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Victimology Exam 2 Study Guide

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by: Ryan Desjardins

Victimology Exam 2 Study Guide CCJ 3666

Ryan Desjardins

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This covers chapters 5, 6, and 7 for our exam on Tuesday, Feb 22
Dr. William Doerner
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CCJ 3666 at Florida State University taught by Dr. William Doerner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 804 views. For similar materials see Victimology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Victimology Exam 2 Study Guide Covers Ch's 5, pgs 119-132 of Ch 6, & Ch 7 Chapter 5 1. Do you think the system’s reasons for helping crime victims are altruistic or selfish? Why? The book believes that the system is selfish when it comes to helping victims that get involved in the process because they get a feeling of alienation from both the offense and the system processes. The emphasis is not on making the victim whole again, rather the system more focuses on processing the offender. The book states "...there is a clear need to take some bold steps to ameliorate the victim's suffering". 2. What is “offender restitution?” Involves the transfer of services or money from the offender to the victim for damages inflicted by the offender. **This idea largely disappeared once the state assumed responsibility for apprehending and prosecuting offenders. 3. What is a “civil restitution lien?” The victim can recover any damages or losses from any assets the offender may have accrued during the criminal act, through the victim request of the court. 4. What are four reasons for requiring offender restitution? 1. Compensation of victims 2. Provides a therapeutic/rehabilitative effect on the offender. Allows the offender to witness firsthand the pain and suffering they caused the victim. 3. Provides a less restrictive alternative to offenders than normal processing 4. Carries a deterrence effect **Deterrence assumes that people will continue to commit deviant acts only as long as there is a positive payoff. By mandating repayment to the victim, restitution returns the offender to the exact same position held prior to the unlawful act, teaching the offender they would've been better off not committing the offense in the first place. 5. Explain the four types of offender restitution. 1. Monetary Victim Restitution- The offender makes direct monetary repayment to the victim for the actual amount of harm or losses incurred. 2. Monetary Community Restitution- Entails payment by the offender to the community, rather than to the actual victim 3. Service Victim Restitution- Offender is required to form a specified number of hours or types of service to the victim instead of monetary compensation 4. Service Community Restitution- Offender is required to form a specified number of hours or types of service to the community instead of monetary compensation **The last two categories occur when the offender does not have the ability to make monetary compensation, such as in the case of unemployed individuals and juveniles. 6. What is a “process evaluation?” The initial wave of restitution evaluations. The emphasis is on the number of offenders handled, the amount of time participants took to make restitutions, the completion rate for restitution orders, and other similar program achievements. 7. What impact has restitution demonstrated in terms of process evaluations? There has been a high offender compliance rate with restitution orders, however, success varies according to the type and level of supervision provided to probationers. 8. What is an “outcome evaluation?” Studies that look at the impact of restitution on victims and offenders. Major keys of assessment are the amount of money collected and funneled to victims and offender recidivism. 9. What impact has restitution demonstrated in terms of outcome evaluations? It was found that offenders who paid a greater proportion of the ordered restitution had lower recidivism than those who did not make as many payments, however Schneider and Schneider (the researchers) caution that the value of restitution depends upon how well the program is administered. 10. What are five problems with restitution? 1. The offenders need to be actually convicted 2. Victim failure to request compensation 3. The Inability of offenders to pay restitution 4. Demonstrating and calculating the loss and the appropriate level of restitution 5. Proper philosophy of the criminal court 11. What contributions does Table 5–4 in your textbook make to the understanding of restitution? It is basically a restitution guidebook, it’s the selected recommendations from the field for restitution programs. 12. Explain what the terms “tort,” “defendant,” and “plaintiff” mean. Tort: A wrongful act Defendant: The offender Plaintiff: The victim A tort refers to a wrongful act that the defendant has committed against the plaintiff. 13. Why do some victims pursue civil litigation options? For the plaintiff (victim) to recover monetary compensation from the defendant for any physical or psychological harm inflicted by the offender. 