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A & P Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Casey Scannell

A & P Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 2010

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Casey Scannell

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Chapter 1-6
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Richard Pirkle
Study Guide
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This 51 page Study Guide was uploaded by Casey Scannell on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2010 at Tennessee Tech University taught by Richard Pirkle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Tennessee Tech University.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
Chapter 1 02/13/2016 1. --Define anatomy.  Study of structure  Makes physiology possible --Define physiology.  Study of function  Lend meaning to anatomy  Unity of form and function  Physiology depends on underlying anatomy  Anatomical structures in isolation are not meaningful without physiological processes 2. In your own words, describe what “form fits function” means. Why is it so important for this anatomy and physiology course?  Organism is designed structured or shaped in a way that will help it perform a certain function  The shape and organization of structures is related to the jobs they perform  Unity holds true even down to the molecular level  Slight changes in molecular structure can destroy their activity and threaten life 3. How do we study anatomy? How do we study physiology? Anatomy  Looking at it (inspection) i. microscopic  Dissections of cadavers  Comparing to another species  Medical imaging  Physical exams ii. Palpation: feeling structure with hands iii. Auscultation: listening iv. Percussion: taps on the body ▯ Physiology Relies on knowing anatomy Experimental methods used to help us explain how and why something works the way it does Subdivisions of physiological study typically deal with specific body systems Tends to focus on events at a cellular or molecular level Remember: - Microorganisms were not known until after Rober Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek developed and improved the microscope - Doctors didn’t eve wash their hands after touching cadavers until Ignaz Semmelweis 4. Compare and contrast inductive and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. For which parts of anatomy and physiology are each useful for? Inductive method:  Process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them.  What we know about anatomy is a product of inductive o Looks for a trend or pattern in observations o Make generalized statements about patterns  Ex: We describe the normal anatomy of the human by looking at many different human bodies. ▯ Deductions Reasoning:  deductions are made if facts are true, then deduction is also true (assumption of truth) Ex: All men are mortal. Harold is man. Harold is mortal. ▯ Hypothetico-deductive: Begins with observation of data that begs some sort of question Starts with hypothesis Good hypothesis: o consistent with what is already known o capable of being tested and possibly falsified by evidence Requires attention to many different factors that can affect the outcome of the experiment 5. Describe a “good” experiment.  Adequate sample size  Controls  Psychosomatic effects o Effects of the subjects state of mind on his or her physiology o Can have undesirable effect on experimental results if we do not control for them  Experimenter bias  Statistical testing  Data collected that is then statistically analyzed  Data and conclusions must be shared and scrutinized by peers (peer review)—not a foolproof system 6. Define: ▯ Scientific facts—information that can be independently verified by any trained person ▯ Hypotheses—educated speculation or possible answer to question ▯ Laws of nature—generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave (result of inductive reasoning based on repeated, confirmed observations) ▯ Scientific theory—explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypotheses 7. --What is reductionism?  Top-down approach  Understanding the parts will help you understand how the body works o Breaking down complex systems into their simpler parts o Essential to scientific thinking --What is holism?  Bottom-up approach  “We are more than just a sum of our parts” o health-care provider doesn’t treat the disease or organ system they treat the whole person 8. --Are all humans anatomically the same?  no ▯ --Are they physiologically the same? Why is important to know the differences?  Varies with: sex, age, diet, environment, etc 9. What are the defining characteristics of life (assuming you define it biologically)? Why are there different definitions for life?  Life has many definitions: biological medical, legal, religious 10. Thoroughly describe negative and positive feedback. Compare and contrast both mechanisms.  Positive feedback o Self-amplifying cycle in which physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction, rather than producing the corrective effects of negative feedback  can cause rapid change  EX: labor.. contractions.. baby pops out  Think of chart where it climbs real high and drops all a sudden and maintains homeostasis  can be harmful or life-threatening  Negative Feedback o Primary way the body maintains homeostasis  when set point is reached, mechanism stops  EX: Room temp falls, thermostat activates furnace, heat output, Room temp rises, thermostat shuts off 11. --What is a gradient?  Difference in chemical concentration, electrical change, physical pressure, temperature, between one point to the other  Things move down gradients without energy  Moving up gradients requires energy o EX: biking down hill, biking up hill  Down the gradient—from a warmer to cooler point, or place of high chemical concentration to lower concentration  Gradient can mean hill or slope --What kinds of gradients exist in a physiological system?  Blood circulation  Respiratory airflow  Urine formation  Nutrient absorption  Temperature regulation --How can the body be sectioned? --What kinds of views of the body do we typically use?  