Study Guide- Unit 2 Test
Study Guide- Unit 2 Test FAD2230
Popular in Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by mak15k on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Chance Bell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 462 views. For similar materials see Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
FAD2230 UNIT 2 KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS CHAPTERS 7-13...EXAM ON FRIDAY 3/25 CHAPTER 7- BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS 1. voluntary temporary singles- unmarried adults who may be delaying marriage while pursuing education or establishing a career 2. voluntary stable singles- unmarried adults desiring a single (unmarried) lifestyle 3. involuntary temporary singles- singles actively searching for a mate but unable to find a suitable one 4. involuntary stable singles- unmarried adults who can expect to be single for life even though they may not want to be Men and women tend to have about the same number of friends, but they relate to their friends differently. Women's friendships tend to be more intimate and personal. Working class persons were more likely to have grown up in the same neighborhood and to continue living there as adults. The longevity of the friendships allowed more opportunity to become intimate and share more about themselves. They also experience more crisis in their lives. 5. cross-sex friendships- a friendship between a man and woman that is strictly platonic 6. calling- a dating practice of the 18th and 19th centuries in which a young man would visit a young woman in her parents' home; highly supervised 7. adolescence- the period of life that occurs between childhood and adulthood 8. principle of least interest- the idea that unequal emotional involvement between romantic partners has implications for the quality and stability of relationships 9. dating script- a set of expectations around dating that differ somewhat between men and women 10. Homogamous relationships- relationships in which we spend most of our time with people who are very similar to ourselves 11. propinquity- geographic closeness 12. pool of eligible- the group from which we are likely to choose our mates 13. cohabitation- an arrangement in which two people live together without being married Macro-level factors that shape dating: o Cultural norms surrounding mate selection o technology o urbanization o development of an adolescent subculture o social and political movements o dating scripts based on sex o racial/ ethnic cultural differences FAD2230 o economic considerations Micro-level factors that shape dating: o personal whims o friends, connections, and ways to meet new people o propinquity o size of your pool of eligible people Almost one half of adults have cohabitated, including almost one of every five people older than 65. o Compared to their married counterparts, cohabitating couples: o are younger o have less education and are less likely to have graduated from college without a college degree o have lower household incomes o are less likely to have children residing with them o are twice as likely to be interracial 14. selection effect- an explanation for the fact that people who cohabitate tend to be the same ones who later divorce 15. spurious- when a relationship between two variables is actually caused by a third variable CHAPTER 8- LOVE AND LOVING RELATIONSHIPS 1. attachment theory- a theory postulating that the way in which infants form attachments early in life affects relationships throughout later life Anna Case Study o abandoned as a little girl o developed without social interaction o once social workers discovered this horror, it took her 2 years to be able to speak o won't know how permanent the damage was o died of blood disorder at age 10 Love- definition is pretty broad depending on the context, mostly just a mutual attraction between two individuals 2. secure attachment- an attachment type where infants feel safe when their mothers are out of sight 3. anxious ambivalent attachment- an attachment type where infants become nervous when their parent leaves the room and can show rejection when the parent returns 4. avoidant attachment- an attachment type where infants show little attachment to their primary parent Adult- Infant attachment similarities o Types of bonds in adult romantic relationships are the same (three above definitions) o infants rely on caregiver ---> adults both contribute to caring for one another o adult love in a relationship is sexual o positive/ negative events later in childhood may shape relationship styles in adulthood Images of love in history o Most classical stories of love were about passion and adoration, which were not connected to marriage. o marriage was more for the purposes of reproduction o Plato: love only exists between men...homosexual relationships were the only way to experience true love and romance FAD2230 o 12th century & middle ages- begin to see more modern ideas about love; idolizing the other (jealousy); courtly love (knights and ladies) ---> love is unattainable o 18th & 19th centuries- ideas about romance spread o romantic love ideals: love at first sight one true love love conquers all beloved is nearly perfect we should marry for love o Industrial revolution- men spent less time at home and women became heads of the household 5. feminization of love- process beginning