14. What are some benefits to civil litigation? The victim has a newfound sense of control through court action. Instead of the prosecutor deciding everything and the focus being convicting the offender, the central concern of the court case has turned to the victim and his or her ensuing problems. Another benefit is the level of proof required can be used as "a preponderance of evidence" or "proof beyond reasonable doubt", making it very hard for the offender to be found not guilty in a criminal trial. 15. What are some drawbacks to civil litigation? 1. Many victims are unaware of their option of pursuing a civil suitor how to find an appropriate attorney. 2. The offender must be identified and located 3. Civil cases require the victim to hire an attorney and pay filing fees before the proceedings begin, barring lower class citizens from the civil system 4. Furthur psychological and emotional harm may be given to the victim 5. Most offenders have little or no income, giving little reasoning to expect any recovery even if the victim wins the suit. 16. Explain what the “Son of Sam” provisions tried to accomplish. Created to advance a victims ability to attach an offenders assets, making it possible for restitution to be given to the victim despite an offenders current monetary situation. 17. What defendant resources can come into play during civil litigation? It was deemed unconstitutional because it violated the First Amendment protections against censorship, saying "it singles out income derived from expressive activity for a burden the State places on no other income, and it is directed only at works with a specified content". This makes these monies no longer earmarked for confiscation and payment to crime victims. 18. How do third-party civil lawsuits help crime victims? This concerns the issue of whether the defendants negligence failed to establish or to maintain a safe and protected environment. The victim must demonstrate.. 19. What two points must victims demonstrate to be successful in a third- party civil lawsuit? 1. That the criminal episode was a foreseeable event 2. The third party must have failed to take appropriate steps to curtail further criminal events or its efforts must have fallen woefully short. 20. Is private insurance an effective remedy for crime victims? Why or why not? It is not an effective remedy. This is because it actually penalizes the victim further by assuming that it is the victims responsibility to take action and avoid crime by purchasing an insurance plan that includes crime protection (if it is even offered). Another problem is that most insurance policies have a deductible amount that reduces the cash outlay to potential victims. 21. What is “victim compensation?” Takes place when the state, rather than the perpetrator, reimburses the victim for losses sustained at the hands of the criminal. 22. Explain what the “Victims of Crime Act” has done for the practice of victim compensation. The Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) initiated a process whereby the federal government would provide victim compensation for federal offenses and federal funds for state compensation programs. 23. Discuss the two philosophical arguments for victim compensation. 1. The Social Contract Argument- This perspective maintains that government, through its system of taxation and provision of services, engages in an unwritten contract to care for the safety and well being of its citizens. Also according to this perspective, citizens have relinquished the power of law enforcement to government in exchange for protection. It states that when someone is victimized, it means the government has failed to do its end of the bargain, making it incumbent upon government to restore victimized citizens to their former status. 2. Social Welfare Notion- This states the government attempts to provide a minimum standard of living for its disable, deprived, and unfortunate citizens. This notion holds that innocent crime victims fall under this category since they suffered deprivations that are not self induced. As a result, government should extend its welfare practices and come to the rescue of crime victims. 24. What is a “Good Samaritan?” A person who is hurt or killed during an attempt to prevent a crime from taking place, or while attempting to capture a suspected criminal, and is entitled to compensation. 25. True or False: All crimes are compensable acts. False 26. How does “unjust enrichment” affect compensation? Unjust enrichment is when the offender benefits in some way from the crime he committed. For example, domestic violence cases experience this because the offender still resides with the victim. It completely offsets the purpose of compensation since the offender would benefit from it. 27. What is a “financial means test?” A victim must suffer a serious financial hardship before an award will be forthcoming. This is put in place to show if the victim truly suffered a hard loss from the offender. 28. What role does contributory misconduct play in compensation? The victim must not share any criminal responsibility for the event in order to receive compensation, reducing ones standing. 