Pressure gradients o BP, air pressure  Chemical gradients o Based on concentration of solute  Electrical gradients o Ions moving  Thermal gradients o Heat moving 12. Define: Ventral—toward the front Dorsal—toward the back Anterior—toward the ventral side Posterior—toward the dorsal side Cephalic—toward the head or superior end Rostral—toward the forehead or nose Caudal—toward the tail or inferior end Superior—Above Inferior—Below Medial—Toward the median plane Lateral—Away from the median plane Proximal—Closer to the point of attachment or origin Distal—Farther from the point of attachment or origin Ipsilateral—On the same side of the body Contralateral—On the opposite sides of the body Superficial—Closer to the body surface Deep—Farther from the body surface 13. --Describe anatomical position.  Description of any region or part of the body in a specific stance o Body is standing straight, facing forward, upper limbs at side and palms forward --Describe the major body regions. ▯ Axial  Head, neck, and trunk ▯ Appendicular  Upper limb  Lower limb o Abdominal o Acromial—shoulder o Antebrachial—forearm o Axillary—armpit o Brachial—between shoulder and elbow o Carpal—wrist o Calcaneal—heel o Cephallic—head o Cervical—neck o Cleido—area over the clavicle or collar bone o Clural—front leg region o Cubital—front elbow o Facial—face o Femoral—thigh o Gluteal—butt o Inguinal—groin o Lumbar—lower back o Nuchal—back of neck o Palmar—palm of hand o Patellar—kneecaps o Pedal—foot o Phalangeal—digits o Plantar—sole of foot o Popiteal—back of knee o Pubic—genitalia o Sacral—area between hips o Scapular—shoulder blade o Sural—calf of leg o Tarsal—ankle o Thoracic—rib cage o Vertebral—spinal column --Describe the major body cavities and the organs contained in them.  Dorsal—houses skull, brain, and spinal  Ventral o Thoracic—heart and lung o Abdominopelvic—both the abdomen and pelvis  Abdominal—gallbladder, liver, pancreas, and stomach  Pelvic—contains ovaries, ureters, and bladder  Diaphragm separates abdominal and thoracic 14. --What are serous membranes?  Slippery double-layered membrane which covers the viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and also lines the walls of thorax and abdomen Where are they found and how are they named?  Named for the specific cavity and organs for which they line  Peritoneum—found within abdominal and pelvic body  Pleura—found within the thoracic  Pericardium—within the mediastinum of thoracic  Vaginal tunics—vaginal process begins at the vaginal ring and extends into the scrotum around the spermatic cord and testis Other stuff to know: Comparative anatomy—study of multiple species in order to examine similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends Exploratory surgery—opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it Gross anatomy—structures that can be seen with the naked eye ▯ Histology—study of tissues ▯ Cytology—the study of the structure and function of individual cells ▯ Comparative physiology—study of how different species have solved problems of life such as water balance, respiration, and reproduction ▯ Organization—energy expended to maintain order ▯ Cellular composition— living things are made of cells ▯ Metabolism— the sum of all internal chemical reactions ▯ Responsiveness— (irritability or excitability) ability to sense and react to stimuli ▯ Movement— if not mobility then motility of substances internally ▯ Homeostasis— maintenance of relatively stable internal environment despite changing external environment ▯ Development— change in form or function over the lifetime of the organism ▯ Reproduction— production of offspring similar to the parents ▯ Evolution— genetic change from generation to generation IN A POPULATION ▯ 1. --What are elements?  Simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties --Which elements make up the bulk of the human body (by weight)?  Oxygen  Carbon  Hydrogen  Nitrogen  Calcium  Phosphorus --What are minerals?  Inorganic elements that are extracted from the soil by plants and passed up the food chain to humans and other organisms o Constitute 4% of the human body  Mainly calcium and phosphorus  Chlorine, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfur  Bones and teeth  Many proteins include --Where do you get minerals?  Extracted from soil by plants and passed up food chain 2. Describe an atom.  Democritus discovered a particle so small that nothing could cut it  Dalton began to develop an atomic theory based on experimental evidence o At center of atom is nucleus—composed of protons and neutrons  Protons—single positive charge; number determines which element is which  Neutrons—no charge (neutral charge); number can vary leading to isotopes  Electrons—sits on concentric cloud (electron shell) around nucleus; negative charge; number normally equals the number of protons  Takes 1,836 electron to equal mass of one proton  Valence electrons—determine the reactive properties of an atom; electrons of the outermost shell, determine chemical bonding properties of an atom 3. --What are isotopes?  Differ from one another only in number of neutrons and therefore atomic mass  Changing the number of neutrons doesn’t affect the bonding behavior of the atoms o Hydrogen o All of a given element behave the same chemically --What kinds of isotopes are there?  Deuterium—one proton and one neutron o Reacts with oxygen the same way Hydrogen 1 does to produce water  Tritium—one proton and two neutrons  Radioisotopes—unstable isotopes o Stable isotopes do not decay; radioisotopes do decay  Radioactivity--process of energy being released from the decay of unstable radioisotopes 4. --What is a half-life?  Period of time an unstable isotope requires to reduce its mass by half  Time required for one-half of a quantity of a radioactive element to decay to a stable isotope (physical) ▯ --What is the difference between the physical half-life of a radioisotope versus the biological half-life of a radioisotope?  