Study Guide for Psy 120 Exam 1
Study Guide for Psy 120 Exam 1 PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sofia Pasos on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Sofia Pasos Study Guide, Exam #1 Below is a comprehensive outline of the material you need to have mastered from each unit – hopefully it will help you quiz yourself as you review your notes. Don’t focus on anything that isn’t on this study guide. To help you out, you will see an indicati on of whether the listed concept was covered just in the book, just in the lecture, or in both places. You will know that you really understand and remember something if when you look at a blank copy of the study guide (without being able to peak at any no tes), you can explain the concept fully in your own words to an imaginary audience (or better yet, get a study buddy and try explain it to them as if you are the teacher). Also, be aware that for all the concepts below, you might simply get tested on your memory for a basic definition, or you might need to apply a more thorough understanding of the concept to an example. The exam will be 50 questions, T/F and multiple choice. Unlike the quizzes, the exam is closed book/closed note. You will have from 9 :30-‐10:20 to work on it. We meet in our regular classroom. Bring a #2 pencil and your student ID number!! If you arrive any later than 9:45, you will need to make plans to take a make-‐up test. Classroom doors will close at 9 :45 so test-‐takers can focus in a quiet environment. CHAPTER 1: Defining and Describing Psychology 1. What is the definition of psychology? Make sure you can also explain/define what is meant by the various parts of the definition – i.e. what is mind, what is behavior, and what is meant by the science or scientific study of those two things?) (Both lecture & book) Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mind. By mind, psychologists mean the contents and processes of subjective experience: sensations, thoughts, and emotions. *only behavior can be directly measured By behavior they mean the activists of cells within the brain and even internal thoughts and feelings can be considered types of “behavior” – as long as they can be observed and measured in a systematic way. The scientific study means that observations must be made, the scientific method must be used and that it differentiates it from philosophy. 2. Be able to describe/identify examples of the 4 goals of psychology that we discussed (describe, predict, understand, modi fy) (lecture) Describe à collection of data and analysis of results Predict à What future trend can we predict based on the data? Understand à Why? Modify à How do we change things for better? 3. Be able to describe and identify examples of the 3 common misconceptions of psychology that we discussed in class, and understand why they are misconceptions (just lecture) -‐“Psychology is all about mental disorders” -‐“Psychologists are best at predicting individual behavior as opposed to general patterns for large groups of people” -‐“Psychology is no better or different than “intuition” (a sense of knowing) or “logic” (knowledge derived through reason)” 4. What is a clinical psychologist and what does he/she do? How is this different from a counseling psychologists and what a psychiatrist is? (Both lecture/book) A clinical psychologist diagnoses and treats psychological problems, such as depression, anxiety, phobias, and schizophrenia. Clinical psychologists typically work in clinics or in private practice, delivering human services such as psychotherapy or counseling. To become one it is necessary to obtain a postgraduate degree such as a Ph.D. (doctor of philosophy) or Psy.D. (doctor of psychology). A counseling psychologist also delivers human services, but they usually work on different kinds of problems. They are more likely to deal with adjustment problems (marriage and family problems), whereas clinical psychologists tend to work with psychological disorders. Psychiatrists also specialize in the treatment of psychological problems, but they are medical doctors. To become a psychiatrist you must graduate from medical school and complete further specialized training. Like clinical psychologists, psychiatr ists treat mental disorders but they are also licensed to prescribe medication. 5. What is a research psychologist and what does he/she do? (Both lecture/book) A research psychologist conducts basic research to discover the principles of behavior and mind. Behavioral neuroscientists seek to understand how biological or genetic factors influence and determine behavior. Personality psychologists are concerned with the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across situations and also with how p eople differ. Cognitive psychologists focus on higher mental processes such as memory, learning, and reasoning. Developmental psychologists study how behavior and internal mental processes change over the course of the life span. Social psychologists are interested in how people think about, influence and relate to each other. 6. What is an applied psychologist and what does he/she do? (Both lecture/book) Applied psychologists extend the principles of scientific psychology to practical, everyday problems in the real world. School psychologists work with students in primary and secondary schools to help them perform well academically and socially. Industrial/organizational psychologists are employed in industry to help improve moral, train new recruits, or help managers establish effective lines of communication with their employees. Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to legal issues, such as the reliability of eyewitness testimony or the evaluation of a defendant’s mental competence. Human factors psychologists play a key role in the design and engineering of new products. Tracing the Development of Psychology: A Brief History 7. What is the philosophical position known as empiricism? (just book) Empiricism is a philosophical position that states the idea that knowledge arises directly from experience. 8. What two disciplines did psychology develop out of? (just book) From philosophy and physiology. 9. What is the philosophical position known as nativism? (just book) Nativism is a philosophical position that states that certain kinds of knowledge and ideas are inborn, or innate. 10. What is Gestalt psychology? (just book) Gestalt psychology is a movement that says that humans are born with a certain fixed way of viewing the world. “The visual system naturally organizes sensory input in (b) in such way that (a) is hard to see.” These organizing principles are innate, and experience cannot change them, according to Gestalt psychology. 11. Explain the structuralism approach to psychology, and know which two psychologists were associated with this school of thought ( Both book & lecture) Wundt and his student Edward Titchener were the psychologists associated with structuralism. Structuralism is an approach that says psychologist should seek the structure of the mind by breaking it down into elementary parts, much as a chemist might try to understand a chemical compound. Titchener believed that it was the job of psychologists to (1) identify these elements and (2) discover how they combine to produce meaningful wholes. Wundt was always convinced that the focus of psychology should be on the study of immediate conscious experience. 12. What is the technique of systematic introspection? Which approach to psychol ogy was best known for relying on this technique? ( Both book & lecture) Structuralism à Systematic introspection is a technique, which required people to provide rigorous self-‐ reports of their own internal experiences. Introspectionists were trained to describe the elements that they perceived in simple visual stimuli, sounds and tastes. Titchener broke down into combinations of four elementary tastes: salty, bitter, sour and sweet. 13. Describe the function alism approach to psychology. Who was the most fa mous psychologist mentioned in class and in your book that was associated with this approach? (Both book/lecture) Functionalism is an early school of psychology; functionalists believed that the proper way to understand mind and behavior is to first analyze their function and purpose of conscious experience. William James: he was convinced that to understand mental process its function must be considered: how does it help the individual solve problems in the environment? *Darwin influenced 14. Describe the behaviorism approach to psychology (both lecture & book). Who was the most famous psychologist viewed as the leader of this movement (just book)? Behaviorism is a school of psychology proposing that the only proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior rather than immediate conscious experience. John Watson: rejected the study of the mind in fair of the study of observable behavior. 15. What time frame was the height of the behaviorism movement? Know whether the behaviorism movement came just after or just before the structuralism & functionalism movement s, and be able to describe how the techniques of behavioris m were different from thes e approaches (both lecture/book). It was right after structuralism and functionalism (1900) on 1910 behaviorism. Structuralism and functionalism rely on immediate conscious experience and mental event. Behaviorism is based on observable behavior. So people started to think that observable behavior was more useful than immediate conscious experience. It started in 1910 and ended in 1950, when cognitive revolution started. Time frame à 40 years 16. Be able to describe the key characteristics of psychoanalysis,(or the psychodynamic approach to psychology), and know who was most associated with the development of psychoanalysis (both lecture/book) Psychoanalysis is a term used by Freud to describe his theory of mind and system of therapy. Psychodynamic: how unconscious conflicts, inner forces affect behavior, thoughts, and feelings. • Freud (1836-‐1939) • Family of origin / childhood issues 17. Be able to describe what is meant by humanistic psychology (both lecture/book) Humanistic psychology is a movement in psychology that focuses on people’s unique capacities for choice, responsibility, and growth. How to create a fulfill life? Be the best you can be. Free will. Positive psychology. Identifying the Focus of Modern Psychology 18. In modern psychology, know what is meant by the eclectic approach (just book) The eclectic approach is an approach in which psychologist selects or adopts information from many different sources rather than relying on one perspective. 