PSYC1315Exam1StudyGuide.pdf PSYC 1315
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eunbee Choi on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1315 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Shannon L Layman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Arlington.
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PSYC 1315 Exam 1 Study Guide PEOPLE Darwin originate the idea of natural selection: the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely to be passed onto subsequent generations Descartes: Mind influences the body through pineal gland also known as the mind/body problem or Dualism Wundt: - principles of psychology - opened first laboratory ever to be exclusively devoted to psychological studies: marked the birth of psychology - focus on analyzing consciousness: a person's subjective experience of the world and the mind- tried to study consciousness scientifically - Method of Introspection: the subjective observation of one’s own experience Titchener: - student of Wundt - also tried to identify consciousness - Structuralism: analyze the basic elements that constitute the mind. William James: - disagreed with Wundt's idea that consciousness could be broken down to separate elements - trying to isolate and analyze a particular moment of consciousness (structuralism) distorts the essential particular moment of consciousness - Functionalism: study of purpose mental processes serves in enabling people to adapt their environment - James was inspired by Darwin-functionalism was more popular than structuralism - Thought Darwin’s natural selection explained how mental abilities evolved by conferring survival advantages on individuals who were better able to solve problems. Phineas Gage: - 3-foot iron rod went through his head at high speed - his frontal lobe was damaged (frontal lobe is who you are, what makes one a human being) Before the incident: mild mannered, quiet, conscientious, a hard worker After the incident: he became easily irritated, angered, irresponsible, indecisive, given to profanity. - Neuropsychology: what happens to the behavior when brain structures are damaged Hubel & Wiesel: Recording electrical activity- Hubel and Wiesel used a technique that inserted electrodes into the occipital lobes of anesthetizes cats and observed that patterns of action potentials of individual neurons . Sigmund Freud: - “the father of Psychology” - Unconscious: the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions. - Psychoanalytic theory: Freud’s approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors - Psychoanalysis: a therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders - Dynamic unconscious: an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person’s deepest instincts and desires, and the person’s inner struggle to control these forces. - Repression: a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness and keeps them in the unconscious - “Freudian slips”: speech errors are not random but instead have some surplus meaning that appear to have been created by an intelligent unconscious mind. ___________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION TO THE CLASS ABC’s of psychology: A: affect (emotional experience) B: body (observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals) C: mind (consciousness, perception, memory, and cognition) ___________________________________________________________________ MEASUREMENT AND METHODS: Operational definitions: description of a property in concrete measurable terms Construct: things in our mind that can’t be seen or touched - Intelligence - Personality - Love - Motivation - Memory Measure: an instrument that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers. • Validity: extent which a measurement and property are conceptually related. § Criterion validity: determines how good a test is by comparing it to an external standard § Predictive validity: does the test predict some outcome or standard in the future § Convergent validity: refers to whether a test correlates with other measures of the same construct § Face validity: does the test appear to measure what it’s supposed to (at it’s face value) • Construct validation: comparing a measure to a wide range of other measures • Reliability: the tendency for a measure to produce the same outcome whenever it is used to measure the same thing § Test-retest reliability: first result=second result § Inter-rater reliability: two raters use the same measure to compare how similar they are. Empiricism: knowledge can be acquired through observation; essential element in scientific method. • Scientific method: appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence • Theory: hypothetical explanation (Can never be proven) • Hypothesis: falsifiable prediction made by theory (Can never be proven) Central tendency (center or midpoint) • Mode: the value of the most frequently observed measurement • Mean: the average value of all the measurements • Median: the value that is in the middle – Variability (extent measurements differ) Variability (extent measurements differ) • Range: value of the largest measurement in a frequency distribution minus the value of the smallest measurement • Standard deviation: a statistic that describes the average difference between the measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution Frequency count: number of events that happen in a set period of time Frequency distribution: graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made. Normal distribution: a mathematically defined distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle. Naturalistic observation: unobtrusively observing people in their natural environment Demand characteristics: observational setting cause people to behave as they should Observer bias: expectations can influence observations Hawthorne effect: change their behavior when they’re participants in an experiment. Marshmallow study: kids were given a marshmallow every 15 minutes and whoever kept the marshmallow until the end had better life outcomes than the ones who ate the marshmallow right when they got it. Correlation: synchronization of 2 variables. • Positive correlation: ++ (positive, positive) • Negative correlation: +- (positive, negative) • Correlation coefficient: a measure of the direction and strength of a correlation • Third variable problem: casual relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from naturally occurring correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third variable correlation • Third-variable correlation: two variables are correlated only because each is casually related to the third variable. Experimental