Physical half-life—the time required for 50% of its atom to decay to more stable state o time that a mass takes to disappear completely by dispersion of its subatomic components  Biological half-life—time required for half of it to disappear from the body o How long it will stay in the body o Length of time can be different than physical half-life because it depends on how the ions behaves in the body  Some of it is lost by radioactive decay and even more of it by excretion from the body  Time it takes to be absorbed and excreted from living body (has nothing to do with its physical life 5. What are: Ions—charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons  Can consist of single atom with positive or negative charge, can be as large as a protein with many charges on it Cations—one that loses electron acquires positive charge Anions—particle that gains electrons acquires a negative charge Electrolytes (acids, bases, salts)—substances that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting electricity  Can detect electrical activity of the muscles, heart, brain with electrodes on the skin because electrolytes in the body fluids conduct electrical currents from these organs to the skin surface Free radicals—chemical particles with a odd number of electrons  Represented with a dot to symbolize the odd electron (O2- .)  Extra valence electron makes the free radicals extremely reactive (very destructive)  Antioxidants neutralize free radicals Molecules—chemical particles composed of two or more atoms united by a chemical bond  Oxygen O2  Carbon Dioxide CO2 Compounds—molecules composed of two or more elements  CO2  Glucose C6H12O6 (molecule and compound) 6. There are many different types of chemical bonds. Describe them.  Chemical bonds—molecule held together, and molecules attracted to one another, by forces called… o Ionic bond—weak attraction between anion and cation  Easily disrupted in water, as when salt dissolves  EX: Sodium (Na+) and Chloride (Cl-) ions are attracted to each other and form compound sodium chloride (NaCl) o Covalent bond—sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between nuclei  EX: two hydrogen atoms share valence electrons to form hydrogen molecule (H2)  Single covalent bond—sharing of a single pair of electrons (H---H)  Double covalent bond—sharing of two pairs of electrons (O==C==O)  Nonpolar covalent—electrons are equally attracted to both nuclei (strongest type of chemical bond)  Polar covalent—not equally attracted to each other, electrons are more attracted to one nucleus than the other (slightly positive and negative regions in one molecule) o Hydrogen bond—weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another  EX: water molecules are weakly attracted to teach other by hydrogen bond o Van der Waals force—weak, brief attraction due to random disturbances in the electron clouds of adjacent atoms (weakest of all bond) 7. What properties of water are important for physiology?  Body is a mixture of chemical  Water is involved in most of the mixture in our bodies o Water constitutes 50%-75% of your body weight  Cohesion—tendency of molecules of the same time to cling together  Adhesion—tendency of molecules of different types of cling together  Chemical Reactivity—can ionize other molecules as well as it ionizes itself  Thermal stability—high heat capacity; takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature  Solvency—water is considered the universal solvent, dissolves a broader range of substances than any other liquid; ability to dissolve other chemicals 8. There are four types of mixtures.  Solutions o consists of particles of matter called the solute mixed with a more abundant substance (usually water) called the solvent  very small particles  solutes do not settle out  Colloids o Most common colloids in the body are mixtures of protein and water  Larger particles but they still remain in solution  Often congeal  In the body, it is usual proteins and water  Suspensions o Blood cells in our blood plasma exemplify  Very large particles  Settles out of solution  Emulsions o Suspension of one liquid in another  Mixture of fats and water  such as oil-and-vinegar salad dressing, breast milk 9. The acidity of a solution is measured by the pH scale. Describe how the pH scale works?  Acid—an proton donor, a molecule that releases a proton in water  Base—proton accepter  pH—measure derived from the molarity of H o pH 7.0 is neutral o below is acidic o above is basic (alkaline)  slight disturbances of pH can seriously disrupt physiological functions and alter drug actions, so it is important that the body carefully control its pH 10. --Define energy and work.  Energy—capacity to do work  Work—move something, whether it is a muscle or a molecule --Define potential and kinetic energy.  Potential—energy contained in an object because of its position or internal slate but that is not doing work at the time  Kinetic—energy of motion, energy that is doing work --What are the different kinds of energy used by the body to do work?  Chemical energy—potential energy stored in the bonds of molecules, release this energy and make it available for physiological work  Heat—kinetic energy of molecular motion o Temperature of a substance is a measure of rate of this motion, adding heat to a substance increases this rate  Electromagnetic energy—kinetic energy of moving packets of radiation called photons  Electrical energy—both potential and kinetic forms o Potential energy when charged particles have accumulated at a point such as a battery terminal or on one side of a cell membrane; becomes kinetic energy when these particles begin to move and create an electrical current  Free energy—potential energy available in a system to do useful work o in human physiology, the most relevant free energy is the energy stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules 11. --What are the parts to a chemical reaction?  Reactants on the left  Products on the right  Arrow pointing from the reactants to the products --What are the types of chemical reactions? Be able to describe each.  Decomposition—catabolic reactions; large molecule breaks down into tow or more smaller ones o Tend to be exergonic AB A + B  Exchange—two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atom o AB + CD  AC +BD  Reversible reactions—can go in either direction under different circumstances  Synthesis—anabolic reactions o Tend to be endergonic reactions A + B  AB 12. What factors affect the rates in which a specific reaction will take place?  