Biology 11100 Study Guide Exam II
Biology 11100 Study Guide Exam II Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
BIOLOGY EXAM II STUDY GUIDE Nutrition: the process by which organisms take in and use food material Adequate diet must supply 3 nutritional needs: 1. Chemical energy for cellular processes 2. Organic building blocks for macromolecules 3. Essential nutrients Essential nutrients: materials animals cannot make themselves from smaller molecules; must be consumed. Plants can synthesize this things, but animals cannot. 1. Fatty acids 2. Amino acids 3. Vitamins 4. Minerals 5. Carbohydrates 6. Water Essential fatty acids (from lipids) converted to: 1. Membrane phospholipids 2. Signaling molecules 3. Storage fats Essential amino acids used to synthesize proteins o Most animals can make about 10 of the necessary 20, if their diet contains enough sulphur and organic nitrogen o Most animals need 8 amino acids in their diet o Protein in animal products provide all essential amino acids in their proper proportions (complete protein), plant protein is deficient in one or more amino acids (incomplete) 1. Phenylalanine: used to make epinephrine, thyroid hormones 2. Valine: repairs damaged tissues 3. Threonine: involved in metabolism 4. Tryptophan: maintains serotonin levels 5. Methionine: antioxidant 6. Leucine: involved in production of growth hormone 7. Isoleucine: assists in recovering from strenuous activity 8. Lysine: maintains general health, immunity in pets VITAMINS: 1. Vitamin A: maintains retina and bones (fat soluble) 2. Vitamin D: energy, helps absorb calcium (fat soluble) 3. Vitamin E: immune and brain function (fat soluble) 4. Vitamin K: antioxidant, blood clotting (fat soluble) 5. Vitamin C: immunity, forms collagen (water soluble) 6. Vitamin B: protects nerves, resist stress effects (water soluble) Minerals: inorganic nutrients usually required in very amounts. 1. Iron: essential for hemoglobin 2. Sodium: maintain osmotic balance 3. Potassium: helps nerves transmit messages 4. Chloride: muscle function 5. Sulfur: make amino acids 6. Calcium: bones, teeth 7. Iodine: thyroid hormones 8. Phosphorous: bones Dietary Issues Malnutrition: inadequate or inappropriate level of nutrition 1. Undernutrition: diet lacks one or more essential nutrients; negative impact 2. Overnutrition: too much nutrients in diet; negative impact Mineral licks: sources of essential minerals from which animals supplement their diets Zoo animals: nutrition could mean the difference between extinction and survival species. o Many cases in which captive animals rarely breed or don’t breed successfully; need to know their nutritional requirements. o Difficult to determine nutritional requirements; need data from wild members of species o Obtaining nutritional data on wild animal diets is challenging because of large differences in diet between related species and large number of different foods consumed Specific nutrient deficiencies o Vitamin E: infertility, skin sores, heart problems, muscle degeneration etc o Vitamin B: nervous system disorders o Protein: need high proportion of animal flesh in diet o Fat: percentages of fat in milk for different species Even in nutritional needs are known, no guarantee animal will eat food/supplements provided. Beaks and Diet (beak shape/size correlates with diet) Birds: o Blue and gold macaw – beak for crunching and peeling nuts (nutcracker) o Hoopoe – beak for catching insects (tweezers) o Osprey – beak for tearing flesh (hooked pliers) o Pileated Woodpecker – beak for making holes in trees (large wood awl) o Great blue heron – beak for catching fish (spear, forceps) o Scarlet Honeycreeper – beak for sipping nectar (curved straw) Pets: o Cats Hypercarnivores: need diet high in animal protein; no plants Vitamin deficiency- neurological problems, seizures Taurine deficiency- retinal damage, heart condition, abnormal development Arachidonic acid deficiency- inflammation, poor functioning of digestive system o Dogs One of the more omnivorous of Carnivora Vitamin C excess- kidney stones Vitamin B excess- liver damage Magnesium deficiency- tetany, incoordination, depression o Ferrets Also hypercarnivores Insulinoma- pancreatic cancer resulting from diet Finickiness- challenging to get them eat certain foods o Fish Depends on wild diet: coral, grass, algae, fish Vitamin c deficiency- broken back disease B-complex deficiencies- brain, spinal cord, nerve disorders Aflatoxin- from moldy food, poor blood clotting (death) o Reptiles Depends on wild diet: plants, poodles, pigs, insects Vitamin A deficiency- swollen eyes, weight loss, skin infection Vitamin C deficiency- mouthrot in snakes and lizards Poor quality protein- arthritis o Rodents Depends on wild diet: seeds, grass, wood, insects Vitamin C deficiency- appetite loss and painful joints Obesity- broad nutrient deficiency Copper deficiency- anemia o Arthropods Depends on wild diet: insects, carrion, fruit