solute concentrations differ on the two sides of the membrane. Three types of transportation mechanisms across the plasma membrane 1. Facilitated Diffusion via Channel Proteins 2. Facilitated Diffusion via transporters 3. Active Transport by Pumps Difference between saturated and unsaturated fats: The hydrocarbon tails in a saturated fat have the max number of hydrogens possible. Competitive Inhibition: Allosteric Regulation: Feedback Inhibition: Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic: Hypotonic: when it’s Hypertonic: More Isotonic: Equal more solutes on the solutes on the amounts of solutes and outside and water on inside and water on water on the the inside so the water the outside so the inside and wants to get out. water wants to get Causing vesicle to in causing the outside causing shrivel vesicle to burst. no change. All cells have: Nucleic Acids (store and transmit information) Proteins (performs cells functions) Carbohydrates (chemical energy, carbon, support, identity) Plasma Membrane (selectively permeable membrane barrier) ___________________________________________________________________ Exergonic Catabolic (ATP—ADP), Releases energy, Exothermic; Reduces amount of potential energy, Spontaneous (When things get chaotic- i.e. dirtying room) Endergonic Anabolic, Increase potential energy (going up stairs), Endothermic, Non Spontaneous (Requires energy to decrease chaos- i.e. cleaning room) First Law: Energy of the universe remains the Second Law: Starts off ordered then chaos same (don’t lose any energy from the (entropy) happens universe). ENERGY CANNOT BE CREATED NOR DISTROYED Draw a plant and animal cell label the organelles and give each of their functions. Midterm 2 Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8 (Key) 1. Three ways monosaccharides differ from one another Location of carbonyl group The number of carbon atoms present The orientations of carbonyl group 2. Bond formed between two sugars in a disaccharide Glycosidic linkage 3. Primary functions of carbohydrates in cells are: (1)Store chemical energy, (2) Provide fibrous structural materials, (3) Indicate cell identity. 4. Location of the carboxyl Aldose- end of monosaccharide Ketose- middle of monosaccharide 5. What are polysaccharides and what are the 6 different types Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates. Starches and Glycogen store sugar; Cellulose, Chitin, and Peptidoglycan provide structural support for cell walls. And Oligosaccharides provide cell identity. 6. Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells do NOT have a membrane bound nucleus, but eukaryotic cells do 7. What distinguishes the Rough E.R. from the Soft E.R.? The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is “rough” because it is studded with ribosomes, unlike the smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum. 8. What distinguishes plant cells from animal cells? Are plants and animal cells eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Plant cells have: Chloroplasts, Cell Walls, and Vacuoles Animal Cells have: Lysosomes They are both EUKARYOTIC 9. β-1, 4-glycosidic linkages: Plant cell walls are composed of cellulose (glucose molecules). 1 and 4 indicates the linkages are between C-1(carbon 1) and C-4 (carbon 4); A refers to the glucose rings are “below” α-1, 4-glycosidic linkages: 1 and 4 indicates the linkages are between C-1(carbon 1) and C-4 (carbon 4); A refers to the glucose rings are “above” 10. Multiple Monosaccharide Monomers (simple sugars) make up Polymers- polysaccharides (complex carbs). 11. Cellulose, Chitin, and Peptidoglycan are all Polymers in cell wall, while Starch and Glycogen Store sugar. 12. A nuclear envelope has 2 membranes; also they contain nuclear pores which allow things to come in and out of the nucleus. 13. All organelles have double membranes. Ribosomes are not organelles because they don’t have a double membrane. 14. Enzymes work as a lock and key because they are catalysts and they bring substrates together in its active site allowing the enzyme to change shape. 15. Do enzymes work alone? No they have “helpers”: cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups _____________________________________________________________________________________ Three types of transportation mechanisms across the plasma membrane 1. Facilitated Diffusion via Channel Proteins 2. Facilitated Diffusion via transporters 3. Active Transport by Pumps Competitive Inhibition: Regulatory molecule that is similar in shape and size to the enzyme’s natural substrate inhibits catalysis by binding to the enzyme’s active site Allosteric Regulation: Regulatory molecule binds at a location other than the active site and changes the shape of the enzyme Feedback Inhibition: When the product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme that functions early in the pathway. Draw a plant and animal cell label the organelles and give each of their functions. Plant Cells o Cell wall- protects the cell o Chloroplasts- double membrane which contains its own nucleus; converts light energy to chemical energy (photosynthesis) o Vacuoles- large membrane structure; stores water and containing digestive enzymes Animal Cells o Lysosomes-Digests and processes waste and recycling Both o Nucleus-Double membrane nuclear envelope with genetic information (chromosome DNA) o Rough ER- A network of membrane bound tubes and sacs studded with ribosomes; Synthesis of proteins o Smooth ER- Lacks ribosomes; contains enzymes catalyzing reactions involving lipids; synthesis lipids and break down lipids o Golgi Apparatus- Flat membranous sacs (cisternae); modifies, sorts, and packs proteins and lipids for secretion in the cisternae o Mitochondria- contains its own DNA; ATP production to provide energy o Peroxisomes- Breaks down hydrogen peroxide and converts it to water
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