Reaction occur because of molecular motion and collisions of the reacting molecules o Collision theory o Depends on the nature of the reacting molecules  Factors that affect reaction rates are: o Concentration—increase when the reactants are more concentrated; molecules are more crowded and collide more frequently o Temperature—increases as the temperature rises; heat causes molecules to move more rapidly and collide with greater force and frequency o Presence or absence of catalysts—substances that temporarily bind to reactants, hold them in a favorable position to react with each other, and may change the shapes of reactants in ways that make them more likely to react 13. Describe: Carbohydrates: hydrophilic organic molecule with the general formula (CH2O) ▯ --Sugars and starches ▯ --Smaller molecules tend to be broken down and oxidized for energy ▯ --source of energy that can be quickly mobilized ▯ --All digested carb is ultimately converted to glucose, and glucose is oxidized to make ATP ▯ --Often conjugated (bound to) with proteins and lipids  Monosaccharide (simple sugars) o Glucose: blood sugar—energy source for most cells o Ribose and Deoxyribose: important components of DNA and RNA o Fructose: fruit sugar—converted to glucose and metabolized o Galatose: converted to glucose and metabolized  Disaccharides—sugars composed of two monosaccharaides o Sucrose: cane sugar and sugar beets—digested to glucose and fructose (glucose + fructose) o Lactose: milk sugar—digested to glucose and galatose; important in infant nutrition (glucose + galatose) o Maltose: malt sugar—product of starch digestion, further digested to glucose (glucose + glucose)  Polysaccharides: long chains, 50 or more monosaccharaides o Cellulose: structural polysaccharide of plants; dietary fiber o Starch: energy storage in plant cells o Glycogen: energy storage in animal cells (liver, muscle, brain, uterus, vagina) Lipids: hydrophobic organic molecule, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen ▯ Less oxidized than carbohydrates, thus have more calories per gram  Fatty Acids: precursor of triglycerides; source of energy  Triglycerides: energy storage; thermal insulation; filling space; binding organs together; cushioning organs Phospholipids: major components of cell membranes; aid in fat digestion o Neutral fats except that in place of one fatty acid, they have a phosphate group which, is linked to other functional group Eicosanoids: chemical messengers between cells o Functions as hormone like chemical signals between cells o Derived from arachidonic Steroids: chemical messengers between cells o Cholesterol is the parent steroid from which the other steroids are synthesized o Include: cortisol, progesterone, estrogens, testosterone, and bile acids o Derived from cholesterol Proteins: most versatile molecule in the body  Many functions: o Structural o Communication o Transport: both through membrane and in blood o Recognition and protection o Movement o Cellular adhesion  Polymer of amino acids  Amino acid—central carbon atom with an amino and carboxyl group o Peptide: any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds o Peptide bond: formed by dehydration synthesis, joins the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group o Peptides are named for the number of amino acids they have  Proteins as a whole are amphiphilic Nucleic acids:  Building blocks of living organisms; made of same building blocks (monomers)  Type of nucleic acid: o ATP o DNA o RNA o mRNA  messenger o tRNA  messenger, transfer  All these NAs work together to help cells replicate and build proteins  Made up of chains of base pairs of nucleic acids stretching from as few as three to millions  When combined they make a double helix  Monomers=nucleotides o Uracil o Cytosine o Thymine o Adenine o Guanine  Made of three parts  Five-carbon sugar  Base that has nitrogen atoms  Ion of phosphoric acid known as phosphate 14. Proteins have a very particular way they form. Describe their structural organization.  Primary Structure: protein sequence of amino acids, which encoded in the genes o Due to peptide bond between amino acids  Begin as straight chain of amino acids  Can bond with two sulfur atoms (disulfide bridge)  Secondary Structure: coiled or folded shape held together by hydrogen bonds between slightly negative group of one peptide bond and slightly positive group of another a distance away o Due primarily to hydrogen bonding between nearby amino acid functional groups  Begins to twist, then curls up  Each amino acid interacts with the others and it twists like a corkscrew (alpha helix)  Beta sheet: takes shape of folded sheet  Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic desire to stay away or be close to water play a part in twisting  Tertiary: formed by further bending and folding of proteins into various globular and fibrous shapes o Held together by intramolecular bonds (disulfide bridges) and hydrogen bonds o For some proteins, this is the functional conformation  Amino acid chains begin to fold even more and bond using more disulfide bridges  Quaternary (FINAL): association of two or more polypeptide chains by noncovalent forces such as ionic bonds o Amino acids have now folded into a blob  Hemoglobin: human red blood cells  Photosystems: plant chloroplasts ▯ Important in Structure:  Changes in conformation (shape outline or form of something)  Drastic conformational changes are called denaturation (to make food or drink unsuitable for human consumption) o due to change in temperature o can be part of normal physiology o can be abnormal 15. --What are enzymes? How do enzymes function?  