Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 3040
Popular in Biology of Plants
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
Reviews for Exam 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/17/16
Vocabulary Terms: -‐ Stele: the central cylinder, inside the cortex, of roots and stems of vascular plants -‐ Protostele: the simplest type of stele, consisting of a solid column of vascular tissue -‐ Siphonostele: a type of stele containing a hollow cylinder of vascular tissue surrounding a pith -‐ Eustele: a stele in which the primary vascular tissues are arranged in discrete strands around a pith; typical of gymnosperms and angiosperms -‐ Leaf trace: that part of a vascular bundle extending from the base of the leaf to its connection with a vascular bundle in the stem -‐ Pith: the ground tissue occupying the center of the stem or root within the vascular cylinder; usually consists of parenchyma -‐ Homosporous: having only one kind of spore -‐ Heterosporous: having two kinds of spores, designated as microspores and megaspores -‐ Embryophyte: the bryophytes and vascular plants, both of which produce embryos; a synonym for plants -‐ Lycophyte: seedless vascular plant belonging to the phylum Lycophyta and characterized by microphylls -‐ Lycopodiaceae (club mosses): primitive evergreen moss-‐like plant with spores in club-‐shaped strobiles -‐ Selaginella (spike mosses): creeping mosslike plant of genus that includes lesser club mosses, have scalelike leaves and produce one-‐celled sporangia containing both megaspores and microspores -‐ Isoetes (quillworts): large genus of fern allies comprising aquatic quillworts that have short buried lobed stem from which leaves bearing sporangia in axils arise -‐ Lignin: one of the most important constituents o f the secondary wall of vascular plants, although not all secondary walls contain lignin; after cellulose, lignin is the most abundant plant polymer -‐ Apical meristem: the meristem at the tip of the root or shoot in a vascular plant -‐ Seed: a structure formed by maturation of the ovule of seed plants following fertilization -‐ Microphyll: a small leaf with one vein and one leaf trace, not associated with either a leaf gap or a leaf trace gap; in contrast to a megaphylls. Microphylls are characteristic of lycophytes -‐ Megaphylls: generally large leaves with several to many veins; its leaf trace (or traces) is (are) associated with a leaf gap in ferns and with a leaf trace gap in seed plants; in contrast to a microphyll. Also called macrophyll -‐ Sporangium: hollow unicellular or multicellular structure in which spores are produced -‐ Microsporangium: sporangium within which microspores are formed -‐ Megasporangium: sporangium in which megaspores are produced -‐ Tracheid: an elongated, thick-‐walled conducting and supporting cell o f xylem, with tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, in contrast to a vessel element; found in nearly all vascular plants -‐ Sieve element: The cell of the phloem that is involved in the long -‐distance transport of food substances; sieve elements are further classified into sieve cells and sieve -‐tube cells -‐ Sieve cell: a long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms -‐ Vascular tissue: pertains to any plant tissue or region consisting of or giving rise to conducting tissue; for example, xylem, phloem, or vascular cambium -‐ Secondary growth: in plants, growth derived from secondary or lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and cork cambium, tha t results in an increase in girth; in contrast to primary growth, which results in an increase in length -‐ Secondary xylem: cells formed toward inside of cambium; wood -‐ Vascular cambium: a cylindrical sheath of meristematic cells that divides to produce secondary phloem and secondary xylem -‐ Monilophyte: seedless vascular plants including horsetails, whisk ferns, and ferns -‐ Psilotales: lower vascular plants having dichotomously branched sporophyte divided into aerial shoot and rhizome and lacking true roots -‐ Psilotum (whisk ferns): genus of fern-‐like vascular plants; highly reduced/lack leaves -‐ Ophioglossales: small clade of homosporous eusporangiate ferns of terrestrial habitats in tropical and temperate regions worldwide -‐ Botrychium: genus of ferns, known as moonworts. Small, with fleshy roots and spores shed into air; sterile and fertile parts -‐ Ophioglossum: adder’s tongue fern; has single, undivided sterile leaf. On fertile plants, sporangial clusters embedded in single fleshy stem -‐ Marattiopsida: tropical eusporangiate ferns with gigantic fronts, pinnately divided -‐ Polypodiopsida: leptosporangiate fern; sporangia arise from single epidermal cell and not from a group of cells; sporangia typically covered with indusium, which can cover whole sorus -‐ Salviniales (water ferns): order of ferns in class Polypodiopsida. All aquatic and differ from all other ferns in being heterosporous -‐ Equisetopsida/Equisetum (horsetails): class of primitive spore-‐bearing vascular plants , fossil record back to Devonian -‐ Xylem: a