Study guide KIN322
Study guide KIN322 kin 321
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annmarie Jaghab on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to kin 321 at University of Miami taught by Dr.Jacobs in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see in Physiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
KIN 322 Study Guide for Midterm Lab 1: exercise stress indicators (HR, BP, RPE) resting measures (BP and HR) should be taken before an exercise test, every 23 minuts during the exercise protocol and every 12 minutes during recovery until it reaches pre exercise values RPE is measured during actual exercise test HR is measured by radial or ceratoid pulse, stethoscope, or HR monitor HR and SBP increase as exercise intensity increases when 2 or more HR readings are within 6bpm steady state has been reached maximum HR is 220age Blood pressure represents force exerted by the blood against artery walls SBP is the pressure exerted by the blood on the arteries when the heart is contracting DBP is the pressure exerted when the heart relaxes and fills with blood measured using a cuff (right size needed. If too big readings will be lower than they actually are) and sphygmomanometer optimal SBP is less than 120 and less than 80 DBP if SBP drops 10mmHg or more with increasing exercise intensity, the test needs to be stopped DBP shouldn’t change with increasing exercise intensity but a slight drop may occur BP values (systolic/diastolic): Normal= less than 120 / less than 80 Prehypertension= 120139/8089 Hypertension stage 1= 140159/9099 Hypertension stage 2=160 and up/100 and up Hypertensive crisis (emergency care needed)= higher than 180 or higher than 110 4 Q=∆Pπr /n8l the biggest change in this equation is from the radius Q= HR x SV BP= HR x SV x TPR when changing positions, BP shouldn’t change much lying down, blood flow meets little resistance to flow due to gravity so TPR is low. SV is large and at rest HR is low as a result as we sit or stand up, gravity is now a factor more so baroreceptors are stimulated and TPR increases and HR increases to ensure that blood continues to be pumped effectively to the brain. SV will drop as a result BP is usually taken on right side (clinically use the arm with the higher BP) 1015 systolic inter arm difference and less than 10 for diastolic since there is more branching of vessels on the right side of the body resulting in greater resistance to flow 20 systolic and 10 diastolic inter arm difference is risk for CV and peripheral artery disease RPE is a measure of exercise tolerance because it correlates well with exercise HR’s and work rates Borg RPE scale from 620 is valid revised scale now from 010 but less valid RPE allows exercisers of all levels to compare their effort and receive the same guidelines about exercise intensity fatigue is around 18/19 on the original scale RPE is typically underestimated in the early stages of exercise supine should be lowest BP and standing should be highest BP missing one beat results in how many beats off? 60s/how many seconds you take reading for physiological peak is not the same as physiological maximum so you may think you have reached fatigue but really didn’t longer count for pre exercise such as 30 or 60 seconds so that the reading is more accurate and missing a beat will not result in as great of an error as a shorter count would. A shorter count of 10 or 15 seconds during exercise because it would be hard to take a longer count while a person is exercising. For post exercise, short side such as 15 or 30 seconds so that the readings are more indicative of true post exercise counts. After exercise, the heart rate slows, so taking a longer count would not be as accurate Lab 2: Field tests of Cardio respiratory fitness fitness can be skill related and health related skill/performance related: agility, balance, coordination, speed, reaction time, power health related: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition VO2 max (rate of total body oxygen consumption) is a criterion measure since it provides a direct measurement of physiological functioning VO2 max= (Q max) x (AVO2∆max) field tests are inexpensive and simplified ways to assess aerobic fitness in environments outside of the lab field tests can be done on a large number of people, are quick, and applicable since they can be done in the proper setting for a specific sport downside of field tests is that they are estimates of criterion measures and lack the control of a lab setting FICK equation for deriving VO2= Q x avO2∆ which is the same as VO2= HR xSV x avO2∆ Q shows blood delivery side avO2∆ shows utilization side we measure VO2 max because: it is the number 1 stad alone index of all cause mortality, predicts performance (athletic and clinical ADL), tracks adaptations, and for exercise prescription based on a percentage of VO2 max measuring VO2 max has