19. In modern psychology, know what is meant by the cogni tive revolution (both book/lecture) In the 1950s, researchers began to show interest in the fundamental problems of consciousness and mental processes, and the return of the study is called cognitive revolution. Cognitive: how thoughts affect behavior, feelings • Reasoning • Memory • Intelligence • Beliefs/thoughts 20. In modern psychology, know what is meant by the biological approach (both book/lecture) Over the years, researchers have uncovered fascinating links between structures in the brain and the phenomena of behavior and mind. Biological: how the body influences behavior, thoughts, feelings . • Nervous system • Brain chemicals • Hormones • Genetics 21. In modern psychology, know what is meant by evolutionary psychology (both book/lecture) Evolutionary psychology is a recent movement that seeks to identify exactly how our behaviors and thought processes have been molded by evolutionary pressures. Evolutionary: Natural Selection (how our adaptive evolution affects us today). 22. In modern psychology, know what is meant by the consideration of cultural factors, or the sociocultural approach (both book/lecture) By culture, psychologists generally mean the shared values, customs, and beliefs of a group or community. Cultural groups can be based on obvious characteristics such as ethnicity, race, or socioeconomic class but also on political, religious, or other factors. *Psychologists have always recognized that the environment influences behavior. CHAPTER 2: 1. Define/understand descriptive research (just book) Descriptive research consists of the methods that are used to observe and describe behavior. At face value, the act of observation seems simple enough -‐ after all, most people can watch and record the behavior of themselves or others. 2. Define/understand reactivity (j ust book) Reactivity occurs when the process of being observed changes behavior. 3. Define/understand naturalistic observation. Does naturalistic observation normally come with the advantage of high external validity or high internal validity? (just book). In naturalistic observation, the researcher records only naturally occurring behavior, as opposed to behavior produced in the laboratory. Naturalistic observation: a descriptive research technique that records naturally occurring behavior as opposed to behavior produced in the laboratory. It improves external validity. External validity: the extent to which results generalize to other situations or are representative of real life. 4. Define/Understand case studies (just book) Case study: a descriptive r esearch technique in which the effort is focused on a single case, usually an individual. 5. Define/Understand what a survey is (just book) Survey: a descriptive research technique designed to gather limited amounts of information from many people, usually by administering some kind of questionnaire. 6. Define/understand the basic principles of sampling when conducting a survey. I.e. What is a population? What is a sample? What is random sampling, and why does it produce a representative sample (as opposed to biased sample)? (just book) Population: The entire set of individuals to which generalizations will be made based on an experimental sample. Sample: a subset of individuals from a target population. Random sampling: a procedure guaranteeing that everyone in the population has an equal likelihood of being selected for the sample. Because of this, random sampling helps ensure that all possible bias, viewpoints and backgrounds will be represented. This produces a representative sample. 7. What is an achievement test and what is an aptitude test? (just book) An achievement test measures a person’s current level of knowledge or competence in a particular subject (such as math or psych) An aptitude test measur es the potential for success in a given profession or area of study. 8. Be able to define & understand how to compute the following measures of central tendency: mean, mode, median (just book) Mean: the arithmetic average of a set of scores Mode: the most frequently occurring score in a set of scores. Median: the middle point in an ordered set of scores; half of the scores fall at or below the median score, and half fall at or above the median score. 9. Define variability, and define the following two measur es of variability: range, and standard deviation (just book) Variability: a measure of how much the scores in a distribution of scores differ from one another. Range: the differences between the largest and smallest scores in a distribution. Standard deviation: an indication of how much individual scores differ or vary from the mean. 10. What are inferential statistics? (just book) Inferential statistics: mathematical techniques that help researchers decide wh ether data are representative of a population or weather differences among observations can be attributed to change. 11. Define theory and hypothesis (just lecture) Theory: an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena Hypothesis: A tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between to (or more) events or variables; often stated as a prediction that a certain outcome will result from specific conditions. 12. Understand what independent and dependent variables are and be able to identify them in examples (both book/lecture) Independent Variable (IV): This is the variable that is manipulated or is the variable you expect to affect the other variables Dependent Variable (DV) : This is the variable that you expect to be affected by the IV 13. Understand, define, and be able to identify examples of an operational definition (both book/lecture) Operational definition is stating what you are actually measuring. Examples: – Happiness is an abstract concept. Answer to question “How happy are you rig ht now” is the operational definition of happiness. – Strength is an abstract concept. Measuring how much you can bench press is the operational definition. 