Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Psy 362-80
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leeta Obey on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 362-80 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Paula Henley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see History and Systems of Psychology in Psychlogy at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
History and Systems – Exam 1 Study Guide I. Chapter 1 a. We should study the history of psychology to further understand where our modern day ideas are coming from and how they were formed. b. Popper and Kuhn – psychology is not a science; no solid laws/rules, a lot of changing theories c. Monism vs dualism i. Monism – only body or mind exist, not both ii. Dualism – both the mind and body exist II. Chapter 2 a. 3 approaches to Epistemology (the study of knowledge) i. Animism – everything is alive ii. Anthropomorphism – attribution of human characteristics or behaviours to a god, animal or object iii. Spirit world/magic – there is a spirit in everything b. Important early greek philosophers i. Heraclitus – “no one steps in the same stream twice”; physis=fire ii. Pythagoras – big influence on western thought iii. Hippocrates – father of medicine; believed you needed four bodily fluids to keep balance (flem, blood, yellow bile, and black bile) iv. Socrates – “know thyself”; basis of discovery is to doubt/question ideas c. Plato (427-347 BC) – rationalist and idealist i. Theory of forms – ideas from the abstract are used to solidify reality ii. Allegory of the cave iii. Nature of the soul 1. Rational: understand the essence of yourself & forms (highest) 2. Courageous: making decisions based on what society thinks is right 3. Appetitive (lowest) d. Aristotle (384-322 BC) i. Student of plato ii. Differences: Plato – pythagorian; mathematical vs. Aristotle – Hippocratic; biological iii. Hierarchy of souls – 3 types 1. Vegetative – plants (lowest) 2. Sensitive – non human animals 3. Rational – humans (highest) iv. Laws of Association 1. Law of contiguity – things that happen close together are associated together (ex: pizza and Fridays; thunder and lightning) 2. Law of frequency – when you connect two things over and over the association is stronger (ex: muscle memory, the more you do it the easier it becomes; like playing the piano) 3. Law of similarity – if two things are similar you associate them together (ex: salt and pepper; ketchup and mustard) 4. Law of contrast – when two things are opposite you associate them together as well (ex: hot and cold; black and white) III. Chapter 4 a. The Renaissance (c. 1450-1600) i. Open-minded inquiry ii. Where the dark ages were more god centered the renaissance was more human centered b. 4 major themes i. Individualism ii. Personal religion iii. Intense interest in the past iv. Anti-aristotelianism c. Ptolemy i. Heavenly bodies are spherical ii. Geocentric theory – everything revolved around the earth iii. Lasted 15 centuries; people were afraid to question the church d. Copernicus i. First mention of heliocentric theory – everything revolves around the sun e. Galileo i. Deduction – ideas proven through science/mathematics ii. Strong basis for heliocentric theory – made the telescope (1609) to see the stars; people didn’t look into it at first because they believe if God intended for us to see them he would have made our eye sight better iii. Believed strongly in what he called primary qualities – math, shape, size; true knowledge iv. Maria Celeste – daughter – was a nun but support fathers work and took on the name “Celeste” in reference to celestial ideas/cosmos v. Conflict with the church – Galileo was taken prisoner and forced to recant his ideas on the stars and the heliocentric theory by the church (was confirmed in 1992) f. Isaac Newton i. Developed differential and integral calculus ii. Believed everything could be explained through his law of gravitation iii. Everything explained in terms of space/time/force (natural laws of the universe) and were absolute, but our understanding is imperfect therefore we only have probabilities g. Francis Bacon i. Induction - facts through observation ii. Radical empiricist iii. Sources of error (idols) 1. Idols of the cave 2. Tribe 3. Market place 4. Theatre h. Rene Descartes i. Intellectual crisis 1. What if everything we know is useless? 2. Doubted everything; fell into depression ii. Only thing he knew for certain was that doubt existed 1. “corgito, ergo sum” = I think therefore I am 2. I doubt = I think = I am st iii. Rstionalist, 1 phenologist iv. 1 biopsych theory 1. Believed animal spirits in the body controlled everything 2. Thought of it by looking at a fountain IV. Chapter 5 a. Empiricism – all knowledge comes from sensory experiences b. Thomas Hobbes i. “founder” of empiricism ii. Believed in no free will iii. Mechanist 1. Humans are like machines 2. Free will is an illusion iv. Materialist 1. Sensory experiences are most important v. Physical monist 1. Only the body is important 2. If there is a mind it doesn’t matter b/c we can’t see it vi. Hedonist vii. Determinist c. John Locke i. Political philosophers ii. Dualist – sensory stimulation causes ideas iii. Tabula rasa – we are born a blank slate; believed in nuture over nature iv. Sensation: reflection of the mind v. Simple/complex – mind can neither create nor destroy ideas d. Berkeley i. “to be is to be perceived” 1. If a tree falls… ii. Our reality only exist because we perceive it e. Bain i. Wanted to unite psychology and biological/physiological ideas ii. Mind/bod: psychophysical parallelism iii. Association 1. Law of compound association (ex: associating apples with red fruits) 2. Law constructive associations (creativity) iv. Voluntary behaviour (reflex vs. spontaneous activity) 1. Hedonist: pleasure over pain – precursor to operant conditioning (skinner) V. Chapter 6 a. Rationalism – active mind i. Assumes innate mental structures b. Kant i. Pure concepts: innate (a priori) thoughts/casual ideas 1. Unity, space, time, God, reality, cause & effect ii. Categorical Imperatives 1. We should not do things as a means to an end but as an end unto themselves. 2. Believed in free will c. Herbart i. Believed psychology is a science ii. A perceptive Mass 1. Similar ideas cluster together and ideas that don’t fit get pushed to unconscious (repression)
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