complex vascular tissue through which most of the water and minerals of a plant are conducted; characterized by the presence of tracheary elements -‐ Phloem: the food-‐conducting tissue of vascular plants; composed of sieve elements, various kinds of parenchyma cells, fibers, and sclereids -‐ Leaf gap: in ferns, region of parenchyma tissue in the primary vascular cylinder above the point of departure of the leaf trace or traces -‐ Parenchyma: a tissue composed of parenchyma cells: living, generally thin -‐walled plant cell of variable size and form; the most abundant kind of cell in plants -‐ Sporophyte: the spore-‐producing, diploid (2n) phase in a life cycle characterized by alternation of generations -‐ Gametophyte: in plants that have an alternation of generations, the haploid (n), gamete-‐producing generation, or phase -‐ Antheridium: a sperm-‐producing structure that may be multicellular or unicellular -‐ Archegonium: a multicellular structure in which a single egg is produced; found in the bryophytes and some vascular plants -‐ Spore mother cell (sporocyte): a diploid (2n) cell that undergoes meiosis to produce (usually) four haploid cells (spores) or four haploid nuclei -‐ megaspore mother cell (megasporocyte): a diploid cell in which meiosis produces four megaspores. Also called megasporocyte -‐ bisexual gametophyte: produce both sperm and eggs, usually exosporal germination -‐ unisexual gametophyte: separate male and female plants, usually endosporal germination -‐ megaspore: in heterosporous plants, a haploid (n) spore that deve lops into a female gametophyte; in most groups, megaspores are larger than microspores -‐ microspore: in heterosporous plants, often called a pollen mother cell -‐ megagametophyte: in heterosporous plants, the female gametophyte; located in the ovule of seed plants -‐ microgametophyte: in heterosporous plants, the male gametophyte -‐ strobilus/strobili: a reproductive structure consisting of a number of modified leaves (sporophylls) or ovule bearing scales grouped terminally on a stem; a cone. Strobili occur in many kinds of gymnosperms, lycophytes, and sphenophytes -‐ sporophyll: a modified leaf or leaflike organ that bears sporangia; a term applie to the stamens and carpels of angiosperms, fertile fronds of ferns, and other, similar structures -‐ sorus/sori: a group or cluster of sporangia or spores -‐ indusium: in a fern leaf, a membranous growth of the epidermis that covers a sorus -‐ Leptosporangia: a sporangium that arises from a single initial cell and with a wall composed of a single layer of cells -‐ Eusporangia: a sporangium that arises from several initial cells and, before maturation, forms a wall with more than one layer of cells -‐ Ligule: a minute outgrowth or appendage at the base of the leaves of grasses and those of certain lycophytes -‐ Rhizome: a more or less horizontal underground stem -‐ Corm: a thickened underground stem, upright in position, in which food is accumulated, usually in the form of starch -‐ Microsporophyll: a leaflike organ bearing one or more microsporangia -‐ Megasporophylls: a leaf or leaflike structure bearing a megasporangium -‐ Suspensor: a structure at the base of the embryo in many vascular plants. In some plants, it pushes the embryo into nutrient -‐rich tissue of the female gametophyte -‐ Tapetum: nutritive tissue in the sporangium, particularly an anther -‐ sporogenous cells/tissue: cells/tissue that produce spores or reproduce by means of spores -‐ sporangiophores: a branch bearing one or more sporangia -‐ epiphyte: an organism that grows upon, but is not parasitic on, another organism -‐ annulus: in ferns, a row of specialized cells in a sporangium; in gill fungi, the remnant of the inner veil forming a ring on the stalk -‐ circinate vernation: in ferns, the coiled arrangement of leaves and leaflets in the bud; such an arrangement uncoils gradually as the leaf develops -‐ frond: the leaf of a fern; any large, undivided leaf -‐ blade: the broad, expanded part of a leaf; the lamina -‐ stalk: the main stem of herbaceous plant -‐ rachis: the main axis of a spike; in ferns, the axis of a leaf from which the pinnae arise; in compound leaves, the extension of the petiole corresponding to the midrib of an entire leaf -‐ pinna: a primary division, or leaflet, of a compound leaf or frond; may be divided into pinnules -‐ prothallus: in homosporous vascular plants, such as ferns, the more or less independe nt, photosynthetic gametophyte. Also called the prothallium -‐ node: the part of a stem where one or more leaves are attached -‐ internode: the region of a stem between two successive nodes -‐ ovule: a structure in seed plants containing the female gametophyte with egg cell, all surrounded by the nucellus and one or two integuments; when mature, an ovule becomes a seed -‐ nucellus: inner part of an ovule, in which the embryo sac develops; equivalent to a megasporangium -‐ micropyle: in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters -‐ integument: the outermost layer or layers of tissue enveloping the nucellus of an ovule; develops