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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Min-Young Kim

Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 3040

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These notes cover the vocabulary necessary to master the material covered for exam 2. Pictures are included.
Biology of Plants
Christina Wells
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
Vocabulary  Terms:   -­‐ Stele:  the  central  cylinder,  inside  the  cortex,  of  roots  and  stems  of  vascular  plants   -­‐ Protostele:  the  simplest  type  of  stele,   consisting  of  a  solid  column  of  vascular  tissue   -­‐ Siphonostele:  a  type  of  stele  containing  a   hollow  cylinder  of  vascular  tissue  surrounding   a  pith   -­‐ Eustele:  a  stele  in  which  the  primary  vascular   tissues  are  arranged  in  discrete  strands   around  a  pith;  typical  of  gymnosperms  and   angiosperms   -­‐ Leaf  trace:  that  part  of  a   vascular  bundle  extending   from  the  base  of  the  leaf  to   its  connection  with  a   vascular  bundle  in  the  stem   -­‐ Pith:  the  ground  tissue   occupying  the  center  of  the  stem  or  root   within  the  vascular  cylinder;  usually  consists   of  parenchyma   -­‐ Homosporous:  having  only  one  kind   of  spore   -­‐ Heterosporous:  having  two  kinds  of   spores,  designated  as  microspores   and  megaspores   -­‐ Embryophyte:  the  bryophytes  and   vascular  plants,  both  of  which   produce  embryos;  a  synonym  for   plants   -­‐ Lycophyte:  seedless  vascular  plant   belonging  to  the  phylum  Lycophyta   and  characterized  by  microphylls         -­‐ Lycopodiaceae  (club  mosses):  primitive  evergreen   moss-­‐like  plant  with  spores  in  club-­‐shaped  strobiles   -­‐ Selaginella  (spike  mosses):  creeping  mosslike  plant  of   genus  that  includes  lesser  club  mosses,  have  scalelike   leaves  and  produce  one-­‐celled  sporangia  containing   both  megaspores  and  microspores     -­‐ Isoetes  (quillworts):  large  genus  of  fern  allies  comprising   aquatic  quillworts  that  have  short  buried  lobed  stem  from   which  leaves  bearing  sporangia  in  axils  arise   -­‐ Lignin:  one  of  the  most  important  constituents  o f  the  secondary   wall  of  vascular  plants,  although  not  all  secondary  walls  contain   lignin;  after  cellulose,  lignin  is  the  most  abundant  plant  polymer   -­‐ Apical  meristem:  the  meristem  at  the  tip  of  the  root  or  shoot  in   a  vascular  plant   -­‐ Seed:  a  structure  formed  by  maturation  of  the  ovule  of  seed  plants  following   fertilization   -­‐ Microphyll:  a  small  leaf  with  one  vein  and  one  leaf  trace,  not  associated  with  either  a   leaf  gap  or  a  leaf  trace  gap;  in  contrast  to  a  megaphylls.  Microphylls  are  characteristic  of   lycophytes   -­‐ Megaphylls:  generally  large  leaves  with  several  to  many  veins;  its  leaf  trace  (or  traces)  is   (are)  associated  with  a  leaf  gap  in  ferns  and  with  a  leaf  trace  gap  in  seed  plants;  in   contrast  to  a  microphyll.  