Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 2
Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 2 PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sofia Pasos on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Exam #2 CHAPTER 5 : 1. What are sense organs and sensory receptor cells? (lecture) • Sense Organs: organs that receive stimuli (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin) • Sensory Receptor Cells: specialized cells within the sense organs that send neural impulses to the brain 2. Be able to define the terms “sensation” & "perception" (lecture & book) • Sensations: the elementary components, or building blocks, of an experience (such as a pattern of light and dark, a bitter taste, or a change in temperature) • Perceptions: the collection of processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations. 3. How does the Necker cube illustration the distinction between sensation & perception? (lecture/book) 4. What is meant by absolute threshold and difference threshold? (lecture/book) • Absolute Threshold: the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected (the weakest detectable stimulus) • Difference Threshold : the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli 5. What is Weber’s law as applied to the idea of a difference threshold? (lecture/book) Weber’s Law: The Difference Threshold between two things depends on the strength of the original stimulus (the stronger the original stimulus, the bigger the changes must be in order for them to be noticed, yet changes in weak stimuli are very noticeable) . 6. What is meant by sensory adaptation? (lecture/book) • Sensory Adaptation: the perceived weakening of a sensation due to prolonged exposure to the stimulus. 7. What is the definition of light? (lecture/book) • Light: The small part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is processed by the visual system. 8. What is meant by hue, brightness, and purity? What determines hue/brightness/purity? (lecture/book) • Hue: the dimension of light that produces color; hue is typically determined by the wavelength of light reflecting from an object. • Brightness: the aspect of the visual experience that changes with light intensity; in general, as the intensity of light increa ses, so does its perceived brightness. • Purity: complexity of light (gives us pure versus paler colors). Determine by mix of wavelengths present. Influences saturation or richness of perceived colors 9. Does the human visual spectrum represent a small or large part of the entire electromagnetic spectrum? What wavelengths (in nanometers) make up the human visual spectrum? (lecture/book) The human visual spectrum represents a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum. 400 to 700 nanometers make up the human visual spectrum. 10. Be able to identify where the pupil, cornea, lens, iris, retina, and fovea are in a diagram of the eye (lecture/book). Be able to describe what each of these parts of the eye are, and what they do. 11. Be able to describe the process of light first entering the eye through the cornea and projecting an image onto the retina. Understand how the above parts of the eye are involved in this process (lecture/book). It is here that electromagnetic energy gets translated into inner language of brain (electrochemical impulses) Receptor cells change the light energy into electrochemical impulses – cells contain substance called photophigment, which reacts to light, and this chemical reaction leads to a neural impulse 12. What is accommodation as it r elates to the lens? (lecture/book) • Lens: Light next travels through here, the transparent portion of the eye behind the pupil that focuses light onto the retina. Focusing happens by changing lens shape (muscles contract and lens is thicker and rounder whe n an object is close -‐ accommodation) 13. Be able to describe how receptor cells in the retina then translate the electromagnetic energy of light into the inner language of brain (electrochemical impulses) . Specifically, what is photopigment and what does it do? (lecture/book) It is in the retina that electromagnetic energy gets translated into inner language of brain (electrochemical impulses) Receptor cells change the light energy into electrochemical impulses – cells contain substance called photopigment, which reacts to light, and this chemical reaction leads to a neural impulse Light reacts chemically with photopigments in receptor cells. In bright light, photopigments in the rods and cones have been bleached or broken down by light. 14. Rods & cones are two types of receptor cells located in the retina. What sort of vision do "rods" provide? What about "cones"?