into the seed coat -‐ seed coat: the outer layer of the seed, developed from the integuments o f the ovule -‐ epidermis: the outermost layer of cells of the leaf and young stems and roots; primary in origin -‐ cortex: ground tissue region of stem or root, bounded externally by the epidermis and internally by the vascular system; a primary tissue region -‐ vascular bundle: a strand of tissue containing primary xylem and primary phloem (and procambium, if still present)and frequently enclosed by a bundle sheath of parenchyma or fibers -‐ procambium: a primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to primary vascular tissues -‐ interfasicular parenchyma: region between vascular bundles in stem -‐ secondary xylem (wood): xylem formed as a result of secondary growth from vascular cambium; absent in non-‐woody plants and present in trees and shrubs. Cell walls thickened by deposition of lignin -‐ secondary phloem: phloem derived from secondary meristems of vascular plant; distinctive feature of most dicot plants -‐ conifers: a cone-‐bearing tree -‐ cycads: palmlike plant of tropical and subtropical regions, bearing large male or female cones. Cycads were abundant during the Triassic and Jurassic eras, but have since been in decline. -‐ Ginkgos: deciduous Chines tree related to conifers, with fan-‐shaped leaves and yellow flowers. Has number of primitive features and is similar to some Jurassic fossils -‐ Gnetophytes: small group of gymnospermous vascular plants represented by three living genera: Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwit schia -‐ Dioecious: unisexual; having male and female (or staminate and ovulate) elements on different individuals of the same species -‐ Monoecious: having the anthers and carpels produced in separate flowers on the same individual -‐ pollinate cone: male cones that give rise to microspores, which produce pollen grains -‐ ovulate cone: female cones that give rise to megaspor es, which produce ovules -‐ ovuliferous scale: in certain conifers, the appendage or scalelike shoot to which the ovule is attached -‐ pollen: a collective term for pollen grains – in seed plants, a microspore containing a mature or immature microgametophyte -‐ prothallial cells: the sterile cell or cells found in the male gametophytes, or microgametophytes, of vascular plants other than angiosperms; believed to be remnants of the vegetative tissue of the male gametophyte -‐ generative cell: in many gymnosperms, the cell of the male gametophyte that divides to form the sterile and spermatogenous cells; in angiosperms, the cell of the male gametophyte that divides to form two sperm -‐ tube cell: in male gametophytes, or pollen grains, of seed plants, the cell that develops into the pollen tube. Also called a vegetative cell -‐ sterile bract: specialized leaf or leaflike part, usually situated at base of flower or inflorescence -‐ pollination: in angiosperms, the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. In gymnosperms, the transfer of pollen from a pollen-‐producing cone directly to an ovule -‐ fertilization: the fusion of two gamete nuclei to form a diploid zygote. Also called syngamy -‐ pollination drop: drop of sugary fluid that is secreted into the micropyle at time of pollination in many gymnosperms, and traps pollen grains that may then float up to nucellus or be drawn there by reabsorption of the drop -‐ pollen tube: a tube formed after germination of the pollen grain; carries the male gametes into the ovule -‐ sterile cell: one of two cells produced by division of the generative cell in developing pollen grains of gymnosperms; it is not a gamete, and eventually degenerates -‐ spermatogenous cell: the cell of the male gametophyte, or pollen grain, of gymnosperms, which divides mitotical ly to form two sperm -‐ cotyledon: seed leaf; generally absorbs food in monocotyledons and stores food in other angiosperms -‐ hypocotyl: the portion of an embryo or seedling situated between the point of attachment of the cotyledons, consisting of the hypocotyl and the apical meristem of the root or radicle -‐ gymnosperm: a seed plant with seeds not enclosed in an ovary; the conifers are the most familiar group; extant gymnosperms constitute a monophyletic group -‐ angiosperm: literally, a seed borne in a vessel (carpel); thus one of a group of plants whose seeds are borne within a mature ovary (fruit) -‐ Ephedra: evergreen shrub of warm, arid regions that has trailing or climbing stems and tiny, scalelike leaves -‐ Gnetum: tropical evergreen trees, shrubs and lianas. Unlike other gymnosperms, they possess vessel elements in the xylem -‐ Welwitschia: gymnospermous plant of desert regions in southwestern Africa that has dwarf, massive trunk, two long strap-‐shaped leaves, and male and female flowers in the scales and scarlet cones -‐ Aril: an accessory seed covering, often formed by an outgrowth at the base of the ovule; often brightly colored, which may aid in dispersal by attracting animals that eat it and, in the process, carry the seed away from the parent plant -‐ motile vs. nonmotile