Also  called  macrophyll   -­‐ Sporangium:  hollow  unicellular  or   multicellular  structure  in  which  spores  are   produced   -­‐ Microsporangium:   sporangium  within   which  microspores  are  formed   -­‐ Megasporangium:   sporangium  in  which   megaspores  are  produced   -­‐ Tracheid:  an  elongated,  thick-­‐walled   conducting  and  supporting  cell  o f  xylem,   with  tapering  ends  and  pitted  walls   without  perforations,  in  contrast  to  a   vessel  element;  found  in  nearly  all   vascular  plants   -­‐ Sieve  element:  The  cell  of  the  phloem  that  is  involved  in  the  long -­‐distance  transport  of   food  substances;  sieve  elements  are  further  classified  into  sieve  cells  and  sieve -­‐tube   cells   -­‐ Sieve  cell:  a  long,  slender  sieve  element  with  relatively  unspecialized  sieve  areas  and   with  tapering  end  walls  that  lack  sieve  plates;  found  in  the  phloem  of  gymnosperms   -­‐ Vascular  tissue:  pertains  to  any  plant  tissue  or  region  consisting  of  or  giving  rise  to   conducting  tissue;  for  example,  xylem,  phloem,  or  vascular  cambium   -­‐ Secondary  growth:  in  plants,  growth  derived  from  secondary  or  lateral  meristems,  the   vascular  cambium  and  cork  cambium,  tha t  results  in  an  increase  in  girth;  in  contrast  to   primary  growth,  which  results  in  an  increase  in  length   -­‐ Secondary  xylem:  cells  formed  toward  inside  of  cambium;   wood   -­‐ Vascular  cambium:  a  cylindrical  sheath  of  meristematic  cells   that  divides  to  produce  secondary  phloem  and  secondary  xylem       -­‐ Monilophyte:  seedless  vascular  plants  including  horsetails,  whisk  ferns,  and  ferns   -­‐ Psilotales:  lower  vascular  plants  having  dichotomously  branched  sporophyte  divided   into  aerial  shoot  and  rhizome  and  lacking  true  roots     -­‐ Psilotum  (whisk  ferns):  genus  of  fern-­‐like  vascular   plants;  highly  reduced/lack  leaves       -­‐ Ophioglossales:  small  clade  of  homosporous  eusporangiate  ferns  of  terrestrial  habitats   in  tropical  and  temperate  regions  worldwide     -­‐ Botrychium:  genus  of  ferns,  known  as  moonworts.  Small,  with   fleshy  roots  and  spores  shed  into  air;  sterile  and  fertile  parts           -­‐ Ophioglossum:  adder’s  tongue  fern;  has  single,  undivided  sterile   leaf.  On  fertile  plants,  sporangial  clusters  embedded  in  single   fleshy  stem         -­‐ Marattiopsida:  tropical  eusporangiate  ferns  with  gigantic   fronts,  pinnately  divided         -­‐ Polypodiopsida:  leptosporangiate  fern;  sporangia  arise  from   single  epidermal  cell  and  not  from  a  group  of  cells;  sporangia  typically   covered  with  indusium,  which  can  cover  whole  sorus     -­‐ Salviniales  (water  ferns):  order  of  ferns  in  class   Polypodiopsida.  All  aquatic  and  differ  from  all  other   ferns  in  being  heterosporous       -­‐ Equisetopsida/Equisetum  (horsetails):  class  of   primitive  spore-­‐bearing  vascular  plants ,  fossil  record   back  to  Devonian     -­‐ Xylem:  a  complex  vascular  tissue  through  which  most  of  the  water  and  minerals  of  a   plant  are  conducted;  characterized  by  the  presence  of  tracheary  elements   -­‐ Phloem:  the  food-­‐conducting  tissue  of  vascular  plants;  composed  of  sieve  elements,   various  kinds  of  parenchyma  cells,  fibers,  and  sclereids   -­‐ Leaf  gap:  in  ferns,  region  of  parenchyma  tissue  in  the  primary  vascular  cylinder  above   the  point  of  departure  of  the  leaf  trace  or  traces   -­‐ Parenchyma:  a  tissue  composed  of  parenchyma  cells:  living,  generally  thin -­‐walled  plant   cell  of  variable  size  and  form;  