Psych 201 Exam #3
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shane Ng on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Sereno in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Attention Selective Attention Attention: the process by which the mind chooses among the various external stimuli impinging on the senses, allowing only some of these stimuli to be passed along for further processing. Selective attention: Can focus on one source of info while ignoring others Divided attention: Can also monitor (to a certain extent) unattended stimuli and use them as a basis for shifting attention. Select stimuli often by physically (“overtly”) orienting sensory systems to a particular stimulus (e.g. eye movements) but can also “covertly” orient to a stimulus. Overt Orienting - Eye movement recordings when looking at pictures. Covert Orienting - The “no-look” pass in basketball relies on covert orienting Stimulus-driven Capture of attention Stimulus-driven Capture of attention: sometimes stimuli in the environment automatically capture attention (e.g., a loud noise or sudden movement). Goal-directed Selection Goal-directed Selection: voluntarily choose object to attend to. - E.g., cocktail-party effect – can listen to and understand one person’s voice while ignoring all others. Selective Listening Experiments: Shadowing – The participant receives different auditory messages in each ear, but is required to repeat (“shadow”) only one. o Some information from the ignored message can get through (e.g., if your name is spoken). o We can attend to more than one message at a time but not well. – Evidence for Goal-directed (voluntary) attention o Selective Viewing Studies: “Posner Task” Fixate a point in the center of screen. Flash a light in the periphery. Subjects can react to light flash within 300 msec. Arrow appears above fixation point, pointing to where the light will flash. The resulting validly cued response happens more quickly than the un-cued one or an invalidly cued one. Cue allows subject to attend to the position where the spot will appear thereby facilitating his/her response when the spot does appear. Evidence that selective attention exists independent of eye movements. – The Cued Target Detection Task Divided Attention - People can also divide their attention and deal with a great deal of high level information concurrently. o Can drive and talk at the same time. - In general, the more the 2 tasks differ, the easier it is to carry them out simultaneously. - Practice improves ability to divide attention o E.g., Perform 2 complex tasks simultaneously: read and comprehend a story plus take dictation. o At first, great interference between tasks. After much practice, can do both well and simultaneously. Some argue that practice does not increase the amount of information to which a person can attend, but rather increases the amount of info that he/she can analyze automatically, with out attention. - Stroop interference Effect o An example of a perceptual skill that has become automatic ( to the point of being obligatory) with practice Reading. o Name, as rapidly as possible the color of words or patches. o Color words interfere with naming the ink colors. - Cell Phones and Driving o Talking on Cell phones (hands free or not) while driving is as dangerous as driving while intoxicated due to inattention to the driving task (attention is divided). o Drunk Driving drive more aggressively o Cell Phone Drive Slower reactions times + greater chance of getting into an accident. Attention and the Perception of Objects Feature Integration Theory (Treisman’s) - We automatically identify certain “primitive” features in the environment (e.g., color, orientation, shape, motion). - We analyze different features independently of each other. - Identifying an object based on one unique feature is fast. - In contrast, putting together features of an object (e.g., color, shape, etc.) to form a complete percept requires focal attention. Evidence 1. If one object among several objects is made up of a unique feature (e.g., a white “T” amongst black “Ts”), we can find it easily because it “pops out”. 2. In contrast, if an object is made up of a conjunction of features (e.g., a white “T” amongst black “Ts” and white “Ls”), we must use serial visual search to find it – i.e., attend to each object in the display individually until the target object is found. 3. Illusory Conjunctions – If overload subject’s attention (e.g., by briefly flashing a display), get errors in feature combinations. Change Blindness - How do we perceive entire visual scenes? o We have the impression that we have a rich/detailed representation of the world o This seems to be backed up by experiments testing our ability to understand and remember pictures seen for brief periods of time. - Some argue that our internal model of the world is sparse, consisting only of a model of attended information. - Change Blindness: Only detect changes in attended items. o Example: Neisser Experiment: Attend to 3 black-shirted (vs 3 white-shirted) players; woman with white umbrella walks through scene and is not noticed by 80% of subjects. Physiological Basis of Attention What happens in the brain when you select one object or one location in space? - Attention to stimulus properties o Examples of cortical areas modulated by attentional processes o Functional fMRI studies: different regions of cortex are activated by faces vs. places. o Fusiform face area (FFA) o Parahippocampal place area (PPA) Influence of attention on neural responses: - Attention to Space/Location o Response of neuron in parietal cortex to a stimulus in its RF is greater when monkey attends vs does not attend to it. o In attention condition, monkey has to attend to peripheral light stimulus to detect when it dims. Attention can enhance the processing of (and neural activity for) a specific type of stimulus or the location