Serves as catalysts  Is not used up in the reaction  Serves to make products as quickly as its turnover rate allows  Denaturation of enzymes usually affect the active site and leads to the malfunctioning of the enzyme  Often need non-protein “partners” in order to function (cofactors)  If the partner happens to be organic moleucule, then we call it a coenzyme (vitamins serve as coenzymes)  Often part of metabolic pathways (sequence of energy producing) o To break a protein down into its amino acid you will need enzymes o Biological molecules (proteins) that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life o Catalysts: substance that increases rate of chemical reaction  EX: you eat piece of meat; proteases (enzyme that breaks down protein) would go to work and help break down the peptide bond between amino acids  They can only work with specific molecules and only do specific tasks  If only one amino acid of the enzyme is messed up, the enzyme might not work.  Identifies substance enzyme acts upon called substrate --How can the function of an enzyme be altered?  Temperature and pH o Alter or destroy the ability of enzyme to bind its substrate o Disrupt hydrogen bond and other weak forces that hold the enzyme in its proper conformation 16. What is ATP? How is it used in the body to do work?  High energy bonds of the final two phosphates can be used to temporarily store energy recovered from the oxidation of fuel molecules  Power molecule used by all the cells of an organism to power the secondary reactions that keep us alive o Body’s most important energy transfer molecule o Stores energy gained from exergonic reactions such as glucose oxidation and releases it within seconds for physiological work such as:  Muscle contraction, pumping ions through cell membranes Other things to know: Metabolism: process of chemical digestion and its related reactions  Total of all chemical reactions an organism needs to survive ▯ Denaturation: more drastic conformational change in response to condition such as heat or pH 1. What are the tenets (important truth) of cell theory?  Cells are responsible for the structural and functional properties of living organisms o living things are made of cells  simplest structural and functional unit of life o cells come from other cells o activities of cells determine the physiological capabilities o Cells of all species have similar biochemical composition  Cytology: study of cells  Robert Hooke observed the empty cell walls of cork and saw living cells  All physiological processes of the body are based on cellular activity and that the cells of all species exhibit remarkable biochemical unity 2. Cells are sometimes described by their appearance. What are the terms used for this?  Squamous: thin, flat, scaly shape, often bulge where the nucleus is o Sunny side up egg  Cuboidal: squarish-looking in frontal tissue sections and about equal in height and width o liver cells  Columnar: taller than wide o the inner lining cells of the stomach and intestines  Polygonal: having irregularly angular shapes with four, five, or more sides  Stellate: having multiple pointed processes projecting from the body of a cell, giving it a somewhat star-like shape o Cell bodies of many nerves cells have stellate  Spheroidal to ovoid: round to oval o Egg cells and white blood cells  Discoid: disc-shaped o Red blood cells  Fusiform (spindle-shaped): spindle-shaped; elongated, with thick middle and tapered ends o smooth muscle cells  Fibrous: long, slender, and threadlike o Skeletal muscle cells, axon (nerve fibers) of nerve cells 3. Cells tend to be very small. Why?  Size limited by surface area to volume ration limits  Due to the relationship between its volume and surface area o Surface area of a cell is proportional to the square of its diameter, while volume is proportional to the cube of its diameter 4. --What is the fluid inside the cell called?  Intracellular (ICF) or cytosol (cytoplasm): cytoskeleton, organelles, and inclusions are embedded --What is the fluid outside of a cell called?  Extracellular fluid (ECF): located outside the cells is also called tissue fluid (interstitial) o Blood plasma, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid --And if that cell happens to be part of a group of cells...what do we call the fluid on the outside then?  tissue fluid (interstitial) 5. Plasma membrane. Characteristics: o Border of cells; barrier of a cell by separating two of the body’s major fluid compartments—ICF and EFC  Appears as a pair of dark parallel  Lipid bilayer forms basic fabric of the membrane Psychological Activity that occur on or near the membrane: o Referred to as phospholipid bilayer o Controls passage of materials into and out of cell o Mostly made of lipids (98% by composition) and most of those (75%) phospholipids  Cholesterol, glycolipids, and proteins make up the remaining  Help form glycocalyx (carbohydrate coating on the cell surface with multiple functions)  Molecules arrange themselves into a bilayer (membrane that consists of two layers of molecules)  Phospholipids drift laterally from place to place, spin on axes, flex their tails  This ^^^ keeps the membrane fluid Functions of Materials in Membrane: o Integral proteins: penetrate into the phospholipid bilayer (plasma membrane) or all the way through it o Transmembrane proteins: pass completely through phospholipid bilayer  Most glycoproteins, bound to oligosaccharides on the extracellular side of the membrane  Have hydrophilic (dissolving in, absorbing, or mixing easily with water) regions in contact with water on both sides of membrane  Hydrophobic (fear of water) regions pass back and forth through the lipid membrane o Peripheral proteins: do not protrude into the phospholipid later but adhere to one face of the membrane  Typically anchored to a transmembrane protein Functions of membrane proteins: o Receptors: chemical signals by which cells communicate o Second-messenger: messenger binds to a surface receptor, it may trigger changes within the cell that produce second messenger in the cytoplasm o Enzymes: carry out final stages of starch and protein digestion in small intestine, help produce second messengers, break down hormones o Channel proteins: passages that allow water and hydrophilic solutes move through the membrane  Can be tunnel through individual membrane protein or tunnel surrounded by complex of multiple proteins  Some are always open o Carriers: transmembrane proteins that bind glucose, electrolytes, and transfer them to other side of membrane o Cell-identity markers: glycoproteins contribute to the glycocalyx, acts like an identification tag 6. Describe how second messenger systems function (in general). Why might this system be beneficial?  