Method: establish casual relationship between Independent (X) and a dependent (Y) variable by assigning participants to experimental groups characterized by deferring levels of x. measure the average behavior y that results in each group. • Manipulation: creating artificial of variation in a variable in order to determine its casual powers • Independent variable: the variable that is manipulated in an experiment • Dependent variable: variable that is measured in the study • Random assignment: procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group • Experimental group: group of people who are treated in a particular way in an experiment • Control group: group of people who are not treated in the way that experimental group is treated • Self-selection: a problem that occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group Generalizability: measurement or result of an experiment applies to other tests, situations, or people and retains its validity across various contexts APA code of conduct • Informed consent: process of getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person • Debriefing: process is conducted after the experiment or study is conducted. ___________________________________________________________________ NEUROSCIENCE AND BEHAVIOR Synapse: Dendrite: Cell body: Axon: myelin junction or receives coordinates transmits sheath: Glial cell: region information information; information provides support cells between the from other processes to other found in the axon of one neurons and tasts and neurons, insulating nervous neuron and relays it to keeps the cell muscles, or layer of fatty system the dendrites the cell body alive glands. material. or cell body of another Sensory neurons: Motor neurons: neurons that Interneurons: neurons that receive neurons that carry signals information from make decision from the spinal external world whether to cord to the and convey this make physical muscles to information to actions with the produce the brain via information moverment spinal cord Electrochemical action: communication of information within and between neurons proceeds in 2 stages 1. Conduction (electrical) 2. Transmission (chemical) • Resting potential: difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron’s cell membrane • Action potential: electric signal that is conducted along a neuron’s axon to a synapse • Threshold: “all-or-nothing” o Example: if you push the button to flush the toilet, the toilet will flush with same amount of energy no matter how much you put the force into pushing to button. • Refractory period: time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated Neurotransmitters: chemical that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron’s dendrites. • Synaptic transmission: the process below • Terminal buttons: knoblike structures that branch out from an axon • Receptors: parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate or prevent a new electrical signal. • Agonist: drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter • Antagonist: drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter Dopamine: Serotonin Endorphins • lack of dopamine in • lack of serotonin in • positive amount of the brain results in the brain and spinal endorphines in the muscle, mental cord results in pain, brain and the spinal disorder depression, negative cord results in mood, eating, +mood, pain sleeping. suppression, +appetite • +endorphin equals +happiness Structure of the brain: Hind brain: coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord, and controls the basic functions of life. (medulla and cerebellum) Midbrain: important for orientation and movement Forebrain: highest level of brain; complex cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions • Hypothalamus: regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior. • Amygdala: central role in many emotional processes – especially memories • Hippocampus: critical for creating new memories • Corpus callosum: allows the left and right hemispheres of the brain to communicate with information. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): connects the CNS (Central Nervous System: composed of the brain and the spinal cord) to the body’s organs and muscles. • Sympathetic nervous system: prepares body for the action in threatening situations • Parasympathetic nervous system: helps the body return to a normal resting state. Homunculus: rendering of the body in which each part is shown to be proportional. Brain plasticity: functions that were assigned to certain areas of the brain may be capable of being reassigned to other areas of the brain to accommodate changing input from the environment The other part of the brain got the other part of the brain’s back. Neuroimaging techniques: Computerized tomography (CT): x-ray of brain Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): response of cell nuclei to magnetic current differ and the difference are mapped to create pictures of the brain structure Electroencephalography (EEG): detects electrical current at scalp. Electrical activity of what is going on scalp. Positron emission tomography (PET): measures uptake of glucose in brain after patient is given radioactive dose of sugar Functional MRI (fMRI): measures changes in blood flow. ___________________________________________________________________ SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Sensation: simple stimulation of a sense organ - Light - Touch - Pressure - Odor - Taste Perception: the organization, identification, interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation. Transduction: when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system. Synesthesia: the perpetual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense Psychophysics: strength of a stimulus and observer’s sensitivity to that stimulus. • Absolute threshold: minimal intensity to detect stimulus • Just noticeable difference (JND): minimal change that can just barely be detected • Weber’s law: the JND of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity • Signal detection theory: response to a stimulus depends both on the person’s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of “noise” and on a person’s response criterion. • Sensory adaptation: sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions. o Water is cold upon first entry, but then you get used to it Vision: Cones: detect COLOR; focus on fine detail and active daylight condition Rods: no COLOR; active under low-light conditions for night vision Blind spot: a location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina because the corresponding area of the retina