in the late 19th century in which love became associated with the private work of women in the home, namely nurturing and caring for family members 6. courtly love- a poetic style of love of the middle ages when poets would write songs about love and present them to nobles 7. romantic love- a type of love characterized by passion, melodrama, and excitement, and that receives a lot of media attention 8. companionate love- a type of love that grows over time, based on strong commitment, friendship and trust 9. sociobiology- an evolutionary theory that all humans have an instinctive impulse to pass on their genetic material 10. biochemical perspective of love- theories that suggest humans are attracted to certain types of people at which point the brain releases natural chemicals that give us the rush of sexual attraction 11. Sternberg's triangular theory of love- a theory that sees love as having three elements: intimacy, passion, and commitment in different combinations o nonlove- many relationships really have no love in them o empty love- only remaining together because of a prior commitment o liking- good friendship but no passion o infatuated love- TV love; once the passion dies out there is nothing to back the relationship o companionate love- long term couples whose passion may have waned but the commitment still holds them together o fatuous love- passion and commitment but without true intimacy o romantic love- passion and intimacy without true commitment o consummate love- all three components to their fullest extent 12. Lee's styles of love a categorization of six types of love that describe how couples are attracted to one another: o eros- passionate, strong physical attraction o storge- companionate, mutual love, respect, trust o pragma- practical, sensible o ludus- playful, carefree, casual o agape- altruistic, kind, patient o mania- obsessive, possessive, intense 13. Reiss' wheel theory of love- developmental theory that shows relationships moving from the establishment of rapport, to self- revelation, mutual dependence, and finally need fulfillment 14. controlling the development of love- a macro level perspective on love suggesting that all societies control or channel love 15. dowry- a financial gift given to a women's prospective in-laws by her parents FAD2230 16. unrequited love- when one person's feelings are not reciprocated by the other person in a relationship CHAPTER 9- SEXUAL IDENTITY, BAHAVIOR, AND RELATIONSHIPS 1. sexual scripts- the norms or rules regarding sexual behavior 2. double standard- the idea that men have been allowed far more permissiveness in sexual behavior than women Components of the male and female sexual scripts o a man's looks are relatively unimportant but his status is enhanced if he is with a beautiful woman. o the man always wants sex and is always ready for it o a man is in charge o all physical contact leads to sex o a man cannot easily stop himself if he gets turned on o sex equals intercourse o sex always leads to orgasm o women should make themselves sexually attractive to men to get their attention, but they shouldn't be too attractive o women's genitals are mysterious o women shouldn't know too much about sex or be too experienced o good girls don't plan in advance to have sex or initiate it o women shouldn't talk about sex o a man should know how to please a woman o other stimulation past sex alone is not necessary for orgasm 3. sexology- a field of study that focuses on sexuality 4. extramarital sex- sex while married with someone other than your spouse Most males contract HIV from sexual contact with other males and most females contract it through sexual contact with a male who has been infected with HIV. CHAPTER 10- COMMUNICATION, CONFLICT, AND POWER IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS 1. communication- an interactive process that uses symbols like words and gestures to both send and receive messages; transaction, process, co-construction of meanings, and symbols 2. listening- process of giving thoughtful attention to what we hear 3. active listening- extremely attentive listening where the listener has good eye contact and body language and encourages the other person to keep talking 4. verbal communications- spoken exchange of information; can include miscommunications: o overgeneralizations o static evaluation o polarization o biased language We should... o describe our feelings rather than evaluate the behavior of others o solve problems rather than try to control others o be genuine rather than manipulate o empathize rather than remain detached o be flexible rather than remain rigid o present yourself as an equal rather than as a superior FAD2230 5. nonverbal communication- communicating without words by using gestures, expressions and body language; men are more likely to take up a greater space when expressing themselves 6. self-disclosure- telling a person something private about yourself that he or she would not otherwise know 7. conflict- disagreements over decision making, problem solving, or achieving goals that can result from difference in group personalities, perception, information, perception of risk, and power or influence 8. pseudoconflict- falsely perceiving that our partner is interfering with our goals or has incompatible goals 9. content conflict- disagreement over information 10. value conflict- disagreement over subjects