Bio 103 Exam 1 Study Guide
Bio 103 Exam 1 Study Guide Biology 103
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erika Chalker on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 103 at California State University Chico taught by Gary Arnet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
The Study of Human Anatomy 1.Define Anatomy and Physiology. What are their differences? o Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body. Physiology is the study of the function of the human body. 2.What is the difference between prone and supine positions? o Prone is when the body is lying face down. Supine is when the body is lying face up. 3.Define Anatomical Position. Why is it important? o Anatomical position is when the body is standing up with palms facing forward. It is important because the radius and ulna overlap when the palms are pronated, making it difficult to determine if there is anything out of place. 4.Name all the regions of the appendicular region. o Acromial= Tip of the shoulder o Axillary= Armpit region o Brachial= Upper arm o Cubital= Back of the elbow o Antebrachial= Forearm o Carpal= Wrist o Palmer= Palm o Dorsum of Hand= Back of hand o Femoral= Thigh o Popliteal= Back of knee o Patellar= Front of knee o Crural= Leg o Pedal= Foot o Dorsum of foot= Top of foot o Plantar of foot= Sole 5.Name all the parts of the axial region. o Cephalic= Head o Facial= Face o Ocular= Eye region o Oral= Mouth o Buccal= Cheek o Cervical= Neck o Nuchal= Back of neck o Thoracic= Chest o Abdominal= Abdomen o Umbilical= Navel o Inguinal= Groin o Pubic= Genitalia o Lumbar= Lower back o Sacral= Lower than lower back o Gluteal= Buttocks 6.Name all of body planes and directional terms o Body Planes= Sagittal (cut in left and right halves), midsagittal (cut in equal left and right halves), frontal (cut in front and back portions), transverse (cut horizontally top to bottom) o Directional terms o Anterior= Front o Posterior= Back o Ventral= Toward anterior o Dorsal= Toward posterior o Superior= Toward head o Inferior= Toward feet o Medial= Toward midline o Lateral= Away from midline, sides o Ipsilateral= Same side o Contralateral= Opposite sides o Proximal= Toward point of origin o Distal= Away from point of origin o Superficial= Toward surface o Deep= Away from surface 7.What are the four main elements of the human body? o Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen 8.What are the three macromolecules? o Protein, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids 2 9.What is an atom, element, and molecule? o Atom= A unit of matter o Element= Composed of one type of atom o Molecule= Two or more atoms that are bonded together 10. What is the most common molecule? o Water is the most common molecule in the body 11. What are the four main types of membranes and their locations? o Serous= Lines cavities o Synovial= Lines joints o Cutaneous= Lines skin o Mucous= Lines passages 12. What are the four main elements in the human body? o Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen 13. Define functional morphology o Form follows function 14. _______ describes an anatomical term named after a person. o Eponym 15. Is the vertebral column in the dorsal or ventral cavity? o Dorsal 16. The cephalic region is _________ to the pedal region. o Superior 17. The cubital region is __________ to the brachial region. o Proximal 18. What macromolecule is used for energy? What is it stored as? o Glucose. It is stored as glycogen 19. What are the four categories of the thoracic cavity? 3 o Pleural cavity (lungs), pericardial cavity (heart), mediastinum (space in between the lungs), diaphragm (dome shaped below lungs) 20. List all of the organ systems o Integumentary= Skin o Skeletal= Bones o Muscular= Muscles o Nervous= Spinal cord and brain o Endocrine= Glands that secrete hormones o Circulatory= Blood vessels and arteries o Lymphatic= Lymph nodes o Respiratory= Breathing, lungs o Digestive= Stomach, intestines o Urinary= Bladder, kidneys o Reproductive= Ovaries, testes Cells 1.What are the three main functions of the cell? o Grow, reproduce, and specialize in a certain function 2.What are two classifications of cells? o Somatic and gametes. Body cells and sex cells. Gametes are formed in gonads (testes or ovaries) 3.What are the vesicular functions? o Phagocytosis= Cell ingesting bacteria o Pinocytosis= Cell intake of fluid o Endocytosis= Brings matter into the cell o Exocytosis= Brings matter out of the cell o Vesicle= Fluid filled sack o Receptor Mediated= Molecules can only attach to certain receptors 4.What are the different cell shapes and where are they found? 4 o Squamous= Flat shaped. Found on the skin o Cuboidal= Cube shaped. Found in the liver and ducts o Columnar= Rectangle shaped. Found in the intestines o Polygonal= 5+ sides. Found in the liver and brain o Stellate= Star shaped. Neurons o Spheroid= Oval shaped. White blood cells o Discoid= Disc shaped. Red blood cells o Fusiform= Spindle shaped. Found in smooth muscle o Fibrous= Threadlike fibers. Found in skeletal muscle 5.What are the definitions of apical surface, basal surface, and lateral surface? o Apical surface= Top surface of a cell o Basal surface= Bottom of a cell (think basement) o Lateral surface= Side of a cell 6.What is the most common lipid in a plasma membrane? What is its function? o Phospholipids. It keeps in the organelles and cytoplasm. 