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PURDUE / Sociology / SOC 10000 / what is sociology?

what is sociology?

what is sociology?


School: Purdue University
Department: Sociology
Course: Introductory Sociology
Professor: Dan weiss
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide Sociology Exam 1
Description: Sociology 100 Study Guide for exam 1
Uploaded: 02/18/2016
6 Pages 8 Views 18 Unlocks

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Chapter 1 

what is sociology?

∙ Sociology is the study of human society

∙ Sociological imagination: quality of mind that enables one to see the  connection between personal troubles and social structures ∙ C. Wright Mills: intersection of history and biography

∙ Social institution: networks o structures in society that work to socialize the groups of people within them.  

∙ Social identity: way individuals define themselves in a relationship to  groups

∙ Theory: tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states  how and why certain facts are related

∙ Research: process of carefully observing reality to assess the validity of a theory

∙ Values: ideas about what is wright and wrong

∙ Founding fathers:

1. Karl Marx

o Materialism which identifies classes

o Workers would work together and eliminate private ownership o Workers would achieve a collective class consciousness o Marx saw history as an account of man’s struggle to gain control  of and later dominate his natural environment

what is values?

2. Max Weber

o Subjectivity: foundation of interpretive sociology, the study of  social meaning

o Criticized Marx

o Politics and religion plays a large role  

o Economic circumstances do not explain change

3. Emile Durkheim

o Positivist sociology

o Understand how society works together and how modern  capitalism and industrialization have transformed the ways  people relate to one another

∙ Auguste Comte: society is better understood by determining logic ∙ Harriet Martineu: translated Comte’s words to English; should be  consider one of the earliest feminist social scientists writing in the  English language If you want to learn more check out seuretes

∙ Dubois: prejudice was causing conflict in society; double consciousness ∙ Manifest functions: intended and easily observed Don't forget about the age old question of general psychology exam 1

∙ Latent functions: unintended and less obvious  

∙ Conflict theory: how major patterns of inequality produce stability in  some circumstances and change in others; focuses on “class relations” ∙ Symbolic Interactionism: emphasis on social life because people attach meanings to it

what is theory?

We also discuss several other topics like chem 1110 osu

∙ Feminist theory: male domination and female subordination are  determined by power and social convention; patriarchy

∙ Microsociology: understand local interactional contexts

∙ Macrosociology: concerned with social dynamics at a higher level of  analysis

Chapter 2 

∙ Experience filters perceptions of reality - Four stages

1. Experiences and passions motivate research

2. Values leads us to theories

3. Sociologists’ interpretations are influenced by previous research 4. Methods used to gather data mold our perceptions

∙ Research methods: standard rules that social scientists follow when  trying to establish a casual relationship between social elements o Quantitative methods: seek to obtain info about social world data that can converted to numeric form Don't forget about the age old question of moral involves having the willpower, desire, and integrity to stand up to pressure, overcome distractions and disappointments, and behave morally.

o Qualitative methods: attempt to collect info about social world  that cannot be converted to numeric form  

∙ Deductive research: theory, hypothesis, make observations, analyze  data to confirm/reject theory

∙ Inductive research: empirical observation, form a theory, determine  correlation exists by noticing if a change is observed in two things ∙ Casuality: idea that a change in one factor results in a corresponding  change in another factor. To prove causation, correlation and time  order are established and alternative explanations are ruled out ∙ Dependent variable: outcome that a researcher is trying to explain ∙ Independent variable: measured factor that the researcher believes  has a casual impact on the dependent variable

∙ Hypothesis: proposed relationship between two variables represented  by either the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis

∙ Operationalization: need to decide which observations or attributes to  attach to each variable We also discuss several other topics like kneening

∙ Good research

o Reliability: degree to which a measurement procedure will yield  the same result

o Validity: implies that a measure is measuring what it is actually  intended to measure

o Generalizability: deals with whether or not the research can be  applied to groups outside of the study

∙ Feminist methodology: treats women’s experiences as legitimate  empirical and theoretical resources, promotes social science that may  bring policy change to help women.  

∙ Field research: observation of people in their natural setting

∙ Ethnographic: research involves describing a group of people’s entire  way of life

∙ Threats to validity of survey: exclusion, refusal, unwillingness,  confusing

Chapter 3 

∙ Culture: set of beliefs, traditions and practices

∙ Abstraction: create ideas or ways of thinking that are not linked to  particular instances  

∙ Cooperation: generally accepted ways of doing things  

∙ Production: making and using tools and techniques that improve our  ability to take what we want from nature

∙ Material: everything that is part of our constructed environment ∙ Nonmaterial: encompasses values, beliefs, social norms etc ∙ Cultural relativism: we should recognize differences across cultures  without judging If you want to learn more check out two primary sources of equity financing

∙ Cultural scripts: modes of behavior and understanding that are not  universal or natural

∙ Multiculturalism: idea that we do have achievements of non-whites and non-europeans in America society

∙ Subculture: group by sets of concepts, values and or traits that  distinguish it from others within the same culture  

∙ Values: moral beliefs

∙ Norms: how values tell us to act

∙ Socialization: process by which a person internalizes the values,  beliefs, and norms of society and learn to function

∙ Social control: the sum of sanctions in a society by means of which  conformity to cultural guidelines is ensured

∙ Sanctions: rewards and punishments intended to ensure conformity to  cultural guidelines

