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Psychology Exam 2 Review

by: Aneeqa Akhtar

Psychology Exam 2 Review PSY 2301

Aneeqa Akhtar

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This Exam 2 Study Guide covers chapters 4-7.
Introduction to Psychology
Noah Sasson
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aneeqa Akhtar on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Noah Sasson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 225 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Aneeqa Akhtar Exam 2 Review (Chapters 4-7)  Chapter 4 & 5: Sensation and Perception  Sensation is the process of detecting physical information with our sensory organs. Our senses include vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch, vestibular senses (body balance), and kinesthetic senses (awareness of our movement). Whereas perceptions is the mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns. Perception doesn’t happen in the sensory organs, but in the brain. Not everything we perceive is a reality, it’s a representation of what we’re observing. Our brains are wired to find patterns.  Transduction: sensory organs contain receptors that transduce sensory information into nerve impulses that are carried to the brain.  Adaptation is the loss of sensitivity to a stimulus due to a repeated stimulation of a receptor. For example, when a person wears a wedding ring for the first time, they are constantly fidgeting with it. However, a few years later they hardly notice it’s there. Adaptation is argued to have an evolutionary advantage, as it helps a person to adjust to their environment.  Psychophysics is the relationship between stimuli and the participant’s experience.  Weber’s Law states that to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage. Just Noticeable Difference (JND) is the smallest difference between two stimuli that can be detected. It is always relative to the size of the initial stimulus. For example, for humans to reliably detect a difference in taste (salt), it has to have a difference of at least 33.33%. o The absolute threshold is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus. For example, in a silent environment, humans can hear a ticking watch 20 feet away. o The difference threshold is the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection.  The signal detection theory predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amidst a background noise. The detection depends on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.  Structure of the eye: o The retina is the membrane in the back of the eye that receives images and connects them to the brain via the optic nerve. It consists of photoreceptors (rodes and cones)  Photoreceptors are light-sensitive cells found within the retina. o Rods are sensitive to light, but not color, and are active under low- light conditions o Cones are sensitive to color, are not active in low-light conditions, and allow for fine details Aneeqa Akhtar  The fovea is the central depression in the retina where cones are the most densely packed, and where the most acute vision is present.  The trichromatic theory of color states that there are three types of color receptors (cones) that respond to red, green, and blue.  The opponent process theory states that exciting neurons sensitive to one member of a pair inhibit neurons sensitive to the other member o Colors come in pairs o There are 3 receptors that respond to separate wavelengths, not individual colors  Monochromatic vision is when a person can only see shades of gray (very rare)  Dichromatic vision is when a person has trouble seeing one of the primary colors (color blindness)  Gestalt Psychology originated in Germany in the 1900s. It has three principles: o 1) People naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns o 2) The whole is different from the sum of the parts. For example, the human face is processed as a whole, not individual parts (ears, eyes, nose) o 3) Perception is always in the direction of the most economical configuration  We group things together in seven different ways: o Proximity: we group together objects that are close to one another o Similarity: we group together objects that are close to one another o Good continuation we favor the smooth/continuous paths when interpreting a series of points o Closure: we fill in any missing parts of a figure and see it as complete o Subjective contours: evoke the perception of an edge o Phi-phenomenon: apparent motion from a succession of static images o Figure and ground: we organize our perception into stimuli that stand out (figure) and those that are left over (background)  Perceptual constancy is perceiving objects as unchanging even as the retinal image changes. There are two main types: shape and size constancy. o Shape constancy: the perception that an object maintains the same shape despite changes in shape of the stimulus o Size constancy: the perception that an object maintains the same size despite changes in the size of the proximal stimulation  For example, the same object at two different distances projects different-sized images on the retina  Unconscious inference is when we automatically calculate to correctly perceive size and shape. The size of an object is interpreted relative to the objects around it and in the context of other cues, like linear distance.  Binocular cues of depth perception include convergence and retinal disparity. Convergence is a neuromuscular cue. The two eyes move inward for near objects. Retinal disparity is when the images from the two eyes differ. The closer an object is, the larger the disparity.  Monocular cues of depth perception include relative size (the smaller something is, the more distant it looks), interposition (closer objects block distant objects), linear Aneeqa Akhtar perspective (parallel lines come together and converge in the distance), and motion parallax (based on the speed of moving objects).  Chapter 5: Face Perception  Faces instantly confer a lot of information, without you constantly thinking about it. For example, you can determine whether or not you know the person, if they are male or female, about how old they are, and what mood they are in .Faces are processed differently from other visual stimuli. They are processed as a whole rather than in parts. A newborn preference study showed that newborns prefer faces with simple features, over faces with scrambled features or a face shape with no features at all.  