7.What are the definitions of microvilli, cilia, and flagellum? Where are they found? o Microvilli increase the surface area of a cell. They look like clumps of seaweed. They are found on absorptive cells, especially cells in the digestive system o Cilia= Used for communication purposes. They are found on cells that line the respiratory system or found on sperm o Flagellum= A tail like structure. Only found on sperm 8.Name each organelle and their function o Nucleus= Contains chromosomes and is the genetic control center 5 o Endoplasmic Reticulum= Two types: Rough and smooth. Rough endoplasmic reticulum forms proteins that compose the cell membrane and others secreted from the cell. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in cells that detoxify and also in steroids (estrogen/testosterone) o Ribosomes= Read genetic messages. They are either found on the rough endoplasmic reticulum or are floating around in intracellular space. They also assemble amino acids and synthesize protein. o Golgi Complex= Package proteins to plasma membrane, secretory vesicles, and lysosomes. o Lysosomes= Digestive enzymes with a membrane. Have the biggest role in apoptosis (cell death by dissolving). Also dissolves foreign material, such as bacteria into molecules before expelling them from the cell. o Peroxisomes= Resemble lysosomes, but use oxygen to break down other molecules (oxidize). o Mitochondria= Is most of the body’s ATP. Associated with heat and energy. Is specialized for aerobic respiration 9.Define the plasma membrane of the cell and its functions. Name the two types of cytoplasm and their functions. o Cytoplasm keeps foreign invaders out of the cell and keeps the organelles within the cell. o Cytosol= Has the consistency of maple syrup. Fluid that’s in between the organelles o Cytoskeleton= Supports cell structure and determines shape. Contains tubes and protein threadlike structures (tubules) 10. What type of cell division forms a somatic cell? o Mitosis 6 11. True/False. Gametes also form through mitosis. o False. They form through meiosis 12. What are the three junctions? o Tight junctions= Joints between cells that are found near the apical surface. It keeps out anything going in between two cells. However, it can be ripped apart o Gap junctions= Used for communication purposes. Has a tube that goes from one cell to the other. It allows molecules to travel from one cell to the next. o Desmosomes= Long proteins that hold cells together. Found in the skin and mucous membranes. A desmosome deficiency is called pemphigus vulgaris. 13. What is the difference between an adult stem cell and an embryonic stem cell? o Adult stem cells can only be one type of cell. Embryonic stem cells can change into other cells. 14. What type of cell shape would a neuron be? o Stellate 15. Where are ribosomes located? o Rough endoplasmic reticulum and intracellular fluid 16. What is the difference between extracellular surface and intracellular surface? o Extracellular surface= Part of cell membrane that is outside of the cell o Intracellular surface= Part of cell membrane that is inside of the cell. 7 Tissues 1.Define tissue o A group of similar cells that perform a specific function 2.What are the four primary tissues? o Epithelial= Layers of closely spaced cells which cover surfaces and form glands. Located on external surfaces, tubes, cavities, and glands. o Connective tissue= Specialized to support, bind, and protect organs. o Nervous Tissue= Contains excitable cells to transmit information. o Muscular Tissue= Cells specialized for contraction. ***They all differ by amount of cells versus matrix. 3. Define matrix o Extracellular fluid that makes the cell hard or soft. 4. What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue? o Avascular o Basal lamina separates epithelial tissue from connective tissue o 1 or more layers of cells o Tightly packed together 5. Name two types of epithelial tissue. o Simple and stratified. o Simple looks like a fried egg o Stratified is named from the apical layer of cells. Is there for protection 6. Describe the four types of simple epithelial tissue o Simple squamous= Lines the skin o Simple cuboidal= Lines parts of organs and ducts o Simple columnar= Lines most of the organs in the digestive tract o Pseudostratified columnar epithelium= Basal edge of all cells are on basement membrane, making it 8 simple. Found in the respiratory mucosa. Tends to be ciliated 7. Describe the four types of stratified epithelial tissue o Stratified squamous= Found in areas where there is a lot of wear and tear, such as apical layer of skin o Stratified Cuboidal= Lines ducts coming from glands o Stratified Columnar= Absorb nutrients or produce a fluid. Found in male and female reproductive systems o Transitional= Very stretchy. Found in the urinary tract. Has protective features since urine is acidic. 