Dehydration- (lethal) hermit crabs need fresh and salt water Malnourished prey- leads to malnourished predators Food processing 4 stages: o Ingestion: consuming food item o Digestion: mechanical (chewing), chemical (saliva), breaks down food into absorbable chemicals o Absorption: cells take up nutrients o Elimination (excretion): wastes eliminated Feeding mechanisms o Filter feeders (ex. Humpback whales) Mouths are giant sifters for small prey Common in aquatic systems o Substrate feeders (ex. Leaf miners, maggots) Live on or inside their food source o Fluid feeders (ex. Mosquitos, hummingbirds) Suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host or flower These are parasites or pollinators o Bulk feeders (alligators, tarantulas, scorpions) Eat larger food Tentacles, claws, pincers, hands, beaks used Extreme bulk feeders eat huge amount of food for their body size, long time between meals because of slow digestion Digestive compartments o Intracellular digestion (inside one cell) Food vacuoles are simplest Defined by hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles Form used by simple animals like sponges or hydra o Extracellular digestion (outside a single cell) Food breakdown in compartments throughout the body Allows consumption of larger food chunks Single opening called gastrovascular cavity Alimentary Canals Complete digestive tract has two openings: mouth and anus o Simple alimentary canal (ex. Earthworm with a typhlosole; a folding intestine) Muscular pharynx sucks food in through mouth Crop stores and moistens Muscular gizzard grinds with sand and gravel Intestine is site of additional digestion and absorption o A more complex alimentary canal (ex. Grasshopper) Most digestion in midgut Cecae greatly increase surface area for digestion o An even more complex one (ex. Bird which is similar to ours) Stomach used for more advanced chemical digestion Intestine has greater differentiation, allowing more thorough absorption of nutrients Oral Cavity o Initial mechanical digestion – teeth o Initial chemical digestion – saliva o Tongue shaped food into bolus and pushes into pharynx Pharynx: throat region, opens into esophagus or trachea Esophagus: transports bolus to stomach Stomach: primary role is digestion of protein and it usually has a very low pH to aid breakdown of food Small intestine: primary role is hydrolysis of macromolecules; longest compartment of canal o 3 sections duodenum: first section, chyme from stomach mixes with secretions from pancreas, lover, gallbladder, intestinal cells jejunum: second section, absorbs small nutrients ileum: third section, absorbs whatever’s left Large intestine: end of alimentary canal o 3 sections Cecum: dead-end pouch not used in humans; location of cellulose breakdown in herbivores Colon: reabsorbs water Rectum: end of large intestine, storage of feces until elimination Nervous system: rapid response via electrical signals o Interprets info about your body and environment, decides how to respond o Made of neuron (nerve) and support (glial) cells o Two subdivision: Central: brain and spinal cord Two parts: brain (control center for entire body) and spinal cord (superhighway for messages between brain and body) Receives info from the body and directs an output response Peripheral: neurons outside CNS Three parts: Sensory neurons (afferent): bring info to the brain from the body Interneurons: process info from and send signals via PNS Motor neurons (efferent): carry info from the brain to the body Brain Anatomy o Cerebrum: largest part; anterior in skull; two hemispheres; several regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe) o Cerebellum: posterior in skull; beneath cerebrum; muscle coordination o Two hemispheres joined by nerves (corpus callosum) o Triune Brain theory: idea that there are 3 parts of your brain which develop one after the other. Neurons: signal- conducting cells of nervous systems; composed of three parts: (Neurons talk to each other by neurotransmitters that cross synapses between cells) 1. Dendrites receives signals from other cells and send them to cell body 2. Cell body contains nucleus and other organelles 3. Axons send signals from cell body to other nerve cells and organs o Myelin: fatty white substance that insulates some nerve axons, preventing interaction with surrounding charged molecules Resting potential: active transport by Na+/K+ pump keeps Na+ concentration higher outside, and K+ concentration higher inside cells o Membrane potential= charge difference across membrane o Resting potential= membrane potential of a resting neuron (not sending a signal) Action Potential: signal from neuron o Depolarization occurs along axons or dendrites, Na+ allowed to enter the cell, depolarizing membrane o Depolarization travels, lead to release neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters release from one neuron causes action potential in next