relating to right or wrong 11. ego conflict- individuals believe they must win at all costs to save face 12. regulating couples- couples who use communication to promote closeness and intimacy 13. non-regulated couples- negative communication exchanges rule the relationship; contempt, defensiveness, criticism, stonewalling, belligerence CHAPTER 11- MARRIAGE 1. marriage- a legally and socially recognized relationship that includes sexual, economic, and social rights and responsibilities for partners Colonial marriage was mostly recognized by the head of the household being a man, and he was to protect her and his family 19th century marriage- women's rights changed this Industrial Revolution- created separate spheres of work for men and women, bringing a more personal focus on marriage based on commitment 2. marital decline perspective- the view that the institution of marriage is increasingly threatened by hedonistic pursuits of personal happiness at the expense of long term commitment 3. marital resilience perspective- the view that, overall, marriage is no weaker than in the past, but that all families need an increase in structure supports to thrive 4. homogamous marriage- spouses of certain social characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion, education, age, social class, etc. 5. heterogamous marriage- spouses don't share certain social characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion, education, age, social class, etc. 6. interracial marriage- type of marriage in which spouses come from different racial groups 7. anti-miscegenation laws- forbid interracial marriage; existed at the state level until 1967 8. interethnic marriage- spouses from different countries or have different cultural, religious, or ethnic backgrounds interfaith marriages include: o spouse who follows a specific religion and a spouse who follows a non-theistic ethical system o two totally different religions between spouses o some similarities in religion between spouses o different divisions within the same religion o traditions within sects 9. marriage premium- concept that married people are happier, healthier, and financially better off than those who aren't married FAD2230 10. selection effect- people who marry may be different from those who don't marry 11. wage premium- married men generally earn more than their unmarried counterparts, particularly married men with stay-at-home wives 12. social capital- goods and services that are by products of social relationships, including connections, social support, information, or financial help 13. conflict habituated marriage- includes frequent conflict, although it may be enduring 14. devitalized marriage- enduring marriage that exists without much passion 15. passive congenial marriage- enduring marriage that includes little conflict but also little excitement 16. vital marriage- the lives of the partners are intertwined; physical and emotional intimacy are important and both work hard at communication and compromise so their relationship continues to be satisfying and enjoyable 17. total marriage- spouses share many facets of their lives such as a business they own, friends, or hobbies with few independent interests What makes a successful marriage? type of relationship with parents quality and stability of parents' marriage shared values, goals, and characteristics religious faith and practice frequency and satisfaction with sexual relationship satisfaction with gender roles and the division of household labor 18. marriage movement- activities of some religious and government leaders, as well as marriage and family therapists, who hope to influence public policy to promote and strengthen traditional marriage o reducing unmarried pregnancy o increasing the likelihood that unmarried couples expecting a baby will marry before the child's birth o reducing or preventing excessive conflict among married couples o reducing divorce o protecting the boundaries of marriage by distinguishing it from other family and friendship unites, including cohabitating ones o transmitting and reinforcing shared norms of responsible marital behavior such as encouraging permanence, fidelity, financial responsibility, and mutual support o communicating the benefits of and preference for marriage as the ideal family form, particularly to young people 19. covenant marriage- voluntary chosen marriage available in three states that restricts access to divorce, requires premarital counseling, and imposes other rules and regulations 20. peer marriage- couples consider themselves to have equal status in the relationship CHAPTER 12- THINKING ABOUT PARENTHOOD 1. pronatalism- cultural value that encourages child bearing 2. direct financial costs- out-of pocket expenses for things such as food, clothing, housing, and education 3. opportunity costs- lost opportunities for income by working only part time or not at all because of children 4. assisted reproductive technology (ART)- all fertility treatments in which either egg or sperm or both are handled 5. surrogacy- act of giving birth to a child for another person or a couple who then adopts or takes legal custody of the child FAD2230 6. traditional surrogacy- type of surrogacy where the man's sperm is implanted in the surrogate through artificial insemination 7. gestational surrogacy- type of surrogacy where the intended mother's egg is combined with