contains neither rods nor cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light Visual form agnosia (brain damage): the inability to recognize objects by sight Perception: Binding problem: how features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world rather than free-floating or miscombined features Perceptual constancy: even if someone changes their hair, we have the ability to recognize that person as the same person. Feature detection: idea that focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus, but is required to bind those individual features together Gestalt psychology: we interpret some features as being part of the object, other features as irrelevant Simplicity: a basic rule in science is that the simplest explanation is usually the best. When confronted with two or more possible interpretations of an object’s shape, the visual system tends to select the simplest or most likely interpretation. Closure: we tend to fill in missing elements of a visual scene, allowing us to perceive edges that are separated by gaps belonging to complete objects Continuity: edges or contours that have same orientation have what the Gestaltists called “good continuation” and we tend to group them together perceptually Similarity: regions that are similar in color, lightness, shape, or texture, we ten to group those together. Proximity: objects that are close together and tend to be grouped together Common fate: elements of a visual image that move together are perceived as parts of a single moving object Perceiving depth, size and motion: The amazing Ame’s room: Picture below Apparent motion: the perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations Change blindness: when people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene - You don’t realize a change when you least expect it. Inattentional blindness: failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of attention - When you don’t pay attention to certain things, you are going to miss them. Audition: hearing involves the detection of sound waves, or changing in air pressure unfolding over time. - Sound waves involve qualities of: o Frequency (pitch): how high or low a sound is o Amplitude (loudness): a sound’s intensity o Timbre (flavor of the sound/quality) Somatosenses: represents skin areas on contralateral surface of body Proprioception: sensory receptors provide information we need to perceive the position and movement of our 4 limbs, head, and body - Our brain knows how to control body parts without you actually having to consistently thinking about it. Vestibular system: three fluid-filled semicircular canals and adjacent organs located next to the cochlea in each inner ear - Keeps you from falling over ___________________________________________________________________ CONSCIOUSNESS Phenomenology: how things seem to the conscious person Problem of other minds: the fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others 4 properties of consciousness: 1. Intentionality: quality of being directed toward and object 2. Unity: resistance to division 3. Selectivity: the capacity to include some objects but not others a. Dichotic listening: a task in which people wearing headphones hear different messages presented to each ear b. Cocktail party phenomenon: people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby 4. Transience: the tendency to change; the flow of consciousness is constantly changing Rouge test: test to see if one/animal has the ability to recognize themselves. Experience sampling technique: most of your consciousness is dominated by your environment Ironic processes of mental control: mental processes that can produce ironic error because monitoring for errors can itself produce them Thought suppression: the conscious avoidance of a thought - White bear study: when a group of participants were asked to not think about the white bear, they were more likely to think about them. Freud’s theory of the unconscious: • Dynamic unconscious: your deepest (and darkest) secrets, memories, thoughts, instincts, and desires that you struggle to to control these forces • Repression: a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness Modern unconscious: • Cognitive unconscious: the mental processes that give rise to a person’s thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person • Subliminal perception: a thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving. Altered states of consciousness: SLEEP Hypnagogic state: Hypnagogia can include a mesmerizing array of visions, sounds, bodily sensations and insights as you sail through the borderland sleep -wake state. Hypnopompic state: transition state of semi-consciousness between sleeping and waking; may hallucinate Circadian rhythm: a naturally occurring 24-hr cycle REM sleep: stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and high level of brain activity - Dreaming occurs mostly in REM sleep and body is immobilized Sleep disorders: Insomnia: difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep Sleep apnea: the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep Somnambulism: sleepwalking occurs when the person arises and walks around during sleep Narcolepsy: sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities Sleep paralysis: the experience of waking up and unable to move Night terrors: abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal Dreams: Manifest content: a dream’s apparent topic or superficial meaning Latent content: a dream’s true underlying meaning Lucid dreaming: dream which the dreamer is aware that he/she is dreaming Dream theories: there are 5 major characteristics that distinguish dreaming from waking consciousness: 1. Intense emotion 2. Illogical thought 3. Meaningful sensation 4. Uncritical acceptance 5. Difficulty remembering Drugs: Psychoactive drug: chemical that influences consciousness or behavior bt altering the brain’s chemical message system Drug tolerance: tendency for larger doses of drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect Expectancy theory: the idea that alcogol effects can be pronounced by people’s expectation of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations Alcohol myopia: a condition that results when alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations Hypnosis: Posthypnotic amnesia: the failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions Hypnotic suggestions: an altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that one’s actions are occurring involuntarily Hypnotic analgesia: the reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible to hypnosis
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