Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide
Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide CCJ 3011
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CCJ 3011 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Warren-Hightower in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide What is Criminology? The scientific study of the nature and extent of criminal behavior. Emerged out of sociology Edwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey Core interests of criminal behavior (1) The development of criminal law (as society evolves, so does the law) (2) The cause of law violations (what causes a criminal to offend?) (3) Methods used to control behavior (punishment and the threat of punishment) Crime any culpable action or inaction prohibited by law and punishable by the state as a misdemeanor or felony Felony serious offenses such as murder, rape, burglary they are punishable by death or imprisonment Misdemeanor petty crimes such as unarmed assault, petty larceny, and disturbing the peace punishable by less than a year in a local county jail or house of corrections Criminal Law violation against the state, prosecuted by the state punishment is death, incarceration, fines "proof beyond a reasonable doubt" Civil Law violation against an individual, never prosecuted by the state punishment is fines paid to the individual "preponderance of the evidence" Bench Trial Judge is in place of the Jury Demonology People involved in crime were considered "possessed by the devil" The CJ system prior to 1789 Arbitrary and cruel sentences branding, flogging, drowning, beheading usually public Classical Criminology Period Founded by Beccaria The thought that everyone has free will and are rational thinking People commit crime because criminal solutions might be more attractive than lawful ones The idea that criminal behavior can be controlled by punishment Swift, certain, and severe punishment to deter General Deterrence The effect of punishment on POTENTIAL OFFENDERS Directed towards mass of people Potential offenders will weigh the cost of punishment in their decision to offend Specific Deterrence The effect of punishment of the INDIVIDUAL who is punished About stopping person who is already offending The punished individual will weigh the cost of the punishment received in their decision to offend the future Positivist Criminology Period Founded by Auguste Comte Human behavior is seen as a function of external forces that are beyond individual control Embraced the scientific method for studying crime Sociological Criminology Period Founded by Adolphe Quetelet He examined the influence of social factors on the propensity to commit crimes Founded that age, sex, season climate, population composition, poverty related to criminality Emile Durkheim says that we need crime because it maintains social boundaries reinforcement of moral order (what is good and bad); "normal" part of society Chicago School crime is not a function of personal characteristics but rather a reaction to the environment Emile Durkheim "Division of Labor" (1) Mechanical Society community ordered, care for one another. (2) Organic Society modern and advanced society, complicated and largely focused on one's self. As society shifts from mechanical to organic this results in anomie (state of confusion). Critical Criminology Period Founded by Karl Marx, said that capitalism produces crime Conflict Theory Developmental Criminology Developed by Sheldon & Eleanor Glueck (study that followed kids over time) How people develop into crime Viewed criminality as a dynamic process influenced by social experiences and individual characteristics Integrates biological, social and psychological elements Research Methods Survey is the most common type of research method used by sociologist, not from official sources Two approaches to collecting survey data: (1) Cross sectional (one point in time, most popular method) (2) Longitudinal (follow across time, expensive and hard to keep track of people) Measuring Crime/Main Sources of Data (1) Official Reports (2) Victimization Surveys (3) Selfreports Sources of Official Data UCR Uniform Crime Reports detailed report from the FBI, most common, includes 8 most serious offenses Police statistics, court statistics, conviction data, jail/prison population data Crime rate = (Number of reported crimes/Total US Population) X 100,000 example: crime rate is 4 that means for every 100,000, 4 crimes are committed. Index Crimes (Part 1) Reported on the UCR, they are: Murder Aggravated assault Forcible rape Robbery Larceny Burglary Motor vehicle theft Arson Part 2 offenses Only reported on UCR if arrest was made Less serious mostly misdemeanors Advantages of UCR Provides quantitative info Crime trends over time Can get geographic comparisons Provides info on serious crimes Disadvantages of UCR "Dark Figure of Crime" (unreported crimes) Bias (police are more likely to arrest certain groups of people) Hierarchy rule (only reports the most serious/important offense if there were multiple crimes committed) Some states don't send reports to FBI National Crime Victimization Data (NCVS) randomly select households, starts in person then follow up is over the phone, over a 2.5 year period takes info on experiences of victims and how they reacted helps lessen gap of reported and unreported crimes rape, Robbery, aggravated assault, simple assault, personal larceny, and household crimes included. Advantages of NCVS provides qualitative info captures some of the unreported crimes trends over time Disadvantages of NCVS does not capture many types of crimes memory of victims, forgetful limited info on offenders Selfreport surveys anonymous face to face interviews or online surveys usually very local, small scale don't capture a lot of serious crimes Advantages of self report not affected by justice system bias can sample whatever population you want can see socialpsychological causes of crime opens eyes Disadvantages of self report validity (are we measuring what we think we are measuring?) lies reading