29. What does it mean to say that compensation is a “source of last resort?” This means that compensation is considered after all other avenues for compensation must be exhausted before benefits are forthcoming. Payments go to victims only after all alternate sources of funds are exhausted. 30. What do compensation awards include, and what do they exclude? They include things such as lost wages, medical bills, prosthetics, funeral expenses, and sometimes mental health counseling. They exclude any monies for pain and suffering, or property damage. 31. True or False: States compensate sexual battery victims for the costs associated with forensic medical examinations. True 32. From where do victim compensation programs get their funds? Most state compensation programs receive funds primarily from fines and fees levied on offender, with roughly one third coming to the states from the Crime Victims Fund. Funding also comes from monies recouped through offender restitution payments to the state. 33. How do compensation programs force victims to cooperate with the criminal justice system? Three ways compensation programs force victims to cooperate are... 1. Every state requires the crime to be reported to the police within a short period of time (typically 72 hours). 2. The must also cooperate fully with police investigation and cooperate completely with the prosecution of the case should the state attorney pursue that option. 3. There are deadlines for filing compensation. 34. What is a “macro-level effect?” Refers to a change in some group or organizational characteristic. 35. What macro-level effects, if any, does victim compensation promote? Mandates crime reporting, cooperation with the authorities, participation in court cases, and produces an increased rate of violent crimes known and cleared to and by the police. 36. What is a “micro-level effect?” Refers to any changes in an individual person. 37. What micro-level effects, if any, does victim compensation promote? Victim compensation programs have had little impact on the attitudes and view of the public towards the criminal justice system. 38. What are some problems or concerns with victim compensation? 1. Every program was deluged by the number of claims it had received. 2. Rejection rates exceeded the 50% mark 3. The availability of victim compensation remained a well-kept secret. Most people are not aware of compensation 4. Swamped with claims 5. Lengthy processing time 6. High-rejection rates. Ch 6 pgs 119-132 1. Why do prosecutors use the terms “victim­witness” or “victim/witness” rather than just  “victim?”  Prosecutors render services to crime victims not out of compassion, but to cultivate/preserve the worth of  the victims as witnesses for the state. Focuses on minimizing witness discontent with system treatment in  order to retain testimonial value.  2. Explain how victim­witness management projects developed.   Revised budget priorities and funding shifts led to the federal monies that underwrote victim­witness  projects drying up by the beginning of the 1980s. The federal government would provide the initial seed  money to get new local victim­witness efforts up and running. Then over the next 3 or 4 years,  contributions to these projects would dwindle in specific decrements.   The goal behind these prearranged cutbacks was to wean these fledging programs away from a complete  reliance upon federal funding sources. It was hoped that the early success of these seedling efforts would  attract local fiscal support, enabling the projects to become self­sufficient.  3. What recommendations did the 1982 President’s Task Force on Crime Victims issue about  prosecutorial handling of victims and witnesses?   It urged prosecutors to communicate more closely with victims, seek greater victim input, protect victims  from intimidation and harassment, honor scheduled case appearances, return property promptly to  victims, and improve the overall quality of services.  4. Explore the recommendations contained in Table 6–1 of your textbook regarding how  prosecutors should handle crime victims.   1. Prosecutors officers should notify victims in a timely manner of the date, time, and location of the following charging of defendant, pretrial hearings, plea negotiations, the trial, all schedule  changes, and the sentencing hearing.  2. Prosecutors should establish victim­witness assistance units to ensure that victims of crime  receive at least a basic level of service, including information, notification, consultation and  participation.  3. Prosecutors should use the full range of measures at their disposal to ensure that victims and  witnesses are protected from intimidation and harassment.  4. Prosecutors should advocate for the rights to victims to have their views heard by judges on bail  decisions, continuances, plea bargains, dismissals, sentencing and restitution.   5. Prosecutors should make every effort, if the victim has provided a current address or telephone  number, to consult with the victim on the terms of any negotiated plea.  6. Prosecutors should establish policies to "fast track" the prosecution of sexual assault, domestic  violence, elderly and child abuse, and other particularly sensitive cases to shorten the length of  time from arrest to disposition.  