of a stimulus. Learning What is learning? - A kind of adaptation to the environment, which occurs within the lifetime of an individual. - A set of processes through which sensory experience at one time affects an individual’s behavior at a future time. Behaviorism: an attempt to understand behavior as the relationship between observable stimuli and observable responses. - Learning is emphasized - Recognize 2 different learning processes: classical and operant conditioning. Types of Learning - Associative (classical and operant conditioning) - Representational/Cognitive (explicit knowledge) - Symbolic (meaning of arbitrary symbols, such as words) - Observational (imitation) - Skill (complex actions) - Specialized Learning Abilities (e.g., bird song) Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Dogs - Pavlov (a Russian scientist) studied the salivary reflex in dogs: o Present different kinds of food measure salivation Associative Learning Pavlov’s dogs - Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning: repeated pairing of a neutral stimulus (e.g., bell) with one that evokes an automatic/reflexive response (meat salivation) eventually causes the neutral stimulus by itself to elicit the automatic/reflexive response (bell salivation). - Learning predictable stimuli: presence of one stimulus (e.g., sound/light) predicts that a second stimulus (e.g., food) will follow. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that automatically elicits a response (e.g., meat) Unconditioned Response (UCR): the automatic response to an UCS (e.g. salivation). Reflex: UCS UCR (e.g., meat salivate) Neutral Stimulus (NS): a stimulus that does not elicit a reflexive response (e.g., white lab coat, tone); (may elicit an orienting response). Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a neutral stimulus (e.g., tone), which comes to elicit a response (CR). Conditioned Response (CR): a reflex-like response to the CS (e.g., salivation). Conditioned Reflex: CS CR (e.g., tone salivate) Classical Conditioning: Relevant Factors - Temporal contiguity: CS must precede UCS by a very short time (1/2 – 1 sec). - Contingency (i.e., predictability): CS must reliably predict UCS’s occurrence. - Extinction: Disappearance of a CR to the CS when the UCS is withheld. o This is different from forgetting. - Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination: Change the CS slightly. Still elicits the CR. Classical Conditioning is adaptive and automatic: By associating a CS with an UCS, an organism is able to prepare (respond to) for the arrival of an UCS (e.g., food, dog bite, etc.). Operant Conditioning - Learning process by which the consequence of a response/behavior changes (increases or decreases) the Likelihood that the response will occur again. Thorndyke (1900) Puzzle Boxes “Law of Effect”: the behavior of an organism is controlled by the effects (or consequences) it produces. That is, an animal will repeat behavior it is rewarded for. The stimulus after the behavior shapes the behavior. - R S increase or decrease R ｀｀｀ Operant Conditioning: Basic Components - Shaping o What if animal never emits the desired response? o Successively closer approximations to the desired response are reinforced until the response finally occurs. - Partial Reinforcement Schedules o Reward only some of the responses. o Overall, leads to better learning (i.e., learning that is more resistant to extinction). - Schedules of Partial Reinforcement o Ratio (#) = reinforcement after certain # of responses o Interval (time) = reinforcement after certain # of seconds o Fixed = reinforcement after x amount o Variable = reinforcement after x amount, on average - Reinforcement vs. Punishment and Positive vs. Negative Stimuli: o R S increase or decrease R Does a stimulus increase or decrease the response/behavior? If it increases, it’s a reinforcer. If it decreases, it’s a punishment. Is the stimulus presented or removed after initial response/behavior? If presented, it’s positive. If removed, it’s negative. Problems with Behaviorism Cognitive Process in Learning: - Animals and humans develop an explicit mental model or representation of the relationship between events in the environment vs. develop unconscious robot-like reflexes. o Classical Conditioning – CS indicates that UCS will follow vs. CS substituted for UCS. o Operant Conditioning – acquiring an act-outcome representation vs. strengthening or weakening of a particular response. - Latent learning: learning not immediately demonstrated in behavior. Lean things that are not reinforced. o Cognitive Maps (Tolman) o Maze Evolutionary Considerations: - In behaviorist theory, any R (Response/behavior) can be connected with any S (Stimulus). All S’s and R’s are equal. o Instinctual drift – some rewards lead to a disruption of training. o Food Aversions – special learning mechanism to associate taste and smell of food in mammals with illness even when illness occurs hours after food eaten. One trial learning. Biologically adaptive. NS/CS (taste/smell of food) + UCS (illness/nausea) = UCR/CR (food aversion/repulsion) Biological Basis of Learning (Classical Conditioning (CC) and Operant Conditioning (OC)) - Learning involves relatively permanent changes in the brain that result from exposure to environmental events. - Associative learning (learning to associate a CS with an UCS CC; and a R with a consequent S OC) results from changes in synaptic. - Learning is Hebbian: “Cells that fire together wire together”. Operant Condtioning - The neural basis of positive reinforcement in operant conditioning is the release of the neurotransmitter Dopamine in the “reward centers” of the brain. Dopamine release sets a reinforcer’s reward value. - The activation of dopamine neurons in the nucleus accumbens (part of the limbic system) is associated with the experience of pleasure.
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