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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Mitchen on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 352 at a university taught by Dr. Gilpin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 540 views.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
PY 352 Study Guide for Exam 2 I. 4 Theories of Cognitive Development II. Piagetian Theory a. Constructivist Theory- formed originally by Jean Piaget b. “Little Scientists” c. Clinical Interviews (own children) d. Mechanisms of Change i. Assimilation- you learn something new and incorporate it into what you already know ii. Accommodation- what happens when it cant be assimilated because your knowledge of the world is incomplete EX. Whale is not a fish but a mammal iii. Equilibration- the process you’re trying to get to. State of Rest e. Stages of Cognitive Development i. Sensorimotor (0-2 years)- intelligence is expressed through senses and motor abilities 1. Substages 1-6 2. Object permanence (8 mos): the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view 3. A not B error: the tendency to reach for a hidden object where it was last found rather than in the new location where it was last hidden 4. Deferred Imitation: the repetition of other people’s behavior a substantial tie after it originally occurred ii. Preoperational (2-7 years): children become able to represent their experience in language, mental imagery, and symbolic thought 1. Symbolic representation (pretend play)- symbol for something else 2. Egocentrism- thinking that everyone sees the world with the same prospective (same with feelings) 3. Centration- focus on one aspect of a problem instead of multiple aspects 4. Conservation tasks- consider multiple aspects of a problem 5. 3 mountains task 6. Theory of mind and tasks to measure it iii. Concrete Operational (age 7-12): children become able to reason logically about concrete objects and events 1. Concrete reasoning 2. Systematic thinking (lack of) 3. Pendulum iv. Formal Operational (age 12 and beyond): people become able to think about abstractions and hypothetical situations 1. Who reaches formal operation- not everyone reaches formal operations 2. All possible answers to problem 3. Logic and Reason (hypothetical or abstract) 4. Truth, Justice, and morality v. Piaget’s Strengths and Weaknesses 1. Strength: can apply to many domains 2. Strength: spans infancy to adolescence 3. Strength: well supported with research 4. Weaknesses: implies consistency of thought within a stage 5. Weakness: task performance underestimates child competency 6. Weakness: understates importance of child’s sociocultural environment 7. Weakness: mechanisms of change are vague III. Information Processing Theory: a class of theories that focus on the structure of the cognitive system and the mental activities used to deploy attention and memory to solve problems a. Task analysis: the research technique of identifying goals, relevant information in the environment, and potential processing strategies for a problem b. Problem solving: the process of attaining a goal by using a strategy to overcome an obstacle c. Compares thinking to computing d. Child Active e. Continuous Development f. Focused on mechanisms of change g. Structural characteristics h. Processes i. Memory- structure and processes i. Structures: sensory, short, long episodic, somatic ii. Processes: rehearsal, associations, pneumonics, “grouping” j. Other types of Information Processing Theories i. Neo-piagetian (Case) ii. Psychometric (Sternberg) iii. Production System (Klahr) iv. Connectionist (MacWhitney) v. Evolutionary (Siegler) IV. Core Knowledge Theory a. Innate b. Domain specific vs. Domain General c. Give Examples of i. Language acquisition ii. Face recognition iii. Continuity and solidity of objects iv. Recognizing living things v. Way finding V. Sociocultural Theory: approaches that emphasize that other people and the surrounding culture contribute greatly to children’s development a. Vygotsky b. Social and cultural context affects kids’ cognitions c. Active and not independent d. Innate capacities (similar to animals) e. Environment develops capacities (cognitive development) f. Language in relation to cognitive development i. Narration and scripts g. Cultural and social interactions h. Behaviors and demonstrate development i. Private speech ii. Pretend play i. Terms used in education i. Zone of proximal developemt ii. Scaffolding iii. Intersubjectivity iv. Assisted discovery v. Peer collaboration vi. Reciprocal teaching vii. Cooperative learning j. Strengths and weaknesses 1. Strength: explains cultural variation in cognitive skills 2. Strength: highlights importance of teaching 3. Weakness: places too much emphasis on language for learning 4. Weakness: no explanation of biological contribution to child’s development VI. Cognitive Theories Musts a. Liited thinking i. Amount of information processed ii. Speed iii. Flexible and adaptive VII. Infant Development a. Perception i. Perception (the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information) vs. sensation (the processing of basic information from the external world by the sensory receptors in the sense organs- eyes, ears, skin, etc…- and brain ii. Vision: visual processing requires 40% to 50% of our cerebral cortex function. Newborns start scanning the environment moments after birth. 