7. Prosecutors should adopt vertical prosecution for domestic violence, sexual assault, and child  abuse cases.  8. Prosecutor's offices should establish procedures to ensure the prompt return of victim's property,  absent the need for it as actual evidence in court.  5. Using Table 6–2 of your textbook, what kinds of services do prosecutors typically provide  through victim witness projects?   1. Emergency Services  2. Counseling  3. Advocacy and Support Services  4. Claims Assistance  5. Court Related Services  6. Post Sentencing Services  7. System Wide Services  7. What two assumptions have guided prosecutorial­based victim­witness programs?   1. Prosecutors want to ameliorate witness conditions because they feel that witness cooperation is  essential to winning convictions.   2. The popular view is that victims and witnesses refuse to cooperate with system officials because  the anticipated costs are too high.  8. Explore the recommendations contained in Table 6–4 of your textbook regarding how law  enforcement representatives should handle crime victims.   1. Law enforcement agencies should utilize community partnerships to ensure that victims have  access to the emergency services, financial assistance, information and community programs.  2. Protection from intimidation and harm  3. Investigation  4. If an arrest has been made, victims get informed of crucial aspects  5. Info if the case has been submitted to a prosecuting attorney's office  9. Explore the recommendations contained in Table 6–5 of your textbook regarding how the  judiciary should handle crime victims.   ­ Judges should advise victims of their rights as routinely as they advise defendants of their rights.  ­ Judges and all court personnel must receive initial and continuing education on the law concerning  victim's rights, the impact on the victims and their families   ­ Judges should consider victim and community safety in any pre­release or post­release service  ­ Facilitate the rights of crime victims and their families to be present at any proceedings  ­ Allow the victim to present an impact victim statement  ­ Facilitate the input of victims into plea agreements and resulting sentences, and they should request that  prosecuting attorneys demonstrate that reasonable efforts were made to confer with the victim.  ­ Manage their cases and calendars to make victim involvement as feasible as possible   ­ Order restitution from offenders to help compensate victims for the harm they have suffered  ­ Take a leadership role in conceptualizing and advocating that the justice system encompass not only  traditional adjudication and punishment but also holistic problem solving and treatment for victims as  well as offenders  10. Explore the recommendations contained in Table 6–6 of your textbook regarding how  corrections representatives should handle crime victims.   ­ They should designate staff to provide information, assistance, and referrals to victims of crime.  ­ Notify victims, of any change in the status of offenders including pardon that would allow them to have  access to the community or themselves.  ­ Ensuring the protection of victims from inmate intimidation, threats, or physical or other harm.  ­ Make sure they receive a fair compensation from offenders who are incarcerated or released on  probation or parole.  ­ Victims would have input into all decisions affecting the release of adult and juvenile offenders.  ­Increase offender awareness of the consequences of their actions on victim's lives using victim impact  panels and conduct courses on the impact they make by committing crime.  ­ victims should be notified of any violation of the conditions of an offenders probation or parole and  should be allowed to provide input prior to or during the probation or parole violation hearing.  ­ when a sex offender is released they should promote public awareness and provide consistent protection  for citizens from state to state.  11. What is a “derivative victim?”  Indirect crime victims who experience trauma.  For example, homicide survivors and witnesses. Families of those who have died as a cause of  victimization are also considered derivative victims. It includes all people whose lives have been touched  by a tumultuous event   12. What is “vicarious trauma” or “compassion fatigue?”   ­ A physical emotional and spiritual fatigue or exhaustion that takes over a person and causes a decline in  his or her ability to experience joy or feel or care for others.  ­ Compassion fatigue is a one way street, in which individuals are giving out a great deal of energy and  compassion to others over a period of time, yet aren't able to get enough back to reassure themselves that  the world is a hopeful place.  13. What are “victim advocates,” and what do they do?  They service victim clients (counseling, support, advocacy) and provide a guide to justice system process. Try to keep the other victims needs in mind. They need the appropriate background and training before  they engage in helping behavior.   14. On what basis do critics assail victim­witness management programs?   ­ They say that victim­witness projects are more interested in organizational survival rather than client  needs. There is no focus on the first insult just on the second insult. Their aim is to appease and  manipulate people. Client eligibility restricted solely to system participants.  Ch 7 1. How did the 1982 President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime want to the Sixth Amendment of  the U.S. Constitution?   th They wanted the 6  Amendment to be modified to incorporate a new clause guaranteeing explicit rights  to crime victims.  2. What was the rationale behind this proposed constitutional amendment?   The rationale was that the addition of a single sentence would balance the constitutional standing of crime victims.  3. What is the procedure for amending the United States Constitution?  Congress passes a resolution by a 2/3 vote in both chambers, and 3/4 of the states (38) must ratify the  change within 7 years.  4. What was the opposition to this proposed constitutional amendment?   The entire effort was misdirected, the proposed language was too vague and overly encompassing, the  Bill of Rights was originally created to protect against governmental infringement upon personal liberties  so victim issues do not fit.  5. Explain the proposed Twenty­sixth Amendment to the federal Constitution.   "Victims of crime are entitled to certain basic rights including, but not limited to, the right to be informed, to be present, and to be heard at all critical stages of the federal and state criminal justice process to the  extent that these rights do not interfere with existing Constitutional rights."  6. Why did supporters think the proposed Twenty­sixth Amendment was a better strategy than  simply changing the Sixth Amendment?   Dealing with just victims would make the issue less confusing and objectionable, the new language was  broader and more inclusive and it did not tamper with any rights of the accused.  7. Why was there opposition to the proposed Twenty­sixth Amendment?   They said the original Bill of Rights was designed to protect against governmental infringement on  personal liberties and that the proposal was too vague and overly encompassing  8. Give three reasons why reformers switched their focus from amending the federal constitution to changing state constitutions?   1. Generate greater interest and local support   2. Laws on the books were unenforceable, and   3. It seemed logical to extend similar rights to victims  9. What kinds of core rights do state constitutions tend to address?   Common Rights  10. What did the Oklahoma City bombing trial have to do with victim rights?   Any victim who did not testify but exerted his or her right to attend the deliberations was not eligible to  make a victim impact statement before the court during the sentencing phase. The fear was that exposure  to other victims' testimony during the trial might slant or taint the independent recollection of victims at  the later sentencing phase.  11. Explain what the Victim Clarification of 1997, reprinted in Table 7–4 of your textbook,  accomplished.  Clarifies the victim's right to attend the full criminal trial and preserves the victim's right to address the  court during sentencing proceedings.   12. Use Table 7–9 of your textbook to select and explain four victim services that federal agencies  must provide?   A responsible official shall inform a victim of the place where the victim may receive emergency medical and social services, shall arrange for a victim to receive reasonable protection from a suspected offender  and persons acting in concert with or at the behest of the suspected offender, shall ensure that a victim is  provided a waiting area removed from and out of the sight and hearing of the defendant and defense  witnesses, and shall ensure that any property of a victim that is being held for evidentiary purposes be  maintained in good condition and returned to the victim as soon as it is no longer needed.  13. Take any four protections mentioned in the federal crime victims’ bill of rights (see Table 7–10  of your textbook) and explain what they mean?   1. The right to be reasonably protected from the accused.  2. The reasonable right to confer with the attorney for the Government in the case.  3. The right to full and timely restitution as provided in law.  4. The right to proceedings free from unreasonable delay  14. What is the importance of the case of Kenna v. U.S. District Court (2006) for victim rights?   Iit violated the fourth provision in the federal Crime Victim's Rights Act, limiting victim testimony.  15. What is a “writ of mandamus?”   A petition to a higher court asking that the court order a lower court to act upon or refrain from upholding the petitioner's rights. When a victim has the chance to give a statement against a defendant  16. Why is the case of U.S. v. Wood (2006) important for victim rights?   The victims had to be out of the country on that day and the district court relied on the Kenna decision  and found that the minor delay was a reasonable accommodation. It gave the victims a chance to be heard. Sentencing Hearing­victim requested postponement due to international travel plans, but was denied.  17. Using Table 7–11 in your textbook, explain any four aspects that state victim rights laws  address.   