Faces are perceived as “attractive” through averageness and symmetry. The more faces are average, the more they resemble a cognitive prototype. Faces that are proportional and balanced are generally deemed more attractive.  Izard isolated ten emotions that are pretty similar across all types of faces. These include contempt, shame, guilt, joy, anger, interest, disgust, surprise, sadness, and fear. Seven of those emotions are present in infants. Emotional expressions are suggested to be evolutionary adaptations and not learned, because most of the emotions are present in infancy, and babies adapt to their environment by crying to get what they need.  Hard-to-control facial muscles can reveal signs of emotion a person may be trying to control. A fake smile doesn’t use the eye muscles (crow’s feet) like a genuine smile does.  Infants can tell individual animals, such as monkeys, apart, but they gradually lose that ability as they grow because they do not receive perceptual training on those stimuli.  Neoteny are juvenile characteristics. Baby-like characteristics are preferred and adores. Cure babies are more like and fawned over than other babies.  The inversion effect, established in 1969, states that if you turn a face upside down it becomes harder to process. Faces, unlike object, are processed holistically, in that we process all of the face’s features as a whole rather than its individual parts (eyes, ear nose).  The own-race bias states that most people are more adept at differentiating between faces of their own race, or the race they have most experience with and exposure to. This bias is already present in 9-month old infants, and increases into adulthood. However, an exception to this theory is the inversion effect. By inverting the face, you diminish the effect and therefore lose the bias.  Eye-tracking is a technique used to determine an individual’s eye movement and fixation patterns. It is used in advertising (draw the eyes to the product), eye control (can be embedded into a desktop), and medical and psychological research.  Chapter 6: Consciousness  Consciousness is a moment by moment awareness of yourself, your thoughts, and your situation. It’s so hard to study due to limits of introspection (introspection = observing one’s own thought and feelings). A person may not reveal honest thoughts, may not have the words to express something properly, and people differ Aneeqa Akhtar in subjective experiences. The inverted spectrum problem states that a different person may have a totally different experience than us.  The cognitive unconscious is all of the elemental processes that occur outside of our awareness. Freud had a different view of the unconscious. He believed that it is that our wishes and desires are in conflict with the conscious mind.  Perception also occurs without out awareness. Subliminal perception occurs when we receive sensory input without conscious awareness of it. For example, we may turn on the radio and think that we were just thinking of the song that is now playing, when in fact, our roommate was humming the same song while we were writing a paper and did not pay attention to the humming.  We spend 1/3 of our lives asleep. The restorative theory of sleep states that being sleep deprived deteriorates us. Circadian rhythm is our biological clock, that controls the rise and fall of physiological responses such as temperature, and sleep. When it is interrupted (jet lag), problems can arise.  Sleep occurs in 5 stages. In the first 4 stages, sleep progressively deepens, and our heart rate and respiration deepens and slows. In the 5 stage, we experience REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep. This is when the majority of dreaming occurs. In REM sleep, the brainstem actively shuts down the muscles, yet the EEG is that of an awake individual, and heart rate and respiration return to normal in this stage.  Sleep apnea is a dangerous condition in which a person stops breathing while asleep. It is caused by mechanical problems in the airway.  Narcolepsy involves brain abnormalities. It is when a person may suddenly fall into REM sleep without warning.  Insomnia is an impairment in functioning due to inability to sleep. About 15-20% suffer through insomnia, and it is caused by anxiety, emotional problems, health, and use of drugs.  Freud believed that we dream because of wish fulfillment. Our unconsciousness is motivated to satisfy sexual and aggressive urges; during sleep, our senses are down and dreams fulfill this drive. Manifest content is the dream content we remember, and latent content is the underlying urges (the “true meaning) that give rise to the dream  The activation-synthesis theory: dreams are random. Activation is random neural signals firing in the brainstem that spread up to the cortex. Synthesis is when the brain then creates images and stories to make sense of the random signals.  Lucid dreaming is self-awareness of dreaming. We know we are dreaming when we are in our dream.  Hypnosis is an induced state of consciousness characterized by a focused awareness on vivid experiences and decreased awareness of the external environment. It has two stage: induction and suggestibility. Induction is the relaxation and focus of attention. Suggestibility includes implanting false memories. No one can be hypnotized against their will. They can only be ‘susceptible’ to hypnosis if they are willing. Aneeqa Akhtar  Depressants reduce neural activity and slow body functions. Stimulants excite neural activity and speed up body functions. Examples of this include caffeine, nicotine, and cocaine. Hallucinogens are psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions. They evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. An example is LSD – a powerful hallucinogenic drug that is not addictive, but can have risky and unpredictable consequences.  Physocological dependence is a psychological need to use a drug (to relieve negative emotions). Physical dependence is physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.  Tolerance is the diminishing effect with the regular use of the same dose of a drug. Withdrawal is the discomfort and distress that follows the discontinued use of a drug.  