messenger binds to a surface receptor, it may trigger changes within the cell that produce second messenger in the cytoplasm  Benefits: o Triggers a great variety of physiological changes within the cell o Up to 60% of drugs work by altering the activity of G proteins 7. --Describe the glycocalyx.  Outside of the plasma membrane on all animal cells  Sugar coat or covering  Made up of the carbohydrate portion of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins  Chemically unique and acts as a way for the body to determine “self” o carbohydrate coating on the cell surface with multiple functions o Fuzzy, sticky (think sugar coated) --What makes up the glycocalyx and what are its functions? ▯ Composed—carbohydrate moieties of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins Functions:  Protection: cushions the plasma membrane  Immunity to infection: enables the immune system to recognize and attack foreign objects  Defense against cancer: changes in glycocalyx of cancerous cells enable the immune system to recognize and destroy  Transplant compatibility: forms the basis for compatibility of blood transfusions, tissue grafts, and organ transplant  Cell adhesion: binds cells together so tissues do not fall apart  Fertilization: enables sperm to recognize and bind to eggs  Embryonic development: guides embryonic cells to their destinations in the body 8. Describe and know the function of: Microvilli: extension of the plasma membrane that serve to increase a cell’s surface are  Function: absorption; filled with filaments called actin that can be tugged on by elements of the cytoskeleton allowing for the milking of the absorbed content Cilia: hairlike processes, short projections  Function: mystery, many of them are sensory serving as antenna for monitoring nearby conditions o Motile cilia beat in a predictable manner within a saline layer produced by chloride pumps o Move liquid past surface of cell Flagella: (flagellum) only one in human, whiplike tail of sperm  Functions: move liquid past surface of the cell o Enables them to swim Pseudopods: temporary and changeable; cytoplasm-filled extensions of cell varying in shape from fine, filamentous (slender) to blunt fingerlike processes  Function: locomotion and capturing of prey o Critical in sensing prey that can then be engulfed 9. What is the difference between active and passive transport of molecules?  Passive: requires NO ATP o Filtration o Diffusion o Osmosis  Active: requires ATP o Active transport o Vesicular transport 10. Describe the following process thoroughly: Filtration:  Physical forces force the fluid from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure  Weight of water drives water and dissolved matter through the filter, while the filter holds back larger particles (coffee grounds) o Imagine a coffee filter and you get the way it works Diffusion:  Movement of particles from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration (down the concentration gradient) o Affecting rate:  Temperature  Molecular weight: smaller molecules pass more quickly  Steepness of gradient  Membrane surface area: more is faster  Membrane permeability: chemical properties of membrane and that the presence or absence of channels can affect membrane permeability Facilitated diffusion  Carrier-mediated transport of solute through a membrane down it concentration gradient  Does not require any expenditure ATP (energy) by the cell  Transports solute such as glucose that cannot pass through membrane unaided ▯ Osmosis  New flow of water from one side of selectively permeable membrane to the other  Type of diffusion  Diffusion of solvent down it concentration gradient  The solvent is always water (Diffusion of water)  Water can diffuse through a membrane plasma o Imbalances in osmosis underlie such problems as diarrhea, constipation, and edema (tissue swelling) o Occurs through non living membranes and through plasma membranes of cells Primary  Process a carrier moves a substance through cell membrane up its concentration gradient using energy provided by ATP o Just like rolling ball up a ramp would require you to push it (energy input)  This requires energy to move material up gradient, ATP supplies energy by transferring a phosphate group to transport protein ▯ Secondary active transport  Requires energy input, but depends only indirectly on ATP o Relies on another carrier to use ATP to generate gradient that allows transport of desired substrate Vesicular transport:  Process move large particles, droplets of fluid, or numerous molecules at once through membrane  Contained in bubble-like vesicles of membrane 11. --What is osmolarity?  Number of osmoles per liter of solution o Most clinical calculations are based on osmolarity, easier to measure volume of solution than the weight of water it contains  Water is going to move to areas with higher solute concentrations, important to understand the osmotic concentration (pressure) of a particular body fluid  Reflects total amount of solute particle in solution --What is tonicity?  Ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume and pressure in a cell o If solute cannot pass through a plasma membrane but remains more concentrated on one side of membrane than other, causes osmosis --How are they different?  They are not the same thing  Tonicity is dependent on permeability of membrane to that substance not just concentration 12. Describe isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions and their effect on a cell.  Hypotonic: lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than the ICF o Effect: absorb water, swell, and may burst  Isotonic: total concentration of nonpermeating solutes is the same as ICF o Effect: no change in cell volume or shape  Hypertonic: higher concentration of nonpermeating solutes than ICF o Effect: causes cells to lose water and shivel 13. Describe carrier-mediated transport. What is Tm in relation to it?  