comprehension problems (we use audio now) may not remember correctly or everything only captures less serious crimes Demographic correlates of crime Age (over time we age out of crime) Sex/Gender (men more likely to commit crimes than females) Race (blacks and other races more likely to get arrested and go to jail) Social class (weak and inconsistent correlate, class only matters sometimes) Correlate A variable that is related to crime in a statistical sense. Anything statistically related to crime. Travis Hirschi Study His study shows that there is a 26% difference in arrest rates between whites and blacks and only a 5% difference on self report data between whites and blacks. Race and gender will always matter. Victimology The scientific study of victims and the role that they play in the crime process study their behavior. Victim and Offender relationship Much more common to be victimized by someone you know, especially in rape or sexual assault Victim Precipitation Theory Studies the roles victims play active or passive. Active is where you instigate and it leads to crime. Examples: walking alone at night, not locking your doors. Passive is where you are not directly responsible for crime committed against you. Amir's Rape Study Argues that rape victims often contribute to their attack by dressing provocatively or pursuing a relationship with the rapist. Sparked controversy and caused temporary end to victim Precipitation studies. Life Style and Routine Activities Theories Social characteristics and structural constraints (age, class, gender) plus life styles and activities (where you live, what you do, who you associate with, your daily routine) together cause certain outcomes Routine Activities perspective Cohen and Felson 3 things needed for victimization: (1) motivated offender (addict, someone needing resources, etc) (2) suitable target (leaving doors unlocked/open, someone with daily routine) (3) absence of capable guardian (security system, alarm system, police officers) Vicitimization's Cost to society Homicide is #1 highest cost per crime. Caring for victims Victim advocates Programs Compensation Impact statements Victims bill of rights (right to be notified of proceedings and status of defendant, right to be present at proceedings, right to make a statement and receive restitution) Rational Choice Theory the idea that we are rational thinking human beings that weigh costs and benefits assumes we always understand the punishments and weigh the likelihood of getting caught Shortcomings of rational choice theory assumes all individuals have rationality assumes everyone has the same information to make rational choices 3 things that explain the Great American decline in the 1990s (1) CJ efficiency (aggressive policing) (2) use of incarceration (remove dangerous people) (3) aging population (fewer young people due to less marriages and more working females) and abortion law (fewer unwanted kids that grow up to be delinquent) Collective Incapacitation Indiscriminate policy of putting all felons in prison. It increased prison populations. Selective Incapacitation Individualized sentences based on predictions about how many offenses particular offenders will commit in the future. About finding a way to sentence offenders that will help us reduce crime in the future. Criminal career A way to think about the length of time a person is actively committing crimes. Used to describe onset/link, desistance, length and frequency of crime. Career criminal A person who commits over a long period of time. Aka chronic offenders. A status, habitual felon. Very few people are career Criminals, most concerned about these people. Greenwood and Abrahamse different types of offenders low rate offenders medium rate high rate (the ones we look at, tend to be kids who start early on) Predicting chronic and high rate offenders Prior convictions Conviction before age 16 Served time in juvenile court facility Used hard drugs Unemployed most of the time True Positive actually an offender and predicted as one False Negative actually an offender but not predicted as one False Positive not an offender but predicted as one True Negative not one and not predicted as one Death Penalty Beccaria 8th amendment (prohibits cruel and unusual punishment) Laws are flawed, this is contradicting (starving is cruel but killing is not) Brutalization Effects to Death Penalty Capital punishment increases murder rates, demonstrate killing in a response to killing. Argument murder does not pay! Deterrent Effects to Death Penalty Capital punishment reduces murder rates, turns them away from crime by scaring them. Argument it is ok to kill people who gravely offend us Foundation of Trait Theories William Sheldon suggested phenotypes (somatotypebody build) makes people susceptible to delinquent behavior. sociobiology viewed gene as the ultimate unit of human destiny. Somatotypes (1) mesomorphs muscular/athletic (aggression) (2) ectomorphs tall/thin (intellectual) (3) endomorphs heavy/slow (fences) Modern Trait Theories People develop physical/mental traits at birth that affect their social functioning over the life course and their behavior choices. Biosocial Perspective Look not only at biological (genes, most things we have no control over) factors but also environmental (social influences, parents, peers, school) influences. These two combined with the ability to learn and achieve led people to conform or commit crime. Sugar and Crime Aka Twinkie Effect Too much sugar in diet can cause likelihood of aggressive behavior Psychological Trait Theories Sigmund Freud ID unconscious drives and needs, pleasure principle EGO conscious, what you show people, reality principle SUPEREGO your conscience, not the same for everyone, can change, develops over time. EROS present at birth Social Learning Theory Human actions are developed through learning experiences. Differential Association. Argue that people learn aggression through life experiences (family interaction, environmental experiences, and mass media)
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