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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Kaylee Viets

Exam 1 Study Guide BISC104

Kaylee Viets
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are covered in this study guide.
Intro to Biology
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaylee Viets on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BISC104 at University of Delaware taught by PatriciaWalsh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Learning Guide: Chapter 1- Introduction to Scientific Method Distinguish between a hypothesis, a theory, a prediction, an observation and a question. • An observation is something that you notice about the world. • A question is something you ask based upon your observation. • A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an observation that requires testing to support. • A prediction is an if/then statement based on assumption that the hypothesis is true. • A theory is a body of scientifically accepted principles, or a collection of related hypotheses that have been tested and supported many times. What are the characteristics of a good scientific hypothesis? A good hypothesis is both testable and falsifiable. In this way, it should not attempt to explain the supernatural or quantify elements such as morals or ethics. Can you prove a hypothesis? A hypothesis is never proven; evidence can support a hypothesis or falsify it. Who is Barry Marshall? What generally causes ulcers? Barry Marshall is a scientist who consumed live H. pylori to try to prove that it caused stomach ulcers. He was right – H. pylori (bacteria) generally causes stomach ulcers. What is the Germ Theory? How does it relate to the research on Helicobacter pylori? Barry Marshall and Robin Warren’s discoveries fall under the broader germ theory – that bacteria can make us sick. What is a controlled experiment? What is the value of a controlled experiment? What is a control? In a controlled experiment, there is a control (variable used as a placebo that has no effect – used to see if the effects of a treatment are actually visible or not) and an experimental group. It is helpful in determining whether there is a difference between having treatment and not having treatment. What is a variable? Distinguish between independent and dependent variables. • A variable is a factor that varies in a population or over time. • The independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter. • The dependent variable is measured by the experimenter. Distinguish between random and nonrandom assignment of subjects? What are some ways to do random assignments? • Random assignment of subjects places individuals into experimental and control groups randomly to eliminate systematic differences between the groups (i.e. picking names from a hat). • Nonrandom assignments can be based on other assignments, such as convenience (less reliable – don’t eliminate unintended differences between the groups). • What is a placebo? A placebo is a variable that has no effect on the subject; is used to determine whether the effect of the treatment is better, worse, or the same as the effect achieved by having no treatment whatsoever. How can you avoid or reduce bias? Bias can be reduced by conducting a blind experiment or a double blind experiment. Distinguish between blind and double blind experiments. • In a blind experiment, the subject is unaware of certain elements of the experiment. • In a double blind experiments, both the researcher and the subject are unaware. Why use model systems? If a test is inhumane or unethical to perform on humans, scientists test animals such as rats instead. What are the positives and negatives of using model systems? While unethical experiments on humans are avoided, the results obtained by testing animals aren’t always directly translatable back to humans. Distinguish between correlations and cause and effect. • A correlation between two variables does NOT mean that one causes the other, just that the two are related. • A cause and effect relationship indicates an absolute causal link. What do scientists mean by “statistically significant”? The confidence interval of the control group does not overlap with the confidence interval of the experimental group (confidence interval – standard error of the mean: the range of values from a sample that has a 95% probability of containing the true population mean). It’s an observed difference is probably NOT due to sampling error (chance). Explain the standard error of the mean. Why is it important? How is it depicted on a bar graph? The standard error is equal to the standard deviation, while the confidence interval is the mean plus/minus the standard error. On a bar graph, it is depicted as a line extending above and below the mean (top of the bar). Distinguish between primary sources, secondary sources and anecdotes. • Primary sources are peer-edited scholarly articles. • Secondary sources are books, newspapers, the Internet. • Anecdotes are personal treatments that worked for someone else. Learning Guide: Chapter 2: Water, Biochemistry and Cells Describe some characteristics of life. Cells, growth, movement, metabolism, reproduction( genetics), homeostasis, evolution, response to the environment. Distinguish between elements, atoms and