Carrier-mediated transport: o Movement across membrane facilitated by a protein carrier o Solute binds to a carrier in plasma membrane, then changes shape and release solute to other side o Carriers can move substances into or out of cells, and into or out of organelles within cell  Three types of carrier-mediated transport  Facilitated diffusion  Primary active transport  Secondary active transport  Tm (Transport Maximum): o Up to a point, increasing the solute concentration increases the rate of transport through a membrane o At Tm, all carrier proteins are busy and cannot transport the solute any faster, even if more solute is added 14. Describe the sodium-potassium pump. Why is it important?  About half of daily calories go to produce ATP in order to drive sodium-potassium pump function o Keeps intracellular sodium concentration low o Constantly removes sodium from cell  If not for this, the sodium and glucose inflow would soon cease 15. What is-- Type of Endocytosis:  Phagocytosis: cell eating, process of engulfing particles such as bacteria, dust, and cellular debris—particles large enough to be seen with a microscope (occurs in only a few specialized cells)  Pinocytosis: cell drinking, process of taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules of some use to cell (occurs in all human cells) Receptor-mediated endocytosis: selective form of either phagocytosis or pinocytosis  Enables a cell to take in specific molecule form ECF with a minimum of unnecessary matter Transcytosis: capture on one side and release on the other  Process active in muscle capillaries and transfers a significant amount of blood albumin (protein) into the tissue fluid ▯ 16. --What is the cytoskeleton?  Network of protein filaments and cylinders that structurally support a cell, determine its shape, organize its contents, direct the movement of the cell as a whole --What are the functions of the major cytoskeletal elements?  Microfilaments: o Made of actin (protein involved in cell movement) o Forms terminal web (membrane skeleton) just under plasma membrane  Intermediate filaments: o Made of keratin (fibrous protein; hair, nails) o Give cell its shape  Microtubules o Made of protofilaments made from tubulin monomers (a relatively light, simple organic molecule that can join in long chains with other molecules to form) o Helps hold organelles in place and acts as rails for transport 17. What are the functions of the following membrane-bound organelles: Nucleus: largest organelle, contains chromosomes and genetic control center Mitochondria: ATP synthesis Lysosomes: contain enzymes for intracellular digestion Peroxisomes: contain enzymes for detoxification of free radicals, alcohol, and other drugs Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: protein synthesis and manufacture of cellular membranes Golgi complex: receives and modifies newly synthesized polypeptides, synthesizes carbohydrates, adds carbohydrates to glycoproteins 18. What are the functions of the following non-membrane bound organelles: Ribosomes: interpret the genetic doe and synthesize polypeptides Proteasomes: degrade proteins that are undesirable or no longer needed by a cell Centrosomes: organizing center for formation of microtubules of cytoskeleton and mitotic spindle Centrioles: form mitotic spindle during cell division; unpaired centrioles form basal bodies of cilia and flagella Basal bodies: point of origin, growth, and anchorage of a cilium or flagellum; produces axoneme 19. What are inclusions?  Highly variable—fat droplets, glycogen granules, protein crystals, dust, bacteria, viruses; never enclosed in unit membranes o Storage products or other products of cellular metabolism, or foreign matter retained in cytoplasm ▯ ▯ Other things to know: ▯ Plasma membrane: vary in composition within a single cell depending on location ▯ Cytoplasm: made of cytosol (ICF) and the organelles dissolved in it ▯ Bilayer: membrane that consists of two layers of molecules ▯ Hydrophilic: dissolving in, absorbing, or mixing easily with water ▯ Hydrophobic: fear of water ▯ Extracellular: outside of cell ▯ G proteins: ATP-like chemical 1. --Describe DNA and RNA.  DNA o Deoxyribonucleic acid: repository of our genes o Made of four nucleotide bases:  Adenine  Thymine  Guanine  Cytosine o Components: sugar, phosphate groups, and organic rings (nitrogenous bases)  DNA is a polymer (a natural or synthetic compound that consists of large molecules) of nucleotides  Nucleotides: consists of sugar, phosphate group, and single or double ringed nitrogenous base  Two bases: cytosine and thymine (single ring), adenine and guanine (double ring)  Pyrimidines: single ring  Purine: double ring o Structure:  Double helix  Sidepiece is backbone composed of phosphate groups alternating with sugar deoxribose  Bases face inside helix and hold the 2 backbones together with hydrogen bonds o Functions: assisted by RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)  Carry instructions, called genes, for the synthesis of proteins  20,000 genes; 2% DNA, 98% noncoding DNA  Chromatin: fine filamentous material  RNA o Fall into purine and pyrimidine classes o Interpret the code in DNA and use those instructions to synthesize proteins o Disposable molecule that works mainly in the cytoplasm o mRNA: messenger; carries the genetic code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm o rRNA: ribosomal; reading machine found in the cytosol and on the outside of the rough ER and nuclear envelope o tRNA: transfer; binds a free amino acid in the cytosol and deliver it to the ribosome to be added to a growing protein chain o  more than 50 different nitrogenous bases  DNA cannot produce proteins without their help --How are they similar? How do they differ?  DNA o is irreplaceable and remains safely behind in the nucleus  ATCG  Averages million base pairs  Double helix  Functions in nucleus; cannot leave  Codes for synthesis of RNA and protein  RNA o RNA is much smaller o The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose o Contains three of the same nitrogenous bases as DNA (no thymine) o Disposable molecule that works mainly in the cytoplasm  AUCG  70-10,000 bases, mostly unpaired  Single helix  Leaves nucleus; functions mainly in cytoplasm  Carries out the instructions in DNA; assembles proteins 2. What is our current understanding of the definition of the term “gene”? Why has it changed over the years?  