1. Preferential looking technique: Researchers have found that children prefer looking at patterns rather than plain surfaces 2. Habituation study designs 3. Visual Acuity is the sharpness of vision. Develops rapidly in infants. By 8 months, infants’ vision is comparable to adults’ a. How it’s tested b. Contrast sensitivity- infants have poor contrast sensitivity; they can see patterns only when composed of highly contrasting elements. This is because the size, shape, and arrangement of the cones (neural cells that aid in color and detail perception) are still developing 4. Scanning: infants are attracted to moving stimuli, but their eye movements are not smooth. By 2-3 months, infants can track moving objects smoothly if the objects are moving slowly. Infants’ visual scanning ability is limited to focusing on perimeters or corners. a. Box 5.1 in text iii. Pattern 1. Pattern perception requires visual acuity, visual scanning, and the ability to analyze and integrate the separate elements of a visual display. Infants as well as adults can perceive subjective contours. Infants can perceive coherence among moving elements; in one study, the ability to identify characteristic patterns of people walking 2. Coherence among moving elements 3. Subjective contours iv. Object perception 1. Size constancy: although our retinal images of people and objects change as they move away from or toward us, our impression of the person or object stays the same. Infants seem to have perceptional constancy 2. Object segregation: infants can perceive boundaries between objects a. Common movement b. General knowledge v. Depth perception: depth and distance cues help us know where we are with respect to objects and landmarks. 1. Visual cliff (video) 2. Optical expansion: the visual image increases as an object comes toward us, causing the background to recede. 3. Binocular disparity: the two eyes do not send the same signals to the brain because there are different retinal images of the object in each eye 4. Stereopsis: the process by which the visual cortex combines the different neural signals from each eye to create depth perception a. Begins suddenly around 4 months and is completed within a few weeks b. Achievement of this process signals the maturation of the brain’s visual cortex 5. Monocular cues (pictorial cues): the perceptual cues of depth that can be perceived by one eye alone. a. Relative size: objects that are larger appear to be closer to us than smaller objects. b. Object interposition: near objects partially occlude objects that are farther away. vi. Auditory 1. Infant auditory system is well developed at birth, but hearing does not achieve adult level until 5 to 8 years 2. Auditory localization: infants can turn toward the direction of the sound 3. Music perception: infants seem to be sensitive to certain musical sounds, rhythms, and melody vii. Taste and smell: sensitivity to taste and smell develops before birth 1. Newborns innately prefer sweet flavors. Infant sense of smell draws them to their mothers. 2. Infants are sensitive to the smell of breast milk viii. Touch: infants explore the world orally for the first few months. From 4 months on, infants begin to rub, finger, probe, and bang objects. Increase in manual control facilitates visual exploration ix. Intermodal perception: Infants are able to combine information from two or more senses. Very young infants link oral and visual experiences. As they get older, infants integrate visual and tactile explorations. Infants at about 4 months can integrate speaking sounds with a picture of lips moving. b. Motor development i. Reflexes: tightly organized inborn behaviors that occur in response to particular stimulation 1. Grasping: newborns close their fingers around anything that presses against the palm of their hand 2. Sucking: develops in utero to prepare baby for eating 3. Rooting: turning their head in the direction of the touch and opening their mouth. Searching for nipple 4. Tonic neck reflex: when an infant’s head turns or is turned to one side, the arm on that side of the body extends, while the arm and knee of the other side flex. 5. Why do reflexes exist? ii. Motor milestones: prone chest up rolls over some weight with legs sits without support stands with support pulls self to stand walks using furniture for support stands alone easily walks alone easily iii. Motor development and cultural variations 1. Exercise 2. Nutrition 3. Cultural Practices 4. Accelerating motor development a. Mothers in Mali tribe exercise their infants b. How? 5. Retard motor development a. Ache tribe carry their infants for three years b. How? iv. Current views on motor development 1. Dynamic- Systems approach, seeing motor development as resulting from a confluence of neural mechanisms, perceptual skills, changes in body proportions, and the child’s own motivation 2. Scale error: the attempt by a young child to perform an action on a miniature object that is impossible due to the large discrepancy in the relative sizes of the child and the object v. Infant’s expanding world 1. Pre-reaching motions: for the first few months of life, infants engage in prereaching movements such as swiping and swatting at objects. Around 7 months, infants’ ability to reach becomes quite stable. 2. Self-locomotion: at 8 months or so, infants begin to move themselves around in the environment. By 13-14 months they are walking. c. Infant Learning i. Habituation: A decrease in response to repeated stimulation, revealing that learning has occurred ii. Dishabituation: increase in response to the presentation of a novel stimulation after habituation has occurred 1. Habituation is the simplest form of learning ad the one first seen in infants iii. Classical conditioning 1. US (unconditioned stimulus) UR (unconditioned response) & CS (conditioned stimulus) CR (conditioned response) 2. Little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of white rates Loud noise (UCS) = fear (UCR) Loud noise (UCS) +white rat (CS) = fear White rat (CS) = fear (CR) iv. Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning: learning is based on the relationship between one’s own behavior and reward or punishment 1. Reward v. Punishment 2. Positive reinforcement: most instrumental conditioning with infants- a reward that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated v. Observational Learning: the infant learns by observing others 1. Imitating intention: by 6 months, infant imitation is indisputable. By 18 months, infants are quite accomplished imitators a. Humans vs. non-living things vi. Do infants think? 1. Core-knowledge theory: infants have innate knowledge in a few important domains, such as the physical world and objects 2. I-P theory: a. Infants possess specialized learning mechanisms that enable them to acquire knowledge rapidly b. Infants possess generalized learning mechanisms that strengthen their mental representations of the physical world 3. Piagetian Theory vii. Thinking about things 1. Violation of expectancy: young infants express surprise at events or objects that violate their expectancy a. Possible v. Impossible events 2. Object permanence: infants younger than 8 months do not search for objects they cannot see. But infants as young as 6 months may think about some aspects of invisible objects. 3. Renee Baillargeon: focused on determining whether infants have different responses to possible and impossible events 4. Social Knowledge (Meltzhoff’s dumbbell experiment) VIII. Language Development a. Basic terms/Learning a language i. Phonemes: the elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce languages 1. Phonological development: the acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of a language ii. Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning in a language, composed of one or more phonemes 1. Semantic development: the learning of the system for expressing meaning in a language, including word learning iii. Syntax: rules in a language that specify how words from different categories (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and so on) can be combined 1. Syntactic development: the learning of the syntax of a language iv. Prosody: the characteristic rhythm, tempo, cadence, melody, intonational patterns, and so forth with which a language v. Pragmatic development: the acquisition of knowledge about how language is used vi. Metalinguistic knowledge: an understanding of the properties and function of language-that is, an understanding of language as language b. Infant Language Development i. Babbling: repetitive consonant-vowel sequences or hand movements(for learners of signed languages) produced during the early phases of language development ii. First words & reference mapping: in language and speech, the associating of words and meaning iii. Vocabulary spurt iv. Holophrastic phase: the period when children begin using the words in their small productive vocabulary one word at a time v. Telegraphic