Marijuana relaxes, heightens sensations, and includes mild hallucinations. It has medical properties, and a low risk for addiction and dependence. It is not a gateway drug, but can impair judgement and motor responses. It is a carcinogenic, and can increase the risk of psychotic break.  Chapter 7: Learning  Learning is a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience. There are 4 types of learning that all operate under the principle of learning by association: habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning.  Habituation is the tendency to become familiar with a stimulus merely as a result of repeated exposure. It is used to infer infant understanding and as a prediction of cognitive ability in infants. A picture or loud noise is exposed to an infant, and the amount of times the infant has to be exposed to something in order to get used to it helps to predict the cognitive ability. Dishabituation is an increase in responsiveness to novelty.  Classical conditioning, or Pavlovian conditioning, is when we learn to associate two stimuli that occur together; we detect patterns. For example, a baby cries at the doctor’s office because it has a learned association between the doctor’s office and pain/shots.  Operant conditioning is the belief that rewards increase the frequency of a behavior and punishment decreases it. For example, pushing the vending machine button repeatedly results in receiving in a candy bar. People learn from the consequences of their behavior.  Observational learning is learning by observing and imitating others. It’s how kids imitate their parents.  Behaviorism was a dominant field of psychology during the 20 century. Only behavior is observable; everything else is an unknown box. Every behavior has causes that can be understood by scientific methods. The environment has power to mold and shape behavior.  Ivan Pavlov was a Russian neurophysiologist that studies digestive secretions. He discovered that dogs would start salivating even with the absence of food. They would hear the bell that sounds before they would even receive their food. An organism comes to associate two stimuli: tone and food. It begins Aneeqa Akhtar with a natural reflex (salivating), and a neutral stimulus (bell) is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex (food).  Unconditioned stimulus (natural stimulus) produces a predictable unconditioned response. o Unconditioned stimulus -> unconditioned response o Getting dental work done ->hurts/pain  A conditioned stimulus (once-neutral stimulus) produces the same response, called a conditioned response after several repetitions. o Conditioned stimulus -> conditioned response o Sound of dentist’s drill -> causes anxiety/fear  Generalization: responding the same to all drill sounds.  Discrimination: responding to only dental drill sounds  Extinction: if the conditioned stimulus is NOT followed by the same unconditioned stimulus, it will result in extinction and the conditioned response will disappear. It’s different from forgetting, as it can have a spontaneous recovery.  Thorndike’s law of effect states that rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur. The behavior is either reinforced (increases), or punished (decreases).  B.F. Skinner elaborated Thorndike’s law, by developing behavioral technology. He created an operant chamber (“skinner box”), a soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water. It contains a device to record responses.  Reinforcement is a stimulus or event that increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated. For example, to get a dog to shake hands, you must give it a treat (reinforcement) every time it raises its paw. A primary reinforce is a stimulus that satisfies a biological or social need (like food or attention). A secondary reinforce is a stimulus (like money) that gives a reward by being linked with a primary reinforcer (food). Negative reinforcement is when a behavior is increased by removing or preventing a painful stimulus. For example, taking an aspirin to remove a headache. The headache is a negative reinforcer to taking aspirin. Reinforcers can reduce intrinsic motivation and pleasure. Punishment is an unpleasant consequence that decreases the frequency of the behavior that produced it. For example, yelling “No!” every time a child gets close to a fire can stop unsafe behavior.  In a fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule, the reinforcement comes after a fixed number of responses. For example, being paid after every 10 garments are made. In a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule, the reinforcement comes after a varying number of responses. For example, paying a slot machine or video games. In a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule, the reinforcement of the first response comes after a fixed amount of time. For example, a biweekly paycheck. In a variable-interval reinforcement schedule, the reinforcement of the first response comes after varying amounts of time. For example, a fox hunting for prey. Variable reinforcers are more resistant to extinction than fixed reinforcers  Shaping is the process of achieving a desired behavior by rewarding behaviors (positive reinforcement) until the desired behavior is reached. For example, to Aneeqa Akhtar get a dog to lie down and roll over, you must reward each act until the desired trick is learned.  Social learning is altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others. This is shown in Albert Bandura’s bobo doll study. Two groups of children were exposed to two different scenarios. The first group saw an adult being very aggressive with a doll, and the second group saw an adults being very gentle with the doll. Each group of children imitated the scenario they were exposed to.  Latent learning is learning or remembering details without intending to. For example, seeing the same things on a regular driving route and remembering them. Learned helplessness is repeated attempts to control a situation fail, causing in you to feel helpless. You cannot change a situation, and cannot escape punishment. This often leads to depression. This was demonstrated by a mouse repeatedly getting shocked, with no escape out of the cage, eventually it goes limp and just endures the punishment


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