downsides: safety (exercise acutely and transiently increases cardiac event risk), money, technical skill, access to equipment, time) the rockport fitness walking test is walking a mile as fast as possible and taking pulse. Equations depend on weight, age, gender, HR, and time in minutes VO2 max for males is higher usually (females have greater body fat and lower muscle mass) (males have higher RBC count, increased hemoglobin and oxygen carrying capacity, larger ventricular dimensions to fill with more blood and thus have greater SV) in 20’s high is 40 for female and 48 male. Normal female is 3437 and normal male is 4144 The queens college step test advantages: minimal equipment, low cost, little time, can be self administered The queens college step test disadvantages: biomechanical characteristics vary between individuals (taller people have advantage), data was formulated using treadmill running assuming stepping and treadmill running have same oxygen cost additional step tests: modified Canadian aerobic fitness test, forestry step test, and YMCA 3 min step test more muscle mass used during evaluation, the higher the VO2 max so cross country skiers have the highest VO2 max since they train using the greatest degree of muscle mass in an upright position how are predicted values established for field tests? a large number of individuals were tested and the Rockport equation was based on their average response. Lab 3: quantification of exercise, calibration of lab equipment first law of termodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another. conversion of stored fuels into external work of exercise which can be measured in the lab by ergometers F=ma force is the weight that is a mass undergoing gravitational acceleration 1kilopond, (1kp)=1kg work=Fd (measured in Nm or J) work is independent of time Power=work/time (measured in J/s or W) metabolic equivilent of power is the rate of energy expenditure that occurs for a given task (quantified as VO2 which is expressed in absolute bw independent (ml O2/min) and relative body weight dependent (ml o2/(kgx min)) terms Monark stationary cycle ergometer is simplistic, portable, durable, low cost and most people can cycle. It measures power. Spring balance acts as a pendulum scale that measures the amount of frictional force placed on the fly wheel by the belt that must be overcome in order to move the flywheel. Power output for bike in kpm/min= kp x meters/rev x rev/min treadmill speed and grade were calibrated total displacement of treadmill= front + rear grade=total displacement of treadmill/distance between axels x 100 faster person running would produce more power Lab 4: Pulmonary function the air we breathe is around 78%insp and 76% exp nitrogen (doesn’t change from sea level) oxygen is around 20% insp and 15% exp (reduced by about ¼ for sea level) CO2 is .04% Insp and 4%exp (increased by 105 times for sea level) water vapor is about 1% insp and 6% exp (increased about 5 times for sea level) decrease in partial pressure of oxygen at high altitudes which decreases the driving pressure of oxygen into the body and thus lowers the arterial blood concentration of oxygen. This decreases the amount of oxygen that muscle tissue can extract from the blood thus decreasing VO2 max. decrease in endurance sports performance at altitude altitude doesn’t affect VO2 max until 1600m (5,294 ft) PB is barometric pressure. The pressure exerted by the atmosphere at any given altitude PO is the hypothetical pressure exerted by oxygen if it were to occupy the same volume 2 of air at the same temperature as the mixture of gases. The total pressure of a gas mixture is made up of the partial pressures of all the gases contained within the mixture ATPS (ambient temperature and pressuresaturated): environmental condition where the exercise testing is done STPD (standard temperature and pressure dry): to standardize measures so values can be compared at different altitudes and temperatures (0 degrees C, sea level, 0% humidity, and 760torr) douglass bags were used and number of breaths in 5 minutes were counted pulmonary function tests are used to detect lung disease spirometry is the analysis method used to test pulmonary function (depends on age, gender, and height) TLC (total lung capacity): air in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration VC (vital capacity): all of the air in the lungs between TLC and RV FRC (functional residual capacity): air in the lungs at the end of expiration. Mechanical balance of opposing inward and outward pulling forces. Cannot be measured directly so it is defined as the average end tidal level of 4 normal breaths IC (inspiratory capacity): max amount of air inhaled from the resting end expiratory tidal volume level. Approximately 2/3 of the VC in subjects with normal lung function. IC=VCERV TV (tidal volume): voluntary air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing RV (residual volume): air in the lungs after all the air that can be voluntarily eliminated has been exhaled. Cannot be measured directly, but can be derived using RV=FRCERV IRV (inspiratory reserve volume): maximal voluntary inspiration above tidal volume starting at the end of normal inspiration ERV (expiratory reserve volume): maximal voluntary air exhaled at the end of normal tidal volume, starting at the end of normal expiration. Approximately 1/3 of the VC in normal lungs. RR (respiratory rate): breaths/min VE (minute ventilation): air in L/min VE is calculated by L x breaths per min x correction factor from chart other tests of pulmonary function: FVC, MVV, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio for COPD patients, FEV1 is used to determine severity of obstruction with less than 70% considered mild and less than 35% is severe Inspiratory capacity is the maximal amount of air that can be inhaled at the end of a normal expiration, while Inspiratory reserve volume is the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled above the tidal volume. Expiratory reserve volume is the maximal amount of air that can voluntarily be exhaled at the end of normal tidal volume, while Functional residual capacity is the amount of air in the lungs at the end of normal expiration. Functional residual capacity cannot be directly measured using a pulmonary function test. The partial pressure of oxygen decreases at high altitude, causing a lower arterial blood concentration of oxygen. VO2max is negatively affected by altitudes greater than approximately five thousand feet. Lab 5: Body Composition and fat distribution body composition is the relative body weight that is fat and fat free mass fatfree mass is the skeleton, water, muscle, connective tissue, organ tissue, and teeth fat mass is essential (organs and tissues) and nonessential (adipose tissue) Over 25% BF males is obese and over 32% females optimal 815% BF males and 1320% females under 3% male and 812% female is considered boarderline unhealthy skinfolds are easy, inexpensive but have a 3.5% error. They measure the amount of subcutaneous fat which we assume is proportional to total body fat Bioelectrical impedance: a weak electrical current is run through the body. Muscles, blood vessels, and bones have high water content and conduct electricity easily. Body fat has little water and has high resistance/impedence. The more fat the higher the resistance. A person with low conductivity would have a higher body fat percentage. central fat distribution is associated with increased CV and diabetes risk BMI is a comparison of body weight and height. Weight is in kg and height in m. 5% error rate. Used in adults 20 years or older to categorize individual health risk levels. (does not show body composition). It is used clinically for adults to assess health risks Obese is over 30 BMI in kg/m^2 waist circumference is used to measure central obesity and a high waist circumference shows risk for CV disease (over 35 women and over 40 men) waist to hip ratio is an estimate of body fat pattern. People with a higher ratio have a CV disease risk (greater than .95 females and .8 males) waist to heigth measures central obesity risk saggital abdominal diameter: measures visceral adipose tissue Lab 6: Body Composition: underwater weighing hydrostatic weighing was the gold standard but now DEXA is DEXA assesses total bone mineral in addition to estimates of bone, fat, and lean tissue. It is expensive and certified technicians are needed hydrostatic weighing is based on Archimedes principle. When a body is immersed in water, it is buoyed by a counterforce equal to the weight of the water displaced. The loss of weight in water corrected for the density of water allows for body volume calculation. muscle is dense and makes a person sink (1.1 density) fat and air in the lungs are less dense than water and make a body float (.9 density of adipose) a person who is heavier in water is more dense and has less fat mass need to subtract residual volume body mass is set equal to body weight so the accuracy of body volume is the limiting factor residual volume requires complete exhalation which is hard for some if a person does not exhale enough they will appear to have a higher body fat percentage because they will float more ethnicity is accounted for since bone and fat density differ across ethnicities as water temperature goes up, it expands which reduces your volume and thus increases your density at higher temperatures. We correct for water temperature. the density of fat free mass isn’t constant and varies with individuals leading to an error of 2% underwater weight is more accurate using a forcetransducer system versus a spring loaded autopsy scale submersion of persons head under water may be difficult and anxiety provoking
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