sperm: motile sperm has flagella to propel it along. Nonmotile cell lacks flagellum and does not swim -‐ sarcotesta: outer and usually soft fleshy part of the testa in various seeds (as of a cycad) -‐ hemiparasite: a plant that obtains or may obtain p art of its food by parasitism, e.g. mistletoe, which also photosynthesizes -‐ holoparasite: a plant that obtains all of its food by parasitism -‐ sepal: one of the outermost flower structures, a unit of the calyx; sepals usually enclose the other flower parts in the bud -‐ calyx: the sepals collectively; the outermost flower whorl -‐ petal: a flower part, usually conspicuously colored; one of the units of the corolla -‐ corolla: the petals collectively; usually, the conspicuously colored flower whorl -‐ stamen: the part of the flower producing the pollen, composed (usually) of anther and filament; collectively, the stamens make up the androecium -‐ anther: the pollen-‐bearing portion of a stamen -‐ filament: the stalk of a stamen -‐ carpel: one of the members of the gynoecium, or inne r floral whorl; each carpel encloses one or more ovules. One or more carpels form a gynoecium -‐ pistil: sometimes used to refer to an individual carpel or a group of fused carpels -‐ stigma: the region of carpel that serves as a receptive surface for pollen gra ins and on which they germinate -‐ style: a slender column of tissue that arises from the top of the ovary and through which the pollen tube grows -‐ ovary: the enlarged basal portion of a carpel or of a gynoecium composed of fused carpels; a mature ovary, somet imes with other adherent parts, is a fruit -‐ placenta: the part of the ovary wall to which the ovules or seeds are attached -‐ funiculus: the stalk of an ovule -‐ receptacle: the part of the axis of a flower stalk that bears the floral organs -‐ superior ovary: an ovary that is free and separate from the calyx -‐ inferior ovary: an ovary completely or partially attached to the calyx; the other floral whorls appear to arise from the top of the ovary -‐ fruit: in angiosperms, a mature, ripened ovary (or group of ovaries) cont aining the seeds, together with any adjacent parts that may be fused with it at maturity; sometimes the term is applied informally, and misleadingly, as in “fruiting body,” to the reproductive structures of other kinds of organisms -‐ locule: a cavity within a sporangium or an ovary in which ovules occur -‐ perfect flowers: a flower having both stamens and carpels; hermaphroditic flower -‐ imperfect flowers: a flower lacking either stamens or carpels -‐ complete flowers: a flower having four whorls of floral parts – sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels -‐ incomplete flowers: a flower lacking one or more of the four kinds of floral parts, that is, lacking sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels -‐ connate floral structures: referring to similar parts that are united or fused, such as petals fused in a corolla tube -‐ adnate floral structures: describing fused unlike parts, such as stamens and petals -‐ double fertilization: broadly, two fertilization events in a single female gametophyte by two sperm cells from a single pollen tube. In a ngiosperms, the fusion of egg and sperm (resulting in a 2n fertilized egg, the zygote) and the simultaneous fusion of a second male gamete with the polar nuclei (typically resulting in a 3 n primary endosperm nucleus); a unique characteristic of all angiosp erms. By definition, double fertilization also occurs in gnetophytes, but the second fertilization event does not result in endosperm formation and instead forms an extra embryo that ultimately aborts -‐ embryo sac: the female gametophyte of angiosperms, gen erally an eight-‐nucleate, seven-‐celled structure; the seven cells are the egg cell, two synergids, and three antipodals (each with a single nucleus), and the central cell (with two nuclei) -‐ synergid: in flowering plants, two short-‐lived cells lying close to the egg in the mature embryo sac of the ovule. Amborella is an exception, with three synergids -‐ polar nuclei: two nuclei (usually), one derived from each end (pole) of the embryo sac, which become centrally located; they fuse with a male nucleus to form th e primary (typically 3n) endosperm nucleus -‐ antipodals: three (sometimes more) cells of the mature embryo sac, located at the end opposite the micropyle -‐ endosperm: a tissue, containing stored food, that develops from the union of a male nucleus and the polar nuclei of the central cell; it is digested by the growing sporophyte before or after maturation of the seed; found only in angiosperms -‐ triple fusion: in angiosperms, the fusion of the second male gamete, or sperm, with the polar nuclei, resulting in form ation of a primary endosperm nucleus, which is triploid (3n) in most angiosperms -‐ pericarp: the fruit wall, which develops from the mature ovary wall -‐ endo-‐: prefix meaning “within” -‐ meso-‐: prefix meaning “middle” -‐ exocarps: the outermost layer of the mature ovary wall, or pericarp
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'