the  most  abundant  kind  of  cell  in  plants   -­‐ Sporophyte:  the  spore-­‐producing,  diploid  (2n)  phase  in  a  life  cycle  characterized  by   alternation  of  generations   -­‐ Gametophyte:  in  plants  that  have  an  alternation  of  generations,  the  haploid  (n),   gamete-­‐producing  generation,  or  phase   -­‐ Antheridium:  a  sperm-­‐producing  structure  that  may  be   multicellular  or  unicellular   -­‐ Archegonium:  a  multicellular  structure  in  which  a  single   egg  is  produced;  found  in  the  bryophytes  and  some   vascular  plants   -­‐ Spore  mother  cell  (sporocyte):   a  diploid  (2n)  cell  that   undergoes  meiosis  to  produce  (usually)  four  haploid  cells   (spores)  or  four  haploid  nuclei   -­‐ megaspore  mother  cell  (megasporocyte):  a  diploid  cell  in  which  meiosis  produces  four   megaspores.  Also  called  megasporocyte   -­‐ bisexual  gametophyte:  produce  both  sperm  and  eggs,  usually  exosporal  germination   -­‐ unisexual  gametophyte:   separate  male  and  female  plants,  usually  endosporal   germination   -­‐ megaspore:  in  heterosporous  plants,  a  haploid  (n)  spore  that  deve lops  into  a  female   gametophyte;  in  most  groups,  megaspores  are  larger  than  microspores   -­‐ microspore:  in  heterosporous  plants,  often  called   a  pollen  mother  cell   -­‐ megagametophyte:  in  heterosporous  plants,  the   female  gametophyte;  located  in  the  ovule  of  seed   plants   -­‐ microgametophyte:   in  heterosporous  plants,  the   male  gametophyte   -­‐ strobilus/strobili:  a  reproductive  structure  consisting  of  a  number  of  modified  leaves   (sporophylls)  or  ovule  bearing  scales  grouped  terminally  on  a  stem;  a  cone.  Strobili   occur  in  many  kinds  of  gymnosperms,  lycophytes,  and  sphenophytes   -­‐ sporophyll:  a  modified  leaf  or  leaflike  organ  that  bears  sporangia;  a  term  applie  to  the   stamens  and  carpels  of  angiosperms,  fertile  fronds  of  ferns,  and  other,  similar  structures   -­‐ sorus/sori:  a  group  or  cluster  of  sporangia  or  spores   -­‐ indusium:  in  a  fern  leaf,  a  membranous  growth  of  the  epidermis  that  covers  a  sorus   -­‐ Leptosporangia:  a  sporangium  that  arises  from  a  single  initial  cell  and  with  a  wall   composed  of  a  single  layer  of  cells   -­‐ Eusporangia:  a  sporangium  that  arises  from  several  initial   cells  and,  before  maturation,  forms  a  wall  with  more  than  one   layer  of  cells   -­‐ Ligule:  a  minute  outgrowth  or  appendage  at  the  base  of  the   leaves  of  grasses  and  those  of  certain  lycophytes   -­‐ Rhizome:  a  more  or  less  horizontal   underground  stem   -­‐ Corm:  a  thickened  underground  stem,  upright  in  position,  in   which  food  is  accumulated,  usually  in  the  form  of  starch   -­‐ Microsporophyll:   a  leaflike  organ  bearing  one  or  more  microsporangia   -­‐ Megasporophylls:   a  leaf  or  leaflike  structure  bearing  a  megasporangium   -­‐ Suspensor:  a  structure  at  the  base  of  the  embryo  in  many  vascular  plants.  