(lecture/book) The retina has two types of receptor cells: a. Rods: receptor cells that are more sensitive to light than cones – not much light needed to generate visual signals (located outside the center of the retina – 120 million cells each eye) b. Cones: receptor cells that code information about fine detail and the early processing of color, which need high levels of light to operate ( located at the center of the retina – 6 million cells each eye) 15. What is a receptive field? (book) • Receptive field: in vision, the portion of the retina that, when stimulated, causes the activity of higher order neurons to change. 16. What is the optic nerve? Where is it located in a diagram of an eye? Understand why it creates a biological blind spot. Do most people experience a hole in their visual field as a result of this blind spot? Why/why not? (book/lecture) • Optic Nerve: collection of nerve fibers that carries visual neural messages to the brain (the area where the optic nerve attaches contains no rods or cones and therefore is a blind spot). 17. What is dark adaptation? (book/lecture) • Dark adaptation: Process of gradually adjusting to dark . Light reacts chemically with photopigments in receptor cells. In bright light, photopigments in the rods and cones have been bleached or broken down by light. Go into dark theater from the sun – enough photopigments must be regenerated by cells to detect low levels of light It takes about 20-‐25 minutes 18. What are feature detectors? (book) • Feature detectors: cells in the visual cortex that respond to very specific visual events, such as bars of light at particular orientations. 19. What is the trichromatic theory of color vision? (lecture/book) • Trichromatic Theory: The first level of color processing: i. There are three different kinds of cones in the eye and that each respond to light in either red, blue, or green wavelengths therefore all sensations of colors result from stimulating a combination of these three cones. ii. When just one receptor type is activated, we see one of the primary colors. iii. All other colors require the activation of more than one type 20. Are the three primary paint colors that you grew up learning in art cla ss different from the three primary light colors that we discussed in the trichromatic theory of color vision? What are the primary colors for light vs. paint? Why does mixing primary paint colors produce a different result than mixing primary light colors ? (lecture) • Yellow, red and blue are the primary colors of paint • Green, red and blue are the primary colors of light 21. How does the trichromatic theory of color vision explain color blindness (lecture/book) • “Color-‐Blind” people can usually see some colors a nd not others i. 8% of males are color blind ii. Extremely rare in females iii. Nature “makes a mistake” and fills someone’s red cones with green photopigment or green cones with red photopigment. People essentially only then have 2 instead of 3 cone receptors, so yo u can no longer discriminate between certain colors iv. Red, yellow, and orange might all just look yellow 22. What is opponent -‐process theory? (lecture/book) What is meant by an after -‐image? • The Opponent-‐Process Theory: second level of color processing In addition to three types of cones (one for red, blue and green), there are “opponent -‐process mechanisms”. Certain colors are specially linked. 23. What is meant by top -‐down and bottom-‐up processing (book/lecture). • Auditory perception: We use “top down processing”, like with vision, to bring certain organizational rules and expectations to the table. Knowledge, beliefs, and expectations are used to organize and interpret what we see ( TOP-‐ DOWN PROCESSING). • Mental activity: First, visual system analyzes a ctual sensory message (pattern of electromagnetic information on retina). This is BOTTOM-‐UP PROCESSING (process that starts with actual physical message) . 24. Be able to identify images that demonstrate top -‐down processing at work (book/lecture). 25. Be able to describe & identify examples of the 5 Gestalt principles of organization (book/lecture). The 5 Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization: 1. Proximity: things that are close together are grouped together in the mind as if they belong together 2. Closure: incomplete figures tend to be seen as complete because our brain fills in missing information 3. Similarity: similar things are seen as being related 4. Continuation: images are seen in ways that produce smooth continuation 5. Common Fate: objects moving together are grouped together 26. What is meant by the figure ground concept? (book/lecture) • The Figure-‐Ground concept: when we see something, we separate an image into a figure and a ground. Whatever is the center of our attention is the figure, whatever is in the background is the ground. 27. Know/identify examples of the 4 monocular cues of depth perception (and know what is meant by a “monocular cue”) (lecture/book) 1. The brain knows that distant objects produ ce smaller images on the retina 2. Linear perspective: parallel lines receding far into the distance converge on a point. Closer together lines must be farther away. 3. Far away objects look blurry/slightly blue -‐ish 4. Can tell distance based on whether one