molecules. • An element is the simplest form of matter. • Atoms are the smallest unit of an element with all properties. • Those atoms bond together to form molecules. Distinguish between protons, neutrons and electrons. • Protons have a positive charge • Electrons have a negative charge • Neutrons have no charge. Distinguish between atomic mass and atomic number. • Atomic mass refers to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. • The atomic number is the amount of protons. Distinguish between a neutral atom and an ion. A neutral atom has no charge, while an ion is charged. Describe the structure of water. H20’s structure is one slightly negative oxygen atom bonded to two slightly positive hydrogen bonds through covalent bonding. Distinguish between polar and non-polar molecules. Non-polar molecules participate in equal sharing of electrons, while polar molecules have unequal sharing. Describe some of the properties of water. • A water molecule is two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. • This element is a good solvent. Distinguish between solvent, solute and solution. A solute is dissolved in a solvent to produce a solution. Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. Examples? • Hydrophobic molecules do not dissolve easily in water (i.e. nonpolar molecules such as oils and fats) • Hydrophilic molecules do dissolve easily in water (i.e. polar molecules as in salt and sugar). Why is water a good solvent? Importance? Water is a great solvent due to its polarity, which facilitates reactions (metabolism). Why is water cohesive? Importance? • Water is cohesive, meaning the molecules stick together when in great numbers (through hydrogen bonds – weak on their own, strong in numbers). • When plants are watered, the element’s cohesiveness allows the water molecules to travel up the roots and stems of plants. What is pH? It’s the measure of H+ concentration. Substances are basic, neutral, or acidic. Distinguish between basic, neutral and acidic solutions. Acidic solutions have a pH of 0-6, neutral solutions a pH of 7, and basic solutions a pH of 8-14. Compare and contrast hydrogen, covalent and ionic bonds. Examples? • Hydrogen bonds are weak (easily formed and easily broken), and exist between water molecules, proteins, and DNA. • Covalent bonds are strong and versatile. In this type of bond, atoms share electrons – as in DNA between sugar and phosphate. • Ionic bonds are about as strong as covalent bonds, but are an attraction between opposite charges. They can also be separated in a solution. Why is carbon important? Carbon is the backbone of organic chemical reactions. Compare and contrast carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids (structure, role in cells and examples). • Carbohydrates are molecules containing C, O, and H. They provide energy and structure in the cell. • Proteins have C, O, H, and N and function as enzymes, hormones, structural supports, transporters, and muscle contractors. • Lipids have C, O, and H and are generally hydrophobic (nonpolar). They serve as fat (fuel), cholesterol (steroids), and phospholipid bilayers (hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails). • Nucleic acids contain molecules of C, H, O, N, and P. They manifest themselves in the form of DNA (genetic material), RNA (gene expression), and ATP (fuel). Identify macromolecules, polypeptides, enzymes, monosaccharaides, polysaccharides, amino acids, steroids, phospholipids, nucleotides, polynucleotides, double helix, sugar-phosphate backbone, nitrogen bases, complementary base-pairing, anti-parallel strands, DNA, RNA, purines, pyrimidines, adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil. • Macromolecules are large organic molecules made of subunits (carbs, proteins, etc.). • A polypeptide is a string of amino acids. • Enzymes are catalysts for biochemical reactions. • A monosaccharide is a simple sugar, while a polysaccharide is a carbohydrate composed of three or more monosaccharides. • Each amino acid has a central carbon, an amino group (side group that makes it unique); there are 20. • Steroids are lipids such as cholesterol. • Phospholipids have a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. • Nucleotides are the basic structural unit that forms nucleic acids like DNA. • Polynucleotides are linear polymers whose molecule is composed of many nucleotides, constituting a section of a nucleic acid molecule. • A double helix is the structure formed by double stranded molecules of nucleic acids (DNA). The DNA helix is supported by a sugar-phosphate backbone of sugars and phosphates connected by covalent bonds, and contains nitrogenous bases (A, T, C, G). RNA contains A, U, D, and C. • Purines (two-ring structure; A, G) pair with pyrimidines (single-ring structure; T, C, U). • Anti-parallel strands are structured so that nucleotides face up on one side of the helix and down on the other. What is meant by “unity in diversity?” Organisms share many similarities, including basic biochemistry (DNA, same types of macromolecules) and cells (phospholipid bilayer, plasma membrane, and organelles in all eukaryotes). Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotes   Eukaryotes   Much  larger  cells   Red  cells   Cell   Membrane-­‐bound   Have  a  nucleoid   membrane   organelles   region,  ribosomes,  cell Ribosomes   White  cells   wall,  and  cell   membrane   DNA   Have  nucleus,  cell   membrane,  and   organelles   More  complex   Learning Guide: Chapter 3: Nutrients, Cells and Membrane Transport Nutrients Explain why we eat. For nutrients and energy What important information can be found on the Nutrient facts label? Vitamins, minerals, fats, trans fats, carbs Distinguish between macronutrients and micronutrients. • Macronutrients are required in large amounts (water, carbs, proteins, fats) • Micronutrients are not (vitamins and minerals) Why is water important to our health? It’s a great solvent, is useful in digestion, waste removal, body temperature regulation, blood movement, and facilitates biochemical reactions, as well as lowering risk of dehydration. Carbohydrates in our diet – importance? • Provide energy and structure o Example: bread Distinguish between simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber • Simple carbs are mono- and di-saccharides that provide quick energy (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose) • Complex carbs are polysaccharides, or long chains of glucose (glycogen and starch) • Dietary fiber is something we can’t digest, but it lowers blood cholesterol and helps the movement of waste through the digestive tract Proteins in our diet – importance? • Enzymes, hormones, structure, transportation, muscle contraction • Examples: meats, nuts, eggs, dairy What are essential amino acids? They are necessary for construction of proteins, but we do not manufacture them in our bodies naturally – we must instead acquire them through food. What are complete proteins? They have all the essential amino acids. Fats in our diet – importance? • Energy, insulation, protection • Examples: salmon, soymilk, peanut butter Distinguish between saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. • Saturated: where carbons make 4 bonds with the hydrogen, making them solid at room temp. (i.e., butter) • Unsaturated: where carbon has a double bond and is often liquid at room temp. (i.e., veg. oil) What are essential fatty acids? Omega3 and Omega6 (salmon, walnuts, flaxseed) What are trans fats? They are “bad” fats that increase the risk of heart disease; think: hydrogenated What are micronutrients? They are nutrients that are essential in minute amounts, such as vitamins and minerals – they are neither broken down by the body nor burned for energy. Distinguish between vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are organic and are both water and fat-soluble while minerals are inorganic and are only water-soluble. Distinguish between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. Why is the distinction important? • Fat-soluble vitamins, like A and E, are stored in the body tissue and once there, tend to stay there, which can be very dangerous if one consumes too much of them. • Water-soluble vitamins, such as B and C, do no present this concern. What are antioxidants? Should they be in our diet? Why? They protect our cells from free radicals, and should therefore be a part of our diets. Distinguish between processed foods and whole foods. • Processed foods, such as hot dogs, are stripped of important natural vitamins and minerals. • Whole foods, such as whole fruits and vegetables, have much more natural nutritional value. Describe the structure of eukaryotic cells. • Must have a membrane bound nucleus, genetic material, plasma membrane, ribosomes, and cytoplasm (including the cytoskeleton) contain following organelles: • Endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, ribosomes, mitochondrion, lysosomes, and Golgi bodies. Compare and contrast animal cells and plant cells • All plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose, a large central vacuole, chloroplasts • All animal cells have centrioles Identify and describe the structure and function of: • Plasma membrane: defines the outer boundary of each cell, isolates the cell’s contents from the environment and serves as a barrier that determines which nutrients are allowed into and out of the cell. • Cell wall: found outside the plasma membrane help protect the cell and maintain its shape. • Nucleus: in all eukaryotic cells, houses chromatin, composed of DNA and proteins. • Mitochondrion: plant and animal cells have it, energy producing organelles – produce ATP • Chloroplast: uses the sun’s energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars • Lysosome: membrane-enclosed sac of digestive enzymes that degrade proteins, carbs, and fats. • Endoplasmic reticulum: large network of membranes that begins at the nuclear envelope and extends into the cytoplasm • Golgi apparatus: fused with vesicles from the ER, empty protein contents here to be modified, sorted, and sent to the correct destination • Ribosomes: workbenches where proteins are assembled. • Centrioles: barrel-shaped rings composed of microtubules that anchor structures that help move chromosomes around when an animal cell divides • Cytoskeleton: framework that gives shape and structural support to cells • Central vacuole: plant cells, fluid-filled vacuoles that contain a variety of dissolved molecules, including sugars and pigments that give color to flowers and leaves


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