neuron Increasing speed of conductance 1. Increase diameter: o Larger diameter=lower resistance 2. Insulate axon with myelin: o Conduction jumps between unmyelinated nodes o Faster than unmyelinated neurons Neurotransmitters: chemical signals released by neurons into synaptic space-“synapse”. Change charge of post-synaptic neuron. Neurotransmitters can do one of two things to post-synaptic neuron: o Excite: depolarize and cause to fire o Inhibit: hyperpolarize and inhibit firing Problems with Nervous System o American Crowbar Case Imagine having an iron rod shot through your skull and surviving Phineas Gage: concrete evidence of effects of brain on behavior and personality o Neurosis Tendency to feel negative emotions Highly emotionally reactive Negative emotions persist longer than normal o Psychosis Highly impaired thinking and emotions indicate disconnection with reality Delusions and hallucinations Paranoia, sleep changes and disorganized speech o Multiple Sclerosis Autoimmune disease that damages myelin sheaths around neurons Interferes with brain’s ability to send and receive signals Fatigue, pain, depression, numbness, impaired sexual experience etc o Anxiety disorders Sufferer overreacts to normally stressful situations with abnormally high stress/fear response; chronic condition No sleep, feeling dread, asumming the worst, cant stay calm etc Exact causes unknown and can be treatable o Major/Clinical depression Sufferer experiences prolonged sadness, despair, and/or loss of interest Fatigue, feeling worthless, weight gain or loss, no sleep etc o Migraine Disease Difficulty concentrating, mood changes, fatigue, excessive energy “aura”, involve visual disturbance, stiffness intense headache, nausea, sensitivity to light etc o Congenital Analgesia Genetic disease in which sufferer cannot feel physical pain Cant tell when they have been seriously injured Caused by mutation in gene o Neurotoxins: substance that is destructive to neurons Disrupting neuron ion channels or interfering with neurotransmitters Common sources: scorpios, cone snail, octopus, fish, spiders etc o Neurosis in Pets and Zoo Animals Destructive neurotic behavior and important concern for animal welfare- called coochosis Caused by boredom, confinement in small space o Mental Health in US Expensive, limitations/barrier to get treatment Access to mental health care worse that other types of medical services Developmental Stages: 1. Morula: solid ball of cells 2. Blastula: hollow sphere of cells 3. Gastrula: hollow sphere of cells with tube through center that forms alimentary canal Gastrulation: indentation forms in blastula, forms blastopore Protostome: blastopore forms mouth Deuterostome: blastopore forms anus; vertebrates Germ layers 1. Endoderm: inside; in triploblasts, only forms alimentary canal 2. Ectoderm: outside; in tripoblasts forms skin, nervous system 3. Mesoderm: in middle; only in triploblasts, forms muscles, circulatory system, bones, reproductive system Diploblastic: organism has 2 germ layers Triploblastic: organism has 3 germ layers Earnst Haekel’s (disproven) theory that embryos go through stages representing all evolutionary history Development Multicellular organisms develop through stages: 1. Cell division o Multi-cellular organism starts as single cell (zygote), then cells multiply by mitosis 2. Cell differentiation o Cells become specialized in structure and function; eyes, ears, stomach etc.. o Differential gene expression: some genes turned on or off, depending on cell function o Cells go through sequence of gene regulation, determines their function 3. Morphogenesis o Development of organism form and structure Cells differentiates into tissues Tissues into organs Organs into organ systems All organ systems together comprise body Cytoplasmic Determinants: maternal substances in egg that influence course of early development o Cytoplasm of unfertilized egg not homogenous o Uneven distribution of mRNA, protein, organelles o Distribution of components impacts embryo development Nuclei of zygote cells exposed to different cytoplasmic determinants Induction: environment around cell also affects development as number of cells in embryo increases Signals between embryonic cells cause changes: o Cell surface molecules on neighboring cells o Binding of growth factors releases by neighboring cells o An embryo’s gene determine: which cells will have which receptors and which cells will release which signals Interactions among embryo’s cells cause differentiation that leads to new organism Determination: molecular changes that lead to observable differentiation of cells Irreversible: cell will develop as “instructed”, no matter where it is located Cell differentiation Cells of a certain type produce tissue-specific proteins, give it typical structure and function o Liver cells make albumin o Lens cells make crystalline o Muscle cells make actin and myosin Apoptosis – Programmed