14. A correlational approach involves just observing to see if there is an existing relationship between two variables, or whether two variables vary together systematically. (E.g. Is it true that as aggression goes up, a tendency to wear black T -‐shirts goes up? Is it true that as intelligence goes up, quality of physical health also goes up? Is it true tha t as average time spent in the gym goes up, weight goes down?) Make sure you understand what a correlation is, and know what a positive and negative correlation is. Hint: Be able to identify a visual depiction of each kind of correlation on a graph (book/lecture) 15. Does correlational research allow researchers to predict behavior? Does correlational research allow researchers to identify the cause of behavior? (both book/lecture) Correlation: a statistic that indicated whether two variables vary together in a systematic way; correlation coefficients vary from +1.00 to -‐1.00. A correlation coefficient gives the researcher a feel for how well the value of one variable, such as a job success, can be predicted if the value of a second variable, such as an achievement test score, is known. *Correlation does not equal causation!!!! 16. Be able to describe and understand the 3 “hallmarks” of an experimental approach – i.e. what makes an experiment an experiment? (hint: you must have 1) control of all other variabl es, 2) manipulation of an independent variable, and 3) random assignment to conditions. Know what is meant by these things) (both lecture/book) 17. Know what the benefit is of an experimental design. What does an experiment allow you to conclude that a correlational approach does not? (hint: it establishes cause -‐effect relationships and allows you to EXPLAIN BEHAVIOR INSTEAD OF JUST PREDICT BEHAVIOR!) (both book/lecture) 18. Understand why random assignment is necessary, and why NOT doing random assignment threatens your ability to conclude that the independent variable caused the change in your dependent variability when you run an ex periment (both lecture/book) The researchers cant control individual differences in the people completing each session, so participants are RANDOMLY ASSIGNED to each condition so other differences in the participants are EQUALLY DISTRIBUTE D across both conditions. 19. What is a control group and why is it necessary? (both book/lecture) Control group: In a quantitative scientific experiment, subjects are divided into two groups. The variable being tested is applied to one group, but not the other; the second group, which does not receive the treatment, is the control group. It is necessary to compare it with the group that did rece ive the treatment. 20. What is a confounding variable? (just book) Confounding variable: an uncontrolled variable that changes along with the independent variable. 21. What is internal validity and what is external validity? (both book/lecture) Know whether the following designs tend to be high or low on each of these: 1) experiments done in the lab, 2) correlational studies done in the field, and 3) quasi -‐experimental studies done in the field (just lecture) Internal validity: The extent to which an experiment has effectively controlled for confounding variables; internally valid experiments allow for the determination of causality. External validity: The extent to which results generalize to other situations or are representative of real life. 22. Understand what a quasi -‐experimental design is – identify examples. What makes a quasi-‐ experiment different from an experiment? (just lecture) Quasi-‐experimental studies are studies in which we typically observe things in a more natural setting (as opposed to the lab, so we have less control over all other variables), and since quasi-‐experimental designs are used when randomization , it is impossible and/or impractical. If it feels like an experiment, but participants couldn’t be RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO CONDITIONS, it’s probably a quasi -‐experimental design. Quasi experiments take people as they are, because you can’t randomly assign them. 23. What’s a placebo? (just book) Placebo: an inactive, or inert, substance that resembles an experimental su bstance. 24. What’s a single blind study? (book and lecture) Single-‐blind study: experimental participants do not know to which condition they have been assigned; it is used to control for participant expectancies. 25. What’s a double blind study? (book and lec ture) Double-‐blind study: neither participants nor research observers are aware of who has been assigned to the experimental and control groups; its used to control for both participant and experimenter expectancies. 26. Make sure you review the differences between reliability and validity, and be able to define and apply them to examples. Big hint: Be able to identify some images that represent high and low validity and high and low reliability from the powerpoint slides ( just lecture) Reliability and validity Is our measure, a good measure? - Reliability – How consistent are responses on this scale? - Validity – How accurate is our measure? 