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PSYC 100 Section X, Module2 #3 study guide

by: Eva Zhang

PSYC 100 Section X, Module2 #3 study guide 100

Marketplace > Psychlogy > 100 > PSYC 100 Section X Module2 3 study guide
Eva Zhang
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

The book is expensive and has too much unnecessary content. The study guide for Modules #1 collects the most important concepts and ideas from the textbook and you can use it for reviewing exams.
introduction to psychology
Dr. Thomas K. Srull
Study Guide
Psychology, PSYC, Section X, Srull
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eva Zhang on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at a university taught by Dr. Thomas K. Srull in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
Module  3:  ask/answer  questions  (How) Thursday,  February  11,  2016 4:10  PM -­ The  scientific  Method:  a  se-­‐lcforrecting  process  for  asking  questions  and  observing  nature's  answers. ○ Theory:  an  explanation  using  an  integrated  set  of  principles  that  organizes  observations  and  predicts   behaviors  or  events(useful  summary  to  deep  principles) § Eg.  Sleep  improves  memory ○ Hypotheses:  a  testable  prediction,  often  implied  by  a  theory § The  results  will  either  confirm  the  theory  or  lead  to  revise/reject  it § Eg.  When  sleep  deprived,  people  will  remember  less  from  the  day  before.   ○ Theories  can  bias  observations § Eg.  Iraq  had  massive  weapons,  and  the-rriven  conclusion  led  to  the  preemptive  U.S.   invasion  of  Iraq ○ Operational  definition: s a  carefully  worded  statement  of  the  exact  procedures  /concepts  used  in  a   research  study  (to  avoid  biases) § Eg.  Sleep  depriv→X  hours  less ○ By  using  precise  statements,  others  can  replicate  the  original  observations. § Replication:  repeating  the  essence  of  a  research  study,  usually  with  different  participants  in   different  situations,  to  see  whether  the  basic  finding  extends  to  other  participants  and   circumstances. ○ Hindsight bias:  the  tendency  to  believe,  after  learning  an  outcome,  that  one  would  have  foreseen  it § Theories  (lead  to)→hypothesis  (lead  t o)  →research  and  observations  (confirm,  reject,  or  revise)   →theories ○ Theories  will  be  useful  if  it § Organizes  a  range  of  sel-­‐freports  and  observations  of  facts § Implies  predictions  that  anyone  can  use  to  check  the  theory  or  to  derive  practical  application § Stimulate  further  research -­ How  do  we  test  our  hypothesis? ○ Description  methods:  describe  behaviors,  often  through § Case  studies:  in-­‐depth  analyses  of  individuals  or  groups  in  the  hope  of  reveling  universal   principles □ Cannot  be  applied  to  all § Surveys  and  interviews:  asking  people  questions □ Report  behavior  or  opinions □ Wording  effects:  affect  people's  expressed  opinions □ Random  sampling:  generalize  from  samples  we  observe ® Sampling  bias:  unrepresentative  cases ® Representative  samples: ◊ Population:  all  those  in  a  group  being  studied,  from  which  samples   may  be  drawn } National  studies,  the  population  does  not  refer  to  a  country's   whole  population ◊ Random  sample:  a  sample  that  fairly  represents  a  population  because   each  member  has  an  equal  change  of  inclusion } Adding  people  will  not  compensate  for  an  unrepresentative   sample,  but  random  sampling  will  help § Naturalistic  observations:  watching  and  recording  the  natural  behavior  of  many  individuals □ Never  try  to  manipulate  or  control  the  situation □ Small  science:  "science  that  can  be  done  with  paper  and  pen" □ Enable  "big  data"  observations:  phone  apps,  social  media,  etc. □ Not  only  can  it  explain  behaviors,  but  describe  the  behaviors ○ Correlational  methods:  associate  different  factors } Adding  people  will  not  compensate  for  an  unrepresentative   sample,  but  random  sampling  will  help Naturalistic  observations:  watching  and  recording  the  natural  behavior  of  many  individuals § □ Never  try  to  manipulate  or  control  the  situation □ Small  science:  "science  that  can  be  done  with  paper  and  pen" □ Enable  "big  data"  observations:  phone  apps,  social  media,  etc. □ Not  only  can  it  explain  behaviors,  but  describe  the  behaviors ○ Correlational  methods:  associate  different  factors Correlate:  one  trait  or  behavior  is  related  to  another,  and  how  well  either  factor  predicts  the   § other § Correlation  coefficient:  a  statistical  index  of  the  relationship  between  two  things  ( -­‐1.00~+1.00) § Scatterplots:  a  graphed  cluster  of  dots,  each  of  which  represents  the  values  of  two  variables.   The  slope  of  the  points  suggests  the  direction  of  the  relationship  between  the  two  variables   and  the  amount  of  scatter  suggests  the  strength  of  the  correlation □ Little  scatter  indicates  high  correlation § Regression  toward  the  mean:  the  tendency  of  extreme  or  unusual  scores  or  events  to  fall  back   (regress)  toward  the  average § Illusory  correlation:  believe  more  in  confirming  instances  more  than  disconfirming  instances □ Average  results  are  more  typical  than  extreme  results § Correlation  does  not  prove  causation. It  indicates  the  possibility  of  a  cause -­‐effect  relationship   but  do  not  prove  such. ○ Experimental  methods:  manipulate  factors  to  discover  their  effects § Experiment:  enable  researchers  to  isolate  the  effects  of  one  or  more  factors  by □ Manipulating  the  factors  of  interest □ Holding  constant  other  factors § Experimental  group:  people  receive  the  treatment § Control  group:  does  not  receive  the  treatment § Randomly  assignment:  minimize  any  preexisting  differences □ Equalize  the  two  groups § Experiment  manipulates  a  factor  to  determine  the  effects  of  naturally  occurring  relationships § Placebo  (eg.  Pill  without  drug)  effect:   □ Experimental  results  caused  by  expectations  alone □ Well  documented  in  reducing  pain,  depression,  and  anxiety § Double-­‐blind  procedure:  blind →uninformed □ Neither  the  participants  nor  the  administers  know  which  group  is  receiving  the   treatment □ Commonly  used  in  drug-­‐evaluation  studies § A  variable  is  anything  that  can  vary § Independent  variable:  the  factor  that  is  manipulated;  the  variable  whose  effect  is  being  studied § Confounding  variable:  the  factor  other  than  the  independent  variable  that  might  produce  an   effect § Dependent  variable:  the  outcome  that  is  measured;  the  variable  that  may  change  when  the   independent  variable  is  manipulated -­ Psychological  science  focuses  less  on  particular  behaviors  than  on  seeking  general  principles  that  help  explain   many  behaviors. -­ The  ethics  code ○ Informed  consent:  giving  potential  participants  enough  information  about    a  study  to  enable  them  to   choose  whether  they  wish  to  participate ○ Protect  them  from  harm   ○ Keep  information  about  participants  confidential ○ Fully  debrief  people  (explain  the  research  afterward)


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