cell death o Some cells in embryo programmed to die early in development o Also occurs in mature organism’s cells that are infected, damaged, or reached end of life span o DNA , organelles, etc fragmented by enzymes, then all are packaged into vesicles o Blebs digested by scavenger cells; protects surrounding cells from dying cell’s contents o Similarities in genes among eukaryotes, evidence for early evolution Essential for normal development of vertebrate nervous system Important for normal morphogenesis of mammal hands/feet/paws, and bird feet Pattern Formation: spatial organization in which tissues and organs are located in appropriate places in body Two major body plans among animals: o Radially symmetrical: simple animals; sea stars and urchins, jellies o Bilaterally symmetrical: most complex animals, cephalization important; mammals, birds, reptiles, etc Cephalization: development of “head”, including home of sensory center (brain) Provided adaptive advantages because senses concentrated in location of body that encounters environment first Positional information In bilaterally symmetrical animals; three axes: 1. Head vs. tail 2. Right vs. left 3. Back vs. front Positional information tells cells where they are relative to body axes and neighboring cells Cloning: generation of a new, whole organism from a single somatic cell of a “parent”, new organism is genetically identical to parent Possible applications: o Generation of organs for transplant o Repair damage from disease o Formation of armies Ethical concerns – all clones we have made so far have “defects”, most are not actually identical to parents, and most cloned embryos don’t develop normally to “birth” Stem cells: relatively unspecialized cells that can reproduce themselves indefinitely, and differentiate into specialized cells of one or more type Two types: o Embryonic: can give rise to any cell type o Adult: can only give rise to certain cell types Developmental Problems Teratogens: substances that cause birth defects 1. Alcohol 2. Seizure medication 3. Chickenpox virus 4. Illegal drugs o Cerebral Palsy Brain damage causes difficulty moving and maintaining balance and posture Premature, low birthweight, infections, seizures, infertility treatment etc o Neural tube defects As neural tube forms and closes, it forms fetus’ brain and spinal cord; something goes wrong.. Anencephaly: upper part of neural tube fails to close, baby often missing forebrain, rest brain not covered by bone or skin Encephalocele: sac-like protrusion of brain and meninges through opening in skull, back of brain associated with nervous system. Mental retardation, seizures, vision problems and developmental delay may be some symptoms. Spina bifida: spinal cord protrudes from somewhere along spine, vertebrae didn’t close properly. Can cause physical and intellectual disabilities. Obesity, early pregnancy, low folic acid before etc o Limb reduction defects Part of arms and legs does not form properly, smaller than normal or missing o Microcephaly Abnormally small head size, because brain small and improperly developed Seizures, mental retardation, vision loss, birth defects, brain damage etc o Fetal alcohol syndrome Caused by mother’s alcohol consumption Mental retardation, hyperactivity, abnormal facial features etc o Gastroschisis Intestines protrude from body through hole near belly button Bowel exposed to amniotic fluid and can become shortened, twisted or swollen o Microtia External part of ear reduced or missing Diabetes and low-carb diet are risk factors o Orofacial Clefts Face is fomed by growth of cells from either side of head into center, tissue doesn’t join completely Smoking, diabetes 1. Cleft lip: split in lip, can be small or large and extended up into nose 2. Cleft palate: roof of mouth not joined o Congenital heart defects Heart not formed properly 1. Atrial septal defect: hole in tissue between upper chambers 2. Atrioventricular septal defect: hole in tissue between upper and lower chambers 3. Pulmonary atresia: no valve between heart and lungs o Cranial Synostosis Bones in skull join together before brain is fully formed Limits or slow brain development Blindness, seizures, damage o Illegal drugs Marijuana: carbon monoxide reduces oxygen flow to fetus, miscarriage, developmental delays, learning problems Cocaine: miscarriage, neonatal abstinence syndrome o Thalidomide Sedative and to treat morning sickness Caused malformation of any part of body developing at time of mother’s ingestion Phocomelia: hands and feet start at main joint No ears or deafness, missing extra fingers, improper heart or other organs o Polymedia Affected individual has more than normal number of limbs Extra limb developed at axis of normal limb, one conjoined twin degenerates except for a limb o Conjoined twins Results from improper splitting of zygote as identical twins are formed
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