Information-containing segment of DNA that codes for the production of a molecule of RNA  Portion of DNA that encodes for a molecule of RNA that will either become a protein or is the product itself 3. --What is transcription?  Process of copying genetic instructions from DNA to RNA --Where does it occur?  Enzyme (RNA polymerase) binds to the DNA and assembles the RNA --What is translation?  Converts the language of nucleotides into the language of amino acids --Where does it occur?  Initiation: mRNA passes through a nuclear pore into the cytosol and forms a loop  Elongation: tRNA arrives, carrying another amino acid; it bind to the A site of the ribosome and its anticodon pairs with the second codon of the mRNA  Termination: ribosome reaches a stop codon, it’s A site binds a protein called release factor instead of a tRNA; the release factor causes the finished protein to break away 4. How does the genetic code relate to the finished product of translation?  Genetic code: universal code that determines which amino acid is coded for by all the different codons o ribosome reaches a stop codon, 5. Considering that there are only 20000 genes yet millions of known proteins in the body, what is one mechanism that allows for one gene to code for multiple protein products?  Alternative splicing: one gene can code for more than one protein 6. How are genes regulated?  Can occur at any point during gene expression  Occurs at the level of transcription o They are turned on and off from day to day, even hour to hour, as their products are needed or not, and many genes are permanently turned off in any given cells 7. Describe the cell cycle.  M Mitotic Phase o PMAT  Interphase o G1  First gap: growth and normal metabolic roles  DNA replication o S  Synthesis: DNA replication o G2  Growth and preparation for mitosis  Between DNA replication and cell division 8. Describe mitosis. What are the products of mitosis?  Mitosis: o Development of an individual, from a one celled fertilized egg o Growth of all tissues and organs after birth o Replacement of cells that die o Repair of damaged tissues  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase 1. What are the basic tissue types?  Epithelial o Tissue composed of layers of closely spaced cells that cover organ surfaces, form glands, and serve for protection, secretion, and absorption  Epidermis  inner lining of digestive tract  Liver (other organs)  Two types:  Glandular: forms glands  Covering/lining: forms outer layer of skin; dips into and lines open cavities of urogenital, digestive, and respiratory system; covers walls and organs of closed ventral body cavity  Functions:  Protections  Absorption  Filtration  Excretion  Secretion  Sensory reception  Each has two names:  First name indicated number of cell layer (simple, pseudostratified, stratified)  Second describes the shape of its cell (squamous, cuboidal, columnar) o Simple: single layer; found in lung and kidney o Stratified: two or more layer: thick; skin surface or lining of mouth ▯  Connective o Most abundant and widely distributed o Tissue with usually more matrix than cell volume, often specialized to support, bind, and protect organ  Tendons and ligaments (fibrous connective)  Cartilage and bone  Blood  Functions:  Binding/support of body parts  Protection  Insulation  Energy storage  Transportation of substances  Common origin:  Mesenchymal cells in embryo  Highly vascular  Extracellular matrix: separates living cells of tissue; bear weight, withstand great tension, and endure abuses ▯ ▯  Nervous o Tissue containing excitable cells specialized for rapid transmission of coded information to other cells  Brain  Spinal cord  Nerves  Made up of:  Neurons—highly specialized and function to receive and send signals quickly  Neurological—function in support of the neurons  Muscular o Tissue composed of elongated, excitable muscle cells specialized for contraction  Skeletal muscles  Striated  voluntary  Heart (cardiac muscle)  Striated  involuntary  Smooth  Nonstriated  involuntary  Highly cellular and vascular  Bring about movement and contraction 2. What are germ layers? Name the three layers and what kinds of tissues result from the differentiation of each.  Ectoderm: gives rise to central nervous system  Mesoderm: gives rise to connective tissue  Entoderm: gives rise to epithelial lining of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts 3. Describe the special types of cellular junctions. What function(s) do they serve?  Connection between one cell and another  Enable cells to resist stress, communicate with each other, and control movement of substance through gaps between cells o Without them, cardiac muscle would pull apart when they contracted  Every swallow of food would scrape away the lining of esophagus 4. Describe the general function of glands. Glands are classified in several different Describe each classification scheme and know the characteristics that make a gland fall into each category.  Glands: cell, tissue, or organ that secretes substances for use in the body or was product o Usually highly vascular  Endocrine gland o Lose contact with surface and have no ducts  High density of blood capillaries and secrete their products directly into the blood  Secretions of endocrine glands—hormones  Function as chemical messengers to stimulate cells elsewhere in body  Exocrine gland o Maintain their contact with surface by way of duct (epithelial tube that conveys their secretion to the surface)  Secretion may be released to body surface, in case of sweat, mammary, tear glands o Classified into mecrocrine, apocrine, holocrine:  Mecrocrine  Release products by means of exocytosis (tear glands, salivary glands, pancreas)  Apocrine:  secrete milk fat  Holocrine:  accumulate a product and then the entire cell disintegrate, becoming the secretion instead of releasing one  Thick and oily  Types of Secretion: o Serous glands: produce thin, watery fluids (perspiration, milk, tears, and digestive juices) o Mucous glands: secrete glycoprotein called mucin  Mucin secretes water and forms the sticky product mucus(found in tongue


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