the man's sperm and implanted in the surrogate through in vitro fertilization Hidden emotions of infertility o loss of pregnancy and birth experience o loss of a genetic legacy and loss for future contributing citizens of the next generation o loss of the parenting experience o loss of a grand parenting relationship o loss of feeling of self worth o loss of stability in family and personal relationships o loss of work productivity o loss of a sense of spirituality and a sense of hope for the future 8. content analysis- research method that systematically examines the content of materials 9. close adoption- identifying information is sealed and unavailable to all parties 10. open adoption- involves direct contact between the biological and adoptive parents 11. public adoption- occurs through licensed public agencies 12. private adoption- arranged directly between adoptive parents and biological birth parents, usually with the assistance of an attorney general public concerns with gay and lesbian adoption; many misconceptions are false and not justified in the real world the transition to parenthood is challenging... may be pressured into parenthood unwillingly; most parents have little experience with round-clock care of kids; becoming a parent is an abrupt change in adulthood roles; the transition to parenthood challenges the couple's relationship 13. family medical leave act (FMLA)- act that requires employers with more than 50 employees to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave to eligible employees (both men and women) to care for themselves or their immediate families with specified medical conditions CHAPTER 13- RAISING CHILDREN 1. family allowance (or child allowance)- a cash benefit to families provided by the government to help offset the costs of raising children why is parenting so different across the board? o although parents are central to childbearing, other people and social institutions are becoming increasingly involved in raising children o parents around the world increasingly encourage permissiveness and child independence o in most societies around the world, a higher value is placed on boys rather than on girls 2. socialization- lifelong process by which we acquire the cultural values and skills needed to function as human beings and participate in society 3. id- (Freud) part of the personality that includes biological drives and needs for immediate gratification 4. ego- (Freud) rational component of personality that attempts to balance the need for immediate gratification with the demands of society FAD2230 5. superego- (Freud) our conscious which draws upon our cultural values and norms to help us understand why we can't have everything we want 6. sensorimotor stage- (Piaget) first stage of cognitive development (birth- age 2) in which infants and toddlers understand the world primarily through touch, sucking, listening, and looking 7. preoperational stage- (Piaget) second stage of cognitive development (ages 2-7) as the child learns language, symbolic play, and symbolic drawing but doesn't grasp abstract concepts 8. concrete operation thought- (Piaget) third stage of cognitive development (ages 7- 12) when children begin to see the casual connections in their surroundings and can manipulate categories, classification systems, and hierarchies into groups 9. formal operation thought- (Piaget) fourth stage of cognitive development (adolescence through adulthood) in which children develop capacities for abstract thought and can conceptualize more complex issues of rules that can be used for problem solving 10. looking glass self- (Cooley) we come to see ourselves as others perceive and respond to us 11. role taking- (Mead) the process of mentally assuming the role of another person to understand the world from their point of view and to anticipate their response to us 12. social learning theory-(Bandura) theory that behavior is learned through modeling and reinforcement agents of socialization from unit 1 low-income families tend to represent a different set of core values than higher- income families o tend to value obedience, conformity, staying out of trouble, and keeping neat and clean over creativity, ambition, independence, curiosity, and good judgment o tend to be more controlling, authoritarian, arbitrary in their discipline, and apt to use physical punishment over being more democratic and receptive o don't talk, show as much affection or warmth to kids 13. racial/ ethnic socialization- teaching minority children about prejudice, discrimination and the coping skills necessary to develop a strong and healthy self image 14. authoritative parenting style- demanding and maintains high levels of control over the children, but is also warm and receptive 15. authoritarian parenting style- strict, punishing, and not very warm 16. permissive parenting style- places few controls or demands on the child mother/ father identities from children- satisfaction, stress, etc. children affect parents...temperament, cognitive abilities, health and well being, sex, and other factors single and teen parents show similar difficulties in raising children lesbian and gay parents must cope with discrimination and tough questions from kids grandparents raising kids have unique problems because of age, relationship, and generational gaps that can occur
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