In  some   plants,  it  pushes  the  embryo  into  nutrient -­‐rich  tissue  of  the  female  gametophyte   -­‐ Tapetum:  nutritive  tissue  in  the  sporangium,  particularly  an  anther   -­‐ sporogenous  cells/tissue:  cells/tissue  that  produce  spores  or  reproduce  by  means  of   spores   -­‐ sporangiophores:  a  branch  bearing  one  or  more  sporangia   -­‐ epiphyte:  an  organism  that  grows  upon,  but  is  not  parasitic  on,  another  organism     -­‐ annulus:  in  ferns,  a  row  of  specialized  cells  in  a  sporangium;  in  gill  fungi,  the  remnant  of   the  inner  veil  forming  a  ring  on  the  stalk   -­‐ circinate  vernation:  in  ferns,  the  coiled  arrangement  of  leaves  and  leaflets  in  the  bud;   such  an  arrangement  uncoils  gradually  as  the  leaf  develops   -­‐ frond:  the  leaf  of  a  fern;  any  large,  undivided  leaf   -­‐ blade:  the  broad,  expanded  part  of  a  leaf;  the   lamina   -­‐ stalk:  the  main  stem  of  herbaceous  plant   -­‐ rachis:  the  main  axis  of  a  spike;  in  ferns,  the  axis   of  a  leaf  from  which  the  pinnae  arise;  in   compound  leaves,  the  extension  of  the  petiole   corresponding  to  the  midrib  of  an  entire  leaf   -­‐ pinna:  a  primary  division,  or  leaflet,  of  a   compound  leaf  or  frond;  may  be  divided  into   pinnules   -­‐ prothallus:  in  homosporous  vascular  plants,  such   as  ferns,  the  more  or  less  independe nt,   photosynthetic  gametophyte.  Also  called  the  prothallium   -­‐ node:  the  part  of  a  stem  where  one  or  more  leaves  are  attached   -­‐ internode:  the  region  of  a  stem  between  two  successive  nodes   -­‐ ovule:  a  structure  in  seed  plants  containing  the  female  gametophyte  with  egg  cell,  all   surrounded  by  the  nucellus  and  one  or  two  integuments;  when  mature,  an  ovule   becomes  a  seed   -­‐ nucellus:  inner  part  of  an  ovule,  in  which  the  embryo  sac  develops;  equivalent  to  a   megasporangium   -­‐ micropyle:  in  the  ovules  of  seed  plants,  the  opening  in  the  integuments  through  which   the  pollen  tube  usually  enters   -­‐ integument:  the  outermost  layer  or  layers  of  tissue  enveloping  the  nucellus  of  an  ovule;   develops  into  the  seed  coat   -­‐ seed  coat:  the  outer  layer  of  the  seed,  developed  from  the  integuments  o f  the  ovule   -­‐ epidermis:  the  outermost  layer  of  cells  of  the  leaf  and  young  stems  and  roots;  primary   in  origin   -­‐ cortex:  ground  tissue  region  of  stem  or  root,  bounded  externally  by  the  epidermis  and   internally  by  the  vascular  system;  a  primary  tissue  region   -­‐ vascular  bundle:  a  strand  of  tissue  containing  primary  xylem  and  primary  phloem  (and   procambium,  if  still  present)and  frequently  enclosed  by  a  bundle  sheath  of  parenchyma   or  fibers   -­‐ procambium:  a  primary  meristematic  tissue  that  gives  rise  to  primary  vascular  tissues   -­‐ interfasicular  parenchyma:  region  between  vascular  bundles  in  stem   -­‐ secondary  xylem  (wood):  xylem  formed  as  a  result  of  secondary  growth  from  vascular   cambium;  absent  in  non-­‐woody  plants  and  present  in  trees  and  shrubs.  Cell  walls   thickened  by  deposition  of  lignin   -­‐ secondary  phloem:  phloem  derived  from   secondary  meristems  of  vascular  plant;   distinctive  feature  of  most  dicot  plants     -­‐ conifers:  a  cone-­‐bearing  tree             -­‐ cycads:  palmlike  plant  of  tropical  and   subtropical  regions,  bearing  large  male  or   female  cones.  Cycads  were  abundant  during   the  Triassic  and  Jurassic  eras,  but  have  since   been  in  decline.           -­‐ Ginkgos:  deciduous  Chines  tree  related  to   conifers,  with  fan-­‐shaped  leaves  and  yellow  flowers.   Has  number  of  primitive  features  and  is  similar  to   some  Jurassic  fossils         -­‐ Gnetophytes:  small  group  of  gymnospermous  vascular  plants  represented  by  three   living  genera:  Ephedra,  Gnetum,  and  Welwit schia   -­‐ Dioecious:  unisexual;  having  male  and  female  (or  staminate  and  ovulate)  elements  on   different  individuals  of  the  same  species   -­‐ Monoecious:  having  the  anthers  and  carpels  produced  in  separate  flowers  on  the  same   individual   -­‐ pollinate  cone:  male  cones  that  give  rise  to  microspores,  which  produce  pollen  grains   -­‐ ovulate  cone:  female  cones  that  give  rise  to  megaspor es,  which  produce  ovules   -­‐ ovuliferous  scale:  in  certain  conifers,  the  appendage  or  scalelike  shoot  to  which  the   ovule  is  attached   -­‐ pollen:  a  collective  term  for  pollen  grains   –  in  seed  plants,  a  microspore  containing  a   mature  or  immature  microgametophyte   -­‐ prothallial  cells:  the  sterile  cell  or  cells   found  in  the  male  gametophytes,  or   microgametophytes,  of  vascular  plants   other  than  angiosperms;  believed  to  be   remnants  of  the  vegetative  tissue  of  the   male  gametophyte   -­‐ generative  cell:  in  many  gymnosperms,  the   cell  of  the  male  gametophyte  that  divides  to   form  the  sterile  and  spermatogenous  cells;   in  angiosperms,  the  cell  of  the  male   gametophyte  that  divides  to  form  two   sperm   -­‐ tube  cell:  in  male  gametophytes,  or  pollen  grains,  of  seed  plants,  the  cell  that  develops   into  the  pollen  tube.  Also  called  a  vegetative  cell   -­‐ sterile  bract:  specialized  leaf  or  leaflike  part,  usually  situated  at  base  of  flower  or   inflorescence   -­‐ pollination:  in  angiosperms,  the  transfer  of  pollen  from  an  anther  to  a  stigma.  In   gymnosperms,  the  transfer  of  pollen  from  a  pollen-­‐producing  cone  directly  to  an  ovule   -­‐ fertilization:  the  fusion  of  two  gamete  nuclei  to  form  a  diploid  zygote.  Also  called   syngamy   -­‐ pollination  drop:  drop  of  sugary  fluid  that  is  secreted  into  the  micropyle  at  time  of   pollination  in  many  gymnosperms,  and  traps  pollen  grains  that  may  then  float  up  to   nucellus  or  be  drawn  there  by  reabsorption  of  the  drop   -­‐ pollen  tube:  a  tube  formed  after  germination  of  the  pollen  grain;  carries  the  male   gametes  into  the  ovule   -­‐ sterile  cell:  one  of  two  cells  produced  by  division  of  the  generative  cell  in  developing   pollen  grains  of  gymnosperms;  it  is  not  a  gamete,  and  eventually  degenerates   -­‐ spermatogenous  cell:  the  cell  of  the  male  gametophyte,  or  pollen  grain,  of   gymnosperms,  which  divides  mitotical ly  to  form  two  sperm   -­‐ cotyledon:  seed  leaf;  generally  absorbs  food  in  monocotyledons  and  stores  food  in   other  angiosperms   -­‐ hypocotyl:  the  portion  of  an  embryo  or  seedling  situated  between  the  point  of   attachment  of  the  cotyledons,  consisting  of  the  hypocotyl  and  the  apical  meristem  of   the  root  or  radicle   -­‐ gymnosperm:  a  seed  plant  with  seeds  not  enclosed  in  an  ovary;  the  conifers  are  the   most  familiar  group;  extant  gymnosperms  constitute  a  monophyletic  group   -­‐ angiosperm:  literally,  a  seed  borne  in  a  vessel  (carpel);  thus  one  of  a  group  of  plants   whose  seeds  are  borne  within  a  mature  ovary  (fruit)     -­‐ Ephedra:  evergreen  shrub  of  warm,  arid  regions  that  has   trailing  or  climbing  stems  and  tiny,  scalelike  leaves       -­‐ Gnetum:  tropical  evergreen  trees,  shrubs  and  lianas.   