8. What are the characteristics of connective tissue? o More matrix than cells o Collagen fibers anchor it down o Fibers are elastic 9. What are the four main categories of connective tissue? o Fibrous= Long and stringy o Adipose= Fat cells o Supportive= Bone, cartilage o Fluid= Blood 10. Describe fibrous connective tissue. What are the three types of fibers that compose it? o Collagen= Tough and flexible (like steel). Are white fibers o Reticular= Thin collagen fibers. Form a network that looks like a hairnet o Elastic= Stretch and recoil. Are yellow fibers 11. What are the three categories of fibrous connective tissue? o Loose areolar= Found all over the body. Binds epithelial tissue to deeper tissue. o Dense regular= Highly organized fibers that resist stress in mostly one direction. Found in the tendons and ligaments 9 o Dense irregular= Random arrangement of fibers that resist stress in all directions. Found in most of the dermis and protective capsules. 12. Describe adipose tissue o Stores energy and is used for protection o Has one huge vesicle that stores triglyceride. Triglyceride is used to make energy when there is no glucose. o Stores leftover energy as fat 13. Describe supportive connective tissue o Bone= Compact and spongy o Cartilage= Hyaline, fibro, and elastic. 14. Define cartilage o A firm and flexible tissue that is made up of chondroblasts and chondrocytes o Chondroblasts= Immature cells o Chondrocytes= Have matrix around it o Matrix is avascular with no nerves and is 80% water 15. Describe hyaline cartilage o Imperceptible collagen fibers. Found on articular surfaces, ribs, nose, trachea, and larynx. 16. Describe elastic cartilage o Similar to hyaline, but has more elastic fibers in the matrix. o Maintains shape of the structure and allows flexibility o Located in the external ear and epiglottis 17. Describe fibrocartilage o Thick collagen fibers that have the tensile strength and ability to absorb compressive shock. o Located in invertebral discs, pubic symphysis, and discs of the knee joint 18. Describe glands o A cell or organ that secretes a substance for use elsewhere in the body or to eliminate waste. o Is either a secretion or excretion o Are either multicellular or unicellular 10 19. What is the function of an exocrine gland? o Has a duct to the surface for fluid excretion 20. What is the function of an endocrine gland? o Has no duct. Secretes products and hormones into the blood through the capillary 21. Define acinus o Secretory portion (produces sweat) 22. What is a goblet cell? o One cell is the entire gland. Found in intestines and respiratory system Skeletal System 1. What are the functions of the skeletal system? o Support and movement o Protection o Blood formation 2. What is the skeletal system composed of? o Bone, cartilage, and ligaments 3. Define bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments o Bone= Is compact and spongy, holds the frame o Cartilage= Embryonic structure of most bones and covers many joint surfaces, or condyles o Ligaments= Holds bone to bone at the joint o Tendons= Attach muscles to bone o Both tendons and ligaments are made up of dense regular connective tissue 4.Describe the different shapes of the bones o Long= Femur o Short= Tarsal, carpal o Flat= Skull, scapula o Irregular= Vertebrae, pelvic bones 11 o Sesamoid= Extra bones that grow within connective tissue and not ligaments. The patella is formed by the tendons 5. Define compact bone o Dense outer part of the bone. It covers ¾ of the skeleton 6. Define spongy bone o Loosely organized and covers ¼ of the skeleton o Small holes are called trabeculae 7. What is the structure of the long bones? o Diaphysis= Shaft o Epiphysis= Head. Contains bone marrow o Medullary Cavity (marrow cavity)= Stores fat o Epiphyseal (growth) Plate= Bone replaces it after puberty o Periosteum= Tissue around the bone o Nutrient Foramina= Hole in the bone where blood vessels insert to bring nutrients to the bone cells o Endosteum= Inner tissue layer o Articular Cartilage= Covers surface of bone 8. What is the term for the study of bones? o Osteology 9. Name all of the bone cells o Osteogenic cells= Adult stem cells. Found in the endosteum, inner periosteum, and central canals o Osteoblasts= Immature bone forming cells o Osteocytes= Mature bone cells o Osteoclasts= Bone dissolving macrophages (acidic cell) 10. What is bone matrix composed of? o 1/3 organic, collagen. Mostly has hydroxyapatite (crystallized calcium phosphate) 11. What are the parts of the compact bone structure? o Concentric Lamellae= Rings surrounding the osteon o Central Canal= Haversion or osteonic canal. Tubes that run the length of the bone 12 o Perforating canals= Connecting canal that goes into the nutrient foramina (or Volkmann canals) o Canaliculi= Arms of the osteocyte. Brings in oxygen and nutrients o Lacunae= Space where osteocyte occupies. For memorization purposes, think of a lake o Osteogenesis Imperfecta= Brittle bone disease 12. What are the parts of the spongy bone structure? o Trabeculae= Arches of the bone o Lattice= Intertwining of thin plates o Bone marrow= Red and yellow. 