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Physics Test Two Study Guide

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by: Grace Gibson

Physics Test Two Study Guide 2070

Marketplace > Clemson University > Physics 2 > 2070 > Physics Test Two Study Guide
Grace Gibson
GPA 3.88

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About this Document

These are from the lectures.
General Physics 1
Dr. Puneet
Study Guide
50 ?




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1 review
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"great set of notes, but I would have loved to see some problems worked out! "
Addie Pearson

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2070 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Puneet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see General Physics 1 in Physics 2 at Clemson University.


Reviews for Physics Test Two Study Guide

Star Star Star Star

great set of notes, but I would have loved to see some problems worked out!

-Addie Pearson


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Physics Test Two    Chapter Five  ● Newton’s Laws of Motion  ○ An object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion  unless acted on by an outside force  ○ Force is equal to the mass of an object times its acceleration (F = ma)  ○ For each force, there is an equal and opposite force.  ● if two object have the same force acting upon them, the smaller object will  accelerate more (e.g. hammer and nail)  ● dynamics is the study of the cause of motion  ● force is a vector because it has magnitude and direction   ○ sometimes force must be broken up into its x and y components  ● mass is a measure of how hard it is to change an object’s velocity  Newton’s First Law  ● inertia means an object wants to stay where it is  ○ an inertial reference frame is one in which the first law of motion is true  ○ if you stop pushing an object, it doesn’t stop moving unless there are  external forces acting on it such as friction  ○ you require a force to start the motion of an object, but it does not need  force to keep moving (an object can be in motion without force)  ○ law of inertia: in the absence of any net external force, an object will keep  moving at a constant speed in a straight line, or remain at rest  ● two equal weights exert twice the force of one and this can be used for the  calibration of a spring  Newton’s Second Law  ● acceleration is inversely proportional to mass  ● the direction of acceleration is in the same direction as the resulting force  ● Net Force = F1 + F2 + F3…..  ● 1 newton = 1 (kg x m)/s^2  ● force can be measured in newtons  ● contact force: agent of force that is actually making contact with the surface  ● there are also long range forces such as gravity  ● forces cannot act by themselves which means there will always be an agent or  external action  ● weight: the gravitational pull of the earth on an object or near the surface of the  earth   ● tension is an equilibrium force such as something hanging by a string  ● spring force: contact force that can push when compressed or pull when  stretched  ● drag: resistive force that opposes the direction of motion   ○ e.g. friction and air resistance  ○ ignore air resistance unless told to consider it  ● thrust: occurs when a jet or rocket engine expels gas molecules at high speed  (this is a contact force)  ● normal force: due to the atomic structure of solids, if an object is placed on some  material that material will exert an upward spring force  ○ always perpendicular to the surface  ● kinetic friction: occurs when an object is already moving and it opposed the  motion and its vector points in the opposite direction  ● static friction: occurs when the object is at rest   ○ it keeps it at rest so it is a force opposite the direction   ○ the object would move if there was more force  ● if something is not moving or has constant velocity, you can treat it basically the  same because acceleration is zero  ● Free Body Diagram Steps   ○ identify all forces   ○ draw a coordinate system  ○ represent the object as a dot at the origin of the coordinate axes  ○ draw vector representing each of the forces  ○ draw and label the net force vector  Newton’s Third Law  ● every force occurs as one member of an action/reaction pair  ● members of the action/reaction pair act on different objects  ● the forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction  ● if an object is moving at constant speed, the net force is zero  ● apparent weight: your perception of your weight is based on the contact forces  between your body and your surroundings  ○ e.g. elevator problems  ○ if your surroundings are accelerating, your apparent weight may be more  or less than your actual weight  ○ if you’re stationary or moving with constant speed, your apparent weight is  equal to your actual weight  ○ if you’re accelerating upward, your apparent weight is greater than your  actual weight  ○ if you’re accelerating downward, your apparent weight is less than your  actual weight  ● weightlessness: apparent weight is zero  ○ force is gone so g = a and you appear to have no weight  ○ this is the case of astronauts in space  ● even if you have a tension force and you’re moving upward, if you speed is  constant then it’s like you’re at rest    Chapter Six  ● friction has its basis in surfaces that are not completely smooth  ●   ● kinetic friction is equal to the coefficient of kinetic friction times the normal force  ● static friction is equal to the coefficient of static friction times the normal force  ● kinetic friction is the friction experienced by objects sliding against one another  ● kinetic and static friction are independent of the relative speed of the surfaces  and of their area of contact force  ● static friction is experienced by objects at rest  ● static friction can range from zero to its maximum value  ○ the maximum value is just before the object starts to move and right  before it switches to kinetic friction  ● whenever you pull a string, it becomes taut so there is tension in the spring  ● the tension in an actual rope depends on the length and mass of the rope, but for  this class we will assume there is no mass to the rope  ● with a pulley, there are two tension forces that both point toward the suspension  force  ● Hooke’s Law: the force in a spring increases with the amount the spring in  compressed or stretched  ○ the force on a spring is equal to ­kx where k is the spring constant  ● an object is in equilibrium when the force acting on it is zero  ● this happens when an object is not moving or moving at a constant speed (a = 0)  ● when forces are exerted on connected objects, they will have the same  acceleration  ● if there are two boxes connected by a string, we treat each box as a separate  system  ● NORMAL FORCE DOES NOT ALWAYS EQUAL WEIGHT  ● Uniform Circular Motion is when speed is constant but direction is constantly  changing so the acceleration is non­zero  ○ if you take any two vectors, their difference will point to the center of the  circle  ○ centripetal acceleration always points to the center of the circle  ○ the resulting force of this acceleration is the centripetal force  ○ centripetal acceleration =    ○ there must be a force acting on the objects because if there wasn’t they  would be moving in a straight line and not a circle (this is the centripetal  force)  ○ centripetal force =    ○ centripetal force can be produced by friction, tension, gravity,normal force,  etc….  ○ when a call is swinging in a circle on a string, the centripetal force is the  tension in the circle  ○ in a vertical circle, tension and weight can or cannot be in the same  direction  ○ a car going around a loop is kept in the circle by friction pointing to the  middle of the circle  ○ if there’s no friction, the car might be on a bank (inclined) and you’ll have  to use the x­component of the normal force   


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