Unlike  other  gymnosperms,  they  possess  vessel  elements  in  the   xylem     -­‐ Welwitschia:  gymnospermous  plant  of  desert  regions  in   southwestern  Africa  that  has  dwarf,  massive  trunk,  two  long   strap-­‐shaped  leaves,  and  male  and  female  flowers  in  the   scales  and  scarlet  cones     -­‐ Aril:  an  accessory  seed  covering,  often  formed  by  an  outgrowth  at  the  base  of  the  ovule;   often  brightly  colored,  which  may  aid  in  dispersal  by  attracting  animals  that  eat  it  and,  in   the  process,  carry  the  seed  away  from  the  parent  plant   -­‐ motile  vs.  nonmotile  sperm:  motile  sperm  has  flagella  to  propel  it  along.  Nonmotile  cell   lacks  flagellum  and  does  not  swim   -­‐ sarcotesta:  outer  and  usually  soft  fleshy  part  of  the  testa  in  various  seeds  (as  of  a  cycad)   -­‐ hemiparasite:  a  plant  that  obtains  or  may  obtain  p art  of  its  food  by  parasitism,  e.g.   mistletoe,  which  also  photosynthesizes   -­‐ holoparasite:  a  plant  that  obtains  all  of  its  food  by  parasitism   -­‐ sepal:  one  of  the  outermost  flower  structures,  a  unit  of  the  calyx;  sepals  usually  enclose   the  other  flower  parts  in  the  bud   -­‐ calyx:  the  sepals  collectively;  the  outermost  flower  whorl   -­‐ petal:  a  flower  part,  usually  conspicuously  colored;  one  of  the  units  of  the  corolla   -­‐ corolla:  the  petals  collectively;  usually,  the  conspicuously  colored  flower  whorl   -­‐ stamen:  the  part  of  the  flower  producing  the  pollen,  composed  (usually)  of  anther  and   filament;  collectively,  the  stamens  make  up  the  androecium   -­‐ anther:  the  pollen-­‐bearing  portion  of  a  stamen   -­‐ filament:  the  stalk  of  a  stamen   -­‐ carpel:  one  of  the  members  of  the  gynoecium,  or  inne r  floral  whorl;  each  carpel   encloses  one  or  more  ovules.  One  or  more  carpels  form  a  gynoecium   -­‐ pistil:  sometimes  used  to  refer  to  an  individual  carpel  or  a  group  of  fused  carpels   -­‐ stigma:  the  region  of  carpel  that  serves  as  a  receptive  surface  for  pollen  gra ins  and  on   which  they  germinate   -­‐ style:  a  slender  column  of  tissue  that  arises  from  the  top  of  the  ovary  and  through  which   the  pollen  tube  grows   -­‐ ovary:  the  enlarged  basal  portion  of  a  carpel  or  of  a  gynoecium  composed  of  fused   carpels;  a  mature  ovary,  somet imes  with  other  adherent  parts,  is  a  fruit   -­‐ placenta:  the  part  of  the  ovary  wall  to  which  the  ovules  or  seeds  are  attached   -­‐ funiculus:  the  stalk  of  an  ovule   -­‐ receptacle:  the  part  of  the  axis  of  a  flower  stalk  that  bears  the  floral  organs   -­‐ superior  ovary:  an  ovary  that  is  free  and  separate  from  the  calyx   -­‐ inferior  ovary:  an  ovary  completely  or  partially  attached  to  the  calyx;  the  other  floral   whorls  appear  to  arise  from  the  top  of  the  ovary   -­‐ fruit:  in  angiosperms,  a  mature,  ripened  ovary  (or  group  of  ovaries)  