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OU / Geology / GEOL 3223 / What is the aim of geochemistry?

What is the aim of geochemistry?

What is the aim of geochemistry?

Description

School: University of Oklahoma
Department: Geology
Course: Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
Professor: Barry weaver
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Geology Igneous Rocks Trace Elements
Cost: 25
Name: IgMet Unit 4 Notes
Description: These notes cover trace elements and their use in igneous petrogenesis.
Uploaded: 02/18/2016
6 Pages 145 Views 2 Unlocks
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Trace ElementsIf you want to learn more check out What are the conditional expression?

**the aim of igneous geochemistry is to characterize the mantle source of magmas and lavas

  • Melting and crystallization processes cause the empted lava to be of a different composition than its source
  • Trace elements and isotopes are chemical traits that allow us to see through the melting and crystallization processes

**Remember that the mantle composition is Heterogeneous**If you want to learn more check out What are the Pka values used for?

Geochemical Periodic Table

We also discuss several other topics like What are the different ways of describing one's self?

**major element chemistry

  • Large ion Lithophile Elements (LILE): Alkaline / Alkali Earth Elements
  • Rare Earth Elements (REE)
  • High Field Strength Elements (HFSE)

**Present in low concentrations: ppm - ppb rangeDon't forget about the age old question of Name two homogeneous mixtures and two heterogeneous mixtures that you come across daily.

**substitute in minerals depending on ionic radius and valence stateWe also discuss several other topics like What are illnesses or other medical problems that occur over a short period of time, that are usually the result of an infectious process, and that are reversible?
If you want to learn more check out uri statistics

**partition between crystals and liquid:

        Kd = CXL / CUq         .C = concentration

  • Kd > 1: truce element is compatible
  • Kd < 1: trace element is incompatible

Compatibility is assessed on element - by - element and mineral - by - mineral basis:

        Example: Olivine: Ni Kd = 10        Sr Kd < 0.1

                Plagioclase: Ni Kd < 0.1        Sr Kd = 2

For a multi - mineral assemblage:

        D = Xa (Kd,a) + Xb(Kd,b) + Xc(Kd,c)+...

  • D = Bulk distribution coefficient for an  element
  • Xa = weight fraction of mineral phase
  • Kd,a = distribution coefficient of element between phase a and magma

Equilibrium Partial Melting

  • Incompatible elements have higher concentration in magma than in source
  • Compatible elements have lower concentration in magma than in source

CL/C0 = 1 / [D(1 - F) + F]

  • CL = concentration of element in magma
  • Co = concentration of element in source
  • F = function of magma produced
  • D = bulk distribution coefficient

**typical mantle melting: F = O - 25%

  • Ratio between incompatible elements changes as melting proceeds

        → greater at lower degrees of melting

  • Primary magma: N: X 300 ppm be mantle Co = 3000 ppm

Fractional Crystallization:

  • Compatible element concentration rapidly decreases in magma as crystallization progresses
  • Incompatible element concentration increases in magma as crystallization progresses

→ increases very slightly until great amounts of crystallization occur

→ at high percentages of crystallization increases very rapidly

CL / Co = F(D-1)

  • Co = concentration of element in pavement magma
  • CL = concentration of element in differentiated magma
  • F = function of magma left
  • D = bulk distribution coefficient

**The ratio between two incompatible elements in a basalt reflects that of the source

→ these ratios from different tectonic environments are distinctive

Ni = highly compatible

Nb = highly incompatible

Source Ni/Nb = 4290 - at 25% Ni/Nb = 27

        These are very different and thus not useful

Sr = compatible

Nb = highly incompatible

**Source vs crystallization Sr / Nb ratios are not widely different

→ could be useful

Zr = highly incompatible

Nb = highly incompatible

**Ratio with 2 highly incompatible elements is very similar to the ratio

→ can use to “see through” melting and crystallization processes

**because of differences in ionic radius and valance state, incompatible LILE, REE, and HFSE are expected to (under some circumstances) have different geochemical behavior

Rare Earth Elements

  • All exist in 3+ state in nature

→ Eu can be 2+ or 3+

  • All are incompatible in major silicate phases

→ except Eu2+, which is especially compatible with Pig

  • Elements with even atomic number are more abundant than those with acid atomic number

→ this causes them to plot in an ugly “saw tooth” pattern

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