27. What is informed consent? (just book) Informed consent: the principle that before consenting to participate in research, people should be fully informed about any significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate. 28. What is debriefing? (just book) Debriefing: at the conclus ion of an experimental session, informing the participants about the general purpose of the experiment, including any deception that was involved. 29. What is confidentiality? (just book) Confidentiality: the principle that personal information obtained from a participant in research or therapy should not be revealed without the individual’s permission. CHAPTER 3: 1. Define, understand, and be able to apply the following basic ideas of evolution (just lecture): Variation: differences between organisms Natural selection: survival advantage for some Heritability: the ability to pass changes to offspring Sexual selection is a “special case” of natural selection. Sexual selection acts on an organism's ability to obtain (often by any means necessary!) or successfull y copulate with a mate. 2. Know the 3 main things nature selects for (just lecture): Food attainment Predator/danger avoidance Reproductive factors 3. Be able to explain why people say the nature vs. nurture debate is a FALSE DICHOTOMY. (i.e. how might nature and nurture actually work together to determine human behavior? What is the interactionist perspective?) (just lecture) 4. What is a major caution of the evolutionary model of human behavior? (hint: can there be a discord between modern environment a nd evolved instincts…..? Do all “evolved” instincts serve us perfectly in our modern environment now?) (just lecture) 5. What is meant by tradeoffs? (lecture) *Physical traits don’t evolve to do everything perfectly. 6. Clark and Hatfield study (1978) – Know the approximate percentages of men and women who told a complete stranger of the opposite sex that they would be willing to 1) Go out, 2) Go back to their place, 3) Have sex (just lecture) 7. How would an evolutionary psychologist explain the Clark & Hatfi eld results? i.e. Describe why, during the era of evolutionary adaptedness, men who adopted a short -‐term mating strategy would have successfully passed on their genes more often than women who adopted a short -‐ term mating strategy (parental investment – what is it?) (just lecture) 8. What are sensory neurons? (just book) Sensory neurons: cells that carry environmental messages toward the spinal cord and brain. 9. What are interneurons? (just book) Interneurons: cells that transfer information from one neuron to another; interneurons make no direct contact with the outside world. 10. What are motor neurons? (just book) Motor neurons: cells that carry information away from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands that directly produce behavior. 11. What are glial cells? (just book) Glial cells: cells that fill in space between neurons, remove waste, or help neurons to communicate efficiently. 12. Know what the following parts of a neuron are, wha t they do, and be able to label them in a diagram of a neuron: Myelin sheath, dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons (both book/lecture) Myelin sheath: an insulating material that protects the axon and helps to speed up neural transmission. Dendrites: the fibers that extend outward from a neuron and receive information from other neurons. Soma: the cell body of a neuron. Axon: the long tail like part of a neuron that serves as the cells transmitter. Terminal buttons: the tiny swellings at the end of the axon that contain chemicals important to neural transmission. 13. What is a synapse? (both book/lecture) Synapse: the small gap between the terminal buttons of a neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron. 14. What is resting potential? (both book /lecture) Resting potential: the tiny electrical charge in place between the inside and the outside of the resting neuron. 15. What is action potential? (both book/lecture) Action potential: the all or none electrical signal that travels down a neuron’s axon. 16. What are neurotransmitters (both book/lecture) Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that relay information from one neuron to the next. 17. What is acetylcholine? (just book) Acetylcholine: a neurotransmitter that plays multiple roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the excitation of muscle contractions. 18. What is dopamine and what does it do? What disorders are associated with dopamine problems? (both book/lecture) Dopamine: a neurotransmitter that has been linked to reward and pleasure systems in the brain; decreased levels have been linked to Parkinson disease, and increased levels have been linked to schizophrenia. 19. What is serotonin and what does it do? What disorders are associated with serotonin problems? (both book/lecture) Serotonin: a neurotransmitter tat has been linked to sleep, dreaming and general arousal and may also be involved in some psychological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. 20. What is GABA and what does it do? What disorders are associated with GABA problems? (both book/lecture) GABA: a neurotransmitter that may play a role in the regulation of anxiety; it generally produces inhibitory effects. 21. What are endorphins and what do they do? (just book) Endorphins: morphine like chemicals that ac t as the brains natural painkillers. 22. What is a refractory period? (just book) Refractory period: the period of time following an action potential when more action potentials cannot be generated. 