cont aining  the   seeds,  together  with  any  adjacent  parts  that  may  be  fused  with  it  at  maturity;   sometimes  the  term  is  applied  informally,  and  misleadingly,  as  in  “fruiting  body,”  to  the   reproductive  structures  of  other  kinds  of  organisms   -­‐ locule:  a  cavity  within  a  sporangium  or  an  ovary  in  which  ovules  occur   -­‐ perfect  flowers:  a  flower  having  both  stamens  and  carpels;  hermaphroditic  flower   -­‐ imperfect  flowers:  a  flower  lacking  either  stamens  or  carpels   -­‐ complete  flowers:  a  flower  having  four  whorls  of  floral  parts   –  sepals,  petals,  stamens,   and  carpels   -­‐ incomplete  flowers:  a  flower  lacking  one  or  more  of  the  four  kinds  of  floral  parts,  that   is,  lacking  sepals,  petals,  stamens,  or  carpels   -­‐ connate  floral  structures:  referring  to  similar  parts  that  are  united  or  fused,  such  as   petals  fused  in  a  corolla  tube   -­‐ adnate  floral  structures:   describing  fused  unlike  parts,  such  as  stamens  and  petals   -­‐ double  fertilization:  broadly,  two  fertilization  events  in  a  single  female  gametophyte  by   two  sperm  cells  from  a  single  pollen  tube.  In  a ngiosperms,  the  fusion  of  egg  and  sperm   (resulting  in  a  2n  fertilized  egg,  the  zygote)  and  the  simultaneous  fusion  of  a  second   male  gamete  with  the  polar  nuclei  (typically  resulting  in  a  3 n  primary  endosperm   nucleus);  a  unique  characteristic  of  all  angiosp erms.  By  definition,  double  fertilization   also  occurs  in  gnetophytes,  but  the  second  fertilization  event  does  not  result  in   endosperm  formation  and  instead  forms  an  extra  embryo  that  ultimately  aborts   -­‐ embryo  sac:  the  female  gametophyte  of  angiosperms,  gen erally  an  eight-­‐nucleate,   seven-­‐celled  structure;  the  seven  cells  are  the  egg  cell,  two  synergids,  and  three   antipodals  (each  with  a  single  nucleus),  and  the  central  cell  (with  two  nuclei)   -­‐ synergid:  in  flowering  plants,  two  short-­‐lived  cells  lying  close  to  the  egg  in  the  mature   embryo  sac  of  the  ovule.  Amborella  is  an  exception,  with  three  synergids   -­‐ polar  nuclei:  two  nuclei  (usually),  one  derived  from  each  end  (pole)  of  the  embryo  sac,   which  become  centrally  located;  they  fuse  with  a  male  nucleus  to  form  th e  primary   (typically  3n)  endosperm  nucleus   -­‐ antipodals:  three  (sometimes  more)  cells  of  the  mature  embryo  sac,  located  at  the  end   opposite  the  micropyle   -­‐ endosperm:  a  tissue,  containing  stored  food,  that   develops  from  the  union  of  a  male  nucleus  and   the  polar  nuclei  of  the  central  cell;  it  is  digested   by  the  growing  sporophyte  before  or  after   maturation  of  the  seed;  found  only  in   angiosperms   -­‐ triple  fusion:  in  angiosperms,  the  fusion  of  the   second  male  gamete,  or  sperm,  with  the  polar   nuclei,  resulting  in  form ation  of  a  primary   endosperm  nucleus,  which  is  triploid   (3n)  in  most   angiosperms   -­‐ pericarp:  the  fruit  wall,  which  develops  from  the  mature  ovary  wall   -­‐ endo-­‐:  prefix  meaning  “within”   -­‐ meso-­‐:  prefix  meaning  “middle”   -­‐ exocarps:  the  outermost  layer  of  the  mature  ovary  wall,  or  pericarp  


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