Exam 1 Flashcards
Exam 1 Flashcards HED 343
Popular in Foundations of Epidemiology
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Alvarado on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HED 343 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Eileen Nehme in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Epidemiology in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Texas at Austin.
Reviews for Exam 1 Flashcards
These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/17/16
epidemiology study of distribution amp determinants of health related states amp events in human populations amp the application of this study to control health problems population all inhabitants in one area group of people with common characteristic distribution frequency and pattern descriptive epidemiology characterization of the distribution of health related states or events in a population determinant any factor that can bring about change in a health condition AKA a cause risk factor behaviour or environmental exposure or inherent human characteristic associated with a health condition cause specific event condition or characteristic that precede health outcomes amp is necessary for its occurrence analytic epidemiology going after the causes finding and quantifying associations testing hypotheses determining causality efficacy ability of something to produce desired effect among participants compared to non participants effectiveness ability of program to produce benefits among participants influenced by efficacy plus appeal cost compliance etc classifying diseases infectious or noninfectious acute or chronic acute infectious examples cholera mumps chronic infectious examples polio syphilis cancer cervical HPV acute noninfectious examples injury stroke chronic noninfectious examples cancer diabetes heart disease infectious disease transmission reservoir with agent gt mode of transmission eg Droplet direct contact airborne vehicle etc gt susceptible host through portals of entry direct transmission usually agent cannot withstand environment outside of host for long period of time host to host transfer indirect transmission agent can withstand outside environment transfer by some intermediary endemic ongoing usualconstant presence of disease in a community like the common cold epidemic occurrence of cases of an illness specific healthrelated behaviour or other health related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy outbreak epidemic limited to a localised increase in the incidence of a disease pandemic epidemic affecting the population of an expansive region epidemiologic transition describes shift in patterns of morbidity amp mortality from infectious diseases to non infectious chronic degenerative diseases sufficientcause model causal pies sufficient cause set of factors sufficient enough to produce given outcome necessary cause causal factor required for an outcomeie a pathogen for infectious diseases component cause multiple causes that act jointly to cause outcome epidemiological triangle between environment host and agent in period of time active immunity body produces own antibodies response to exposure passive immunity transfer of antibodies from one person to another breastfeeding vaccines herd immunity when proportion of population with immunity increases likelihood of epidemic decreases and risk to nonimmune decrease primary prevention prevention before disease occurs target at risk individuals before onset primordial prevention subset of primary inhibits emergence of factors known to increase risk of disease targets environment secondary prevention limits disease progression targets people in earlystage of disease tertiary prevention slow disease progression targets people in later stages of disease timeline of disease stage of susceptibility primary prevention exposure stage of subclinical disease secondary prevention onset of symptoms stage of clinical disease diagnosis treatment stage of recoverydemise Hippocrates Greek philosopher gods don t cause diseases introduced terms like epidemic and endemic James Lind conducted loosely defined experimental study on diets amp scurvy in 1754 cowpoxsmallpox mid1700 s a farmer noticed milkmaids got cowpox but not smallpox variolation Chinese observed that getting a weaker strain of smallpox was protective against a stronger strain Edward Jenner smallpox vaccines creator Ignaz Semmelweiss discovered benefits of handwashing 1846 discredited by his colleagues John Snow identified water pump as source of cholera outbreaks used mapped distributions Louis Pasteur rabies vaccine pasteurization to kill microorganisms Robert Koch postulate in 1882 demonstrating association between microorganism amp disease Janet LaneCalypon pioneered use of retrospective cohort amp case study in epidemiology breast milk amp breast cancerconnec on Alexander Fleming penicillin inventor Tuskegee Study study of untreated syphilis in negro males told they were being treated but actually weren t worst case of unethical standards ever Belmont Report outlined 3 principles for ethical research 1 respect for persons amp informed consent 2 beneficence 3 justice benefits and risks distributed evenly case someone diagnosed with healthrelated state or event variable characteristic that varies from one observation to the next amp can be measured or categorized numerical quantitative categorical qualitative binary dichotomous only 2 choices discrete numerical integers or counts that differ by fixed amounts continuous numbers not restricted by integers ie age count of cases of an outcome or determinantexposure proportion out of whole population how many people have X incidence info on new cases how rapid problem is occurring amp risk of developing condition prevalence info on existing cases how widespread condition is increased prevalence by long duration outmigration of noncases amp increased incidence inmigration of cases decreased prevalence by shorter duration amp decreased incidence incidence rate new cases in time periodpopulation at risk during same period prevalence proportion existing cases at some point of timepopulation at risk during same time ageadjustment holds age constant descriptive study assesses the frequency amp distribution of a healthrelated state or event in a population guide future analytic studies personrelated variables age gender race occupation education marital status describe by perosn use variables describe by place where problem occurs most or least equen y describe by time cyclic or secular or short term trends cyclic trends intermittent secular trends changes over 10 years hypothesis generation differences vs similarities differences if the frequency of disease differs in 2 circumstances it may be caused by a factor that differs between the 2 similarities if a high frequency of disease is found in several different circumstances amp one can identify a common factor then the common factor may be responsible public health organized efforts of society to protect promote amp restore the people s health through collective or social actions public health surveillance systematic ongoing collection analysis interpretation amp dissemination of health data data sources birth and death registries registry of confirmed cases of conditions crosssectional data data collected from individuals at one point in time populationrepresentative study sample resembles the source population confidence intervals measurements collected from the sample of population providing estimates of the true values in that population want narrow intervals for accurate values precision affected by size of study
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'