speech: the term describing children’s first sentences that are generally two-word utterances c. Theories of how language develops i. Innate 1. Chomsky a. Universal grammar b. Language acquisition device (LAD) ii. Biological 1. Left hemisphere localization 2. Aphasias (Broca’s & Wernicke’s) 3. Williams syndrome iii. Critical periods 1. Johnson and Newport 2. Elissa Newport 3. Victor and Genie (video) iv. Learned 1. Skinner 2. Operant conditioning v. Social interaction: imperative for the learning of language because it adds all of these aspects to the ability to learn 1. Joint attention: when one acknowledges something, the other will also acknowledge it and smile 2. Motheres (IDT): babies learn better when people talk in higher pitches 3. Intention (pragmatic cues): infants only learn things (words/actions) if you have demonstrated it INTENDING to do it. 4. Communication (action dialogues): use cues to communicate (eyes, hands, facial expressions, vocal melody, body language) d. Interesting topics in language development i. Homesigns: sign languages that children develop on their own- gestural communication system for deaf children of hearing parents; these are syntactically (grammatical) structure. (this supports the innate Chomsky theory) a. Pidgin- meet all the language requirements except for generations b. Creole- passed through first generation c. Language- passed through multiple generations ii. Emerging languages 1. Nicaraguan Sign Language- emerged from homesigns- 2 decades- growing more complex 2. Hawaiian Creole iii. Bilingualism: 6 million school-aged children in America- Bilingual parents vs. monolingual parents: impacts development of language in a beneficial way iv. Requirements for a language: symbols (sounds/letters/signs), grammar structure, community, generations v. Types of languages vi. Different types of sign languages Psych Of Learning Exam Review 02/15/2016 ▯ -The main difference between learning and natural selection is natural selection occurs on a species level (slower) where learning occurs on an individual level. Learning is change in behavior where natural selection affects across the species (mass death). Learning occurs over shorter period of time. Learning helps individual where natural selection does not ▯ -Natural selection depends on variation to change a species by mutation. ▯ -Which scenario(s) equate to learning? A child is given a drug to prevent him from washing his hands 500 times a day A dog sits to receive a bone A child can now reach the microwave to cook a burrito When your bird bites people he is put in time out so that he stops biting ▯ - A reflex is a highly stereotypic relationship between a specific event and a response to that event ▯ -A motal action pattern (instinct) is a series of interrelated acts found in all or nearly all members of a species ▯ -Which measure of learning is this? (7 measures of learning) How fast a rat completes a maze speed The time between a bell is rung and a dog drools Latency How many answers a pigeon gets correct compared to the ones he misses reduction in errors ▯ -What design is this comparing 2 different breeds of dogs between subjects comparing poodles’ intelligence before and after drug us within subjects ▯ -The most important trials are first trials rescola wagner theory ▯ - Conditioning is most effective when both the CS and US affect the same receptors ? ▯ - A stuffed spongebob is paired with a steak. Pretty soon a dog begins to drool at jjust the sight of spongebob CS: Spongebob UCS: steak CR: drool UCR: drool ▯ - Pairing CS and US a puff of smoke is blown into a dogs eye and 1 second later a bell rings a bell rings and a puff of smoke is blown into a dogs eye trace ▯ - the amount of times that the UCS occurs with the CS: number of pairing ▯ -how close in time the ucs and cs occur: contiguity ▯ - A dog is presented with a flash of light and a tone simultaneously followed by food. When the tone and light are tested separately the tone is an effective CS, but the light is not. Overshadowing ▯ -A bell and light are frequently presented together (your test dog sees this). The dog is then conditioned to drool to the bell. One would expect that if the light were then to be conditioned quickly that pre-sensory conditioning occurred ▯ - Higher order conditioning: (second order) previously conditioned stimulus is paired with a new stimulus and the new stimulus ▯ -Rats that were raised in more diverse environments developed larger brains and were able to learn faster ▯ -(pictures of graphs) inter trial intervals ▯ -you conditioned your dog to drool to a bell. Next you wish to create a compound conditioned stimulus by pairing a light with the bell. Your dog does not condition to the light. blocking ▯ ▯ ▯
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