∙ Taboos: strongest norms

∙ Mores: norms most people believe are essential for our society ∙ Folkways: least important norms

∙ Language: a symbol strung together to communicate thoughts  ∙ Media: formats or vehicles that carry, present, or communicate info ∙ Consumerism: tendency to define oneself in terms of the good  purchased

Chapter 4 

∙ Freud’s theory: first social scientific interpretation of emergence of the  self

∙ Id: part that demands immediate gratification

∙ Superego: personal conscience

∙ Ego: balances the conflicting needs of the id and the superego ∙ Charles Horton Cooley: assume point of view of others and imagine  how they see us

∙ Self-fulfilling prophecy: expectation that helps bring about what it  predicts  

∙ George Herbert Mead: how the social self develops over the course of  childhood

∙ Eric Erikson: psychosocial development that identifies 8 stages of a  person’s life

∙ Total institution: which one is totally immersed that controls all the  basics of a day-to-day life

∙ Resocialization: change in values, beliefs or norms through an intense  social process

∙ Status: position in society that comes within a self of expectations o Ascribed status: one we are born with

o Achieved status: have to work for, earned

o Master’s status: seems to override all others and affects all other statuses

∙ Role conflict: role associated with one status clash with the roles  associated with another status

∙ Role strain: roles associated with a single clash status  

∙ Gender roles: behavioral norms associated with males or females in a  given social group

∙ Social construction: people give meaning or values to ideas or objects  through social interactions  

Chapter 5 

∙ Georg Simmel: key element in differences between social relations in a  dyad and a triad

∙ Dyad: intimate form, mutually dependent on each other ∙ Mediator: conflict solver

∙ Tertius gaudens: profits from disagreements

∙ Divide et impera: breaks up other two

∙ Small groups: primary groups

∙ Parties: secondary groups

∙ Large groups: other group types

∙ Asch test: experiment developed in the 1940’s that show how much  people are influenced by the actions or norms of a group

∙ Social network: relations held together by ties between individuals

∙ Ties: stories that explain our relationship to the other members of our  network

∙ Narrative: sum of stories contained in a series of ties ∙ Embeddedness: degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect  paths within a social network

∙ Structural hole: gap between network clusters that would benefit from  having the gap closed

∙ Social capital: knowledge, information, connections etc. that help  individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power in them ∙ Network analysis: groups and social networks that we have discussed  to investigate hoe group life shapes individual behaviors ∙ Organizations: any social network that is defined by a common  purpose

∙ Organizational culture: shared beliefs, values and behaviors within a  group

∙ Organizational structure: power and authority distributed within an  organization

∙ Informal interactions: social interactions that can work with anybody ∙ The wealth of networks: internet has facilitated open source which  access to the end product’s source materials (Wikipedia)

Chapter 6 

∙ Social diversions: minor, harmless

∙ Social deviations: serious, somewhat harmful

∙ Conflict crimes: deviant defined by state as illegal

∙ Consensus crimes: widely recognized to be bad in themselves ∙ Street crime: crime committed in public

∙ White collar: committed by a professional against a corporation ∙ Corporate crime: white collar crime committed by officers or  executives of a company

∙ Recidivism: when a person involved in a crime reverts back to  criminal behavior

∙ Social deviance: any transgression of socially established norms ∙ Informal deviance: even if no one will punish you, you sense it is  somewhat wrong

∙ Formal deviance: violation of laws enacted by society ∙ Social cohesion: the way people form social bonds, relate to each  other, and get along on a day-to-day basis

∙ Emile Durkheim: social cohesion is established either through: o Mechanical solidarity: based on the sameness of the individual  parts

o Organic solidarity: based on difference and interdependence of  the parts

∙ Social control: what sociologists refer to as the set of mechanisms that  create normative compliance

∙ Normative compliance: act of binding society’s norms or simply  following rules

∙ Formal social sanctions: mechanisms of social control by which rules or laws prohibit deviant criminal behavior

∙ Informal social sanctions: usually unexpressed but widely known rules  of group membership; unspoken rules of social life

∙ Robert Merton’s strain theory: deviance occurs when a society does not give all of its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable  goals

∙ Conformists: individual who accepts both the goals and strategies to  achieve them that are considered socially acceptable

∙ Innovators: social deviant who accept goals but reject socially  acceptable means to achieve them

∙ Ritualists: individual who rejects both socially defined goals but not  means

∙ Retreatists: one who rejects both socially acceptable means and goals  by completely retreating from or not participating in society ∙ Rebels: individual who rejects both traditional means, goals and wants  to destroy social institutions from which he/she alienated ∙ Labeling theory: belief that individuals subconsciously notice how  others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels over time  from the basis of their self-identity.  

∙ Primary deviance: first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of  “deviant” and thus influence how people think about and act toward  you

∙ Secondary deviance: subsequent acts of rule breaking that occur after  primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and  people’s expectations of you  

∙ Stigma: negative social label that not only changes other’s behavior  toward a person but also alters that person’s own self-concept and  social identity

∙ Broken window theory: theory explaining how social context and social  clues impact whether individuals act deviantly, specifically whether  local, informal social norms allow deviant acts

∙ Classifying deviant John Hagan:

o Severity of the social response

o Perceived harmfulness of the act

o Degree of public agreement about whether an act should be  considered deviant

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