23. What does the central nervous consist of? (both book/lect ure) Central nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord. 24. What is the peripheral nervous system? (both book/lecture) Peripheral nervous system: the network of nerves that links the central nervous system with the rest of the body. 25. What is controlled by the somatic system? What is controlled by the autonomic system? Are the somatic and autonomic systems part of the peripheral or central nervous system? (both book/lecture) Somatic system: the collection of nerves that transmit information toward the bra in and connect to the skeletal muscles to initiate movement; part of the peripheral nervous system. Autonomic system: the collection of nerves that controls the more automatic needs of the body (such as heart rate, digestion, blood pressure); part of the peripheral nervous system. 26. What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic system do? What does the parasympathetic division of the autonomic system do? (both lecture/book) The sympathetic division of the autonomic system triggers the release of chem icals, creating a state of readiness. (Increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate). The parasympathetic division calms the body down by slowing heart rate and lowering blood pressure. Parasympathetic activity also helps increase the body’s s upply of stored energy, which may be diminished in response to the emergency situation. 27. For the parts of the brain, please review the parts on the brain cheat sheet uploaded under “practice activities” on blackboard. Any questions about brain parts will c ome from this list. (both book/lecture) 28. What changed in Phineas Gage after his injury? What part of his brain was injured? (both book/lecture) 29. What is the function of the corpus callosum? (both book/lecture) Corpus callosum: the collection of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and allows information to pass from one side to the other. 30. The hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are specialized to perform certain tasks. What is left hemisphere responsible for, and what is the right hemisp here responsible for? (both book/lecture) 31. When it comes to physical movement, the left hemisphere controls movement on which side of the body? The right hemisphere controls movement on which side of the body? (both book/lecture) The left controls the right side of the body, and vice versa. 32. When it comes to the visual field, information received through the eyes travels to one side of the brain or the other. If you’re looking straight ahead, an image coming from the left visual field gets projected to which brain hemisphere? An image coming from the right visual field gets projected to which brain hemisphere? (both book/lecture) Coming from the left, projected on right. And vice versa. 33. If somebody has a severed corpus callosum and you show them an object in either the right or left side of the visual field, know how they would respond verbally for each if you asked them what they were seeing, and know how they would respond physically for each (i.e. if you asked them to draw what they were seeing with either hand, what would they do?). – both book/lecture 34. What is the endocrine system, and what are hormones? (just book) Endocrine system: a network of glands that uses the bloodstream, rather than neurons, to send chemical messages that regulate growth and other internal functions. Hormones: chemicals released into the blood by the various endocrine glands to help control a variety of integral regulatory functions. 35. What is an adaptation? (just book) Adaption: a trait that has be en selected for by nature because it increases the reproductive “fitness” of the organism. 36. What are genes? (both lecture/book) Genes: segments of chromosomes that contain instructions for influencing and creating particular hereditary characteristics. 37. Understand the basic method of twin studies. What are researchers trying to determine when they conduct a twin study? What are the examples of things that twin studies have revealed that are somewhat “heritable” that we talked about in lecture? (both book/ lecture) Twin studies: identical twins, who share genetic material, are compared to fraternal twins in an effort to determine the roles heredity and environment play in psychological traits. CHAPTER 4: PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 1. What is the germinal period? (i.e. explain the time frame and key developmental events) (book) 2. What is the embryonic period? (i.e. explain the time frame and key developmental events) (book) 3. What is the fetal period? (i.e. explain the time frame and key developmental events) (book) 4. What are teratogens? (book) 5. True/False? Morning sickness may be an evolutionary adaptation (book) GROWTH AFTER BIRTH 6. For infants, by what age have 90% of infants learned to: a) roll over, b) sit without support, c) walk (book) 7. What is puberty? (book) 8. Around what age do most people begin to steadily decline physically? (book) 9. What is menopause (book)? 10. What is dementia? (book) OTHER 11. When studying babies, there are different techniques that can be used. What is the preference technique? (just book) 12. What is the habituation technique? (just book) 13. What is the “using rewards” technique? (just book) 14. What is assimilation and what is accommodation? (just book) 15. What is the average age of Piaget’s sensorimotor period? Describe the main characteris
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