13. Name the two different types of bone marrow and their functions o Yellow Bone Marrow= Located in most of the skeleton, especially the long bones. It replaces red bone marrow as we age and turns into mainly adipose tissue for energy storage. Does not produce blood o Red Bone Marrow= Located in mostly the axial skeleton. It is found in the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, parts of pelvic girdle, and proximal heads of femur and humerus. Is hemopoietic and produces blood. 14. Describe the types of bone development o Ossification= Bone formation o Intramembranous Ossification= Produces the flat bones of the skull and most of the clavicle. o Endochondral Ossification= Bone develops from hyaline cartilage model. Starts at six weeks of age and lasts to the early twenties. It grows to accommodate the rapidly expanding brain 15. Describe bone widening and thickening o Appositional Growth= Adding more matrix to the surface, causing the bone to grow thicker but not heavier. Osteoblasts build bone on the outer 13 surface, while osteoclasts dissolve bone on the inner surface. o Deposition= Building new bone o Absorption= Dissolving bone o Exercise and steroid hormones (estrogen/testosterone) stimulate remodeling 16. Define Wolf’s Law of Bone o Bone shape is determined by mechanical stress. The bone will then adapt to withstand stress. 17. At what age do females stop growing? o Age 15 18. True/False. Do males also stop growing at age 15? o False. Males continue to grow even after 15 19. What part of the skeleton is red bone marrow mostly found? o Axial skeleton 20. True/False. Yellow bone marrow does not produce blood o True Joints 1. Define a joint o Any point where two bones meet 2. What is the term for the study of joints’ structure, function, and dysfunction? o Arthrology 3. What is the term for the study of musculoskeletal movement? o Kinesiology 4. Where is the tibiofemoral region? o Knee region 5. Name and describe the four types of joints 14 o Bony Joint (Synostosis)= When two bones are ossified together. Also the fusion of fibrous or cartilaginous joints. Examples: Mandibular bones, some cranial structures, epiphysis with the diaphysis o Fibrous joints= Bound by collagen fibers with little to no movement. There are 3 types: Suture (skull bones), Gomphosis (tooth to socket), Syndesmosis (bound by long fibrous tissue) o Cartilaginous Joints= A cartilage joint. There are 2 types: Synchondrosis (hyaline) located in the epiphyseal plate, Symphysis (fibrocartilage) located in pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs. o Synovial Joints= Ranges from freely moveable to limited mobility. Is the most structurally complex of the joints. 6. Define Articular Cartilage o Always surrounds joints, such as hyaline 7. Define Joint Cavity o A narrow space in between the bones 8. Define Joint Capsule o Encloses the cavity and retain fluid 9. Define Synovial Membrane o Produces synovial fluid 10. Define Ligaments o Attaches bone to bone, is made out of dense irregular connective tissue 11. What is the difference between an Articular Disc and Meniscus? o The articular disc is a fibrocartilage pad that crosses an entire capsule. An example is the sternoclavicular joint The meniscus pad does not cross the entire capsule. An example is the knee joint. 12. Define Bursa(e) 15 o A fibrous capsule filled with synovial fluid. It acts as a cushion. It is found between adjacent muscles, bone, and skin. 13. Define Tendon Sheaths o Tubes that are wrapped around tendons, especially in the hand and foot. It minimizes friction and is the source of tendonitis. 14. What are the benefits of exercise? o Increases circulation, warms synovial fluid, and increases absorption by cartilage. o Cartilage swells and increases protection against compression (decreases wear and tear) 15. Define the Range of Motion (ROM) o The number of degrees through which one bone moves relative to another at that joint o Factors that affect ROM are the structures of the articular surfaces of bones, strength and tautness of ligaments and joint capsules, and the action of muscles and tendons 16. Define all of the movement terms for Synovial Joints o Flexion/Extension= To bend/To extend o Abduction/Adduction= Move away from the body/Bring back to the body o Elevation/Depression= To raise/To unraise o Protraction/Retraction= Move something forward/Move something back o Circumduction= Move in a circle o Rotation= Right and left rotation of axial skeleton. Lateral or medial rotation of appendicular skeleton. o Supination/Pronation= Palms face up/Palms face down o Radial flexion= Wrist moves away from the body o Ulnar flexion= Moving wrist toward the body o Dorsiflexion= Refers to the foot. Bending the toes up 16 o Plantarflexion= Refers to the foot. Bending toes down o Inversion= Refers to the foot. The sole is facing medially o Eversion= Refers to the foot. The sole is facing laterally 17. Which ligament prevents the knee from rotating? o The lateral collateral ligament 18. Which ligament prevents the knee from hyperextending? o The anterior cruciate ligament 19. What is the purpose of the medial meniscus in the knee? o To distribute force on the knee and prevent side movements 20. Where is the quadriceps tendon? o It extends from the femur 17
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