1. Victims and witnesses are entitled to information concerning services available to victims of adult and juvenile crime  2. Information for purposes of notifying victim or appropriate next of kin of victim or other  designated contact of victim  3. Information concerning protection available to victim or witness  4. Notification of scheduling changes.  18. What is the relevance of an ombudsman to victim rights?   An ombudsman is a neutral party who provides a checks­and­balances function and cuts through  bureaucratic red tape in an effort to rectify problems or resolve disputes expenditiously. They have the  final voice, and this person's ruling is binding and not subject to appeal or review.   19. What is a “victim impact statement?”  Allows the victim the opportunity to let the court know how the incident has influenced his or her life.   20. What does “allocution” mean?  An oral presentation.  21. What effect have victim impact statements had?   There is a lack of participation. Large numbers of victims do not avail themselves of this opportunity.  22. What does the term “aggravating circumstances” mean with respect to death penalty cases?   Render the crime more heinous or despicable.  23. What does the term “mitigating circumstances” mean with respect to death penalty cases?  Factors that make the crime somewhat more understandable.   24. How do victim impact statements fit in with “aggravating circumstances?”   "To demonstrate the victim's uniqueness as an individual human being and the resultant loss to the  community's members by the victim's death."  25. Explain the effect that the Booth v. Maryland decision had upon victim impact statements.   Supreme Court ruled that a capital sentencing jury should not be exposed to a VIS during its deliberations because it runs the risk that the jury could make an arbitrary decision. (Case of an old couple being  brutally murdered because the neighbor was looking for drug money).  26. What argument did Justice Scalia present in his dissent to Booth?   He said that we were muting the victim's side. He claims it is not unconstitutional to permit both the pros  and the cons in the particular case to be heard.  27. What was the issue in South Carolina v. Gathers (1989)? How was South Carolina v. Gathers an extension of Booth v. Maryland?   The South Carolina Supreme Court declared that the prosecutor "conveyed the suggestion appellant  {Gathers} deserved a death sentence because the victim was a religious man." It reasoned that the  prosecutor's remarks implied that the death sentence was appropriate because the victim was such a  religious person.  It was an extension of Booth v Maryland because it covered prosecutor comments made to a jury during  the sentencing portion of a death penalty case. The prosecutor's description of the victim violated the  standards erected in Booth.  28. What did Justice Scalia comment on in his dissent to the Gathers decision?   "Specific harm visited upon society by a murderer may not be taken into account when the jury decides  whether to impose the sentence of death"  29. What happened in the Payne v. Tennessee decision?   The Court reversed itself by allowing the grandmother to testify on behalf of the little boy who survived  his knife wounds. Payne was sentenced to death on two counts of murder.  30. What issue did Kelly v. California (2008) address?   A video was shown that the attorney claimed was so laden with emotion that the trial judge should have  withheld it from the jurors. Lower courts throughout the country have largely failed to place clear limits  on the scope, quantity, or kind of victim impact evidence capital juries are permitted to consider.  31. What three components do victim impact statements contain?  1. The victim and his or her unique individual characteristics  2. The impact the crime has had on the survivors  3. Opinion regarding the appropriate sentence to be imposed.  32. What questions still surround victim impact statements?   Should the parties allowed to express a VIS be limited to immediate family members or should derivative  victims be allowed to as well?   What format should a VIS take?   Should poems, photographs, and other representations be allowed or limited?   What kinds of expert witness testimony should judges allow?  What kinds of instructions should judges issue to jurors regarding the VIS?  33. What does our textbook mean by “professionalizing victim advocacy?   To professionalize the field by establishing a set of minimum standards for programs and service  providers.  34. How does one become a victim advocate?  Pre­service and in­service training. 40­hour course at the National Victim Assistance Academy.  35. Use Table 7–13 of your textbook and discuss one ethical standard from Section A, one ethical  standard from Section B, and one ethical standard from Section C.  Section A: The victim assistance provider maintains a high standard of professional conduct  Section B: The victim assistance provider shares knowledge and encourages proficiency in victim  assistance among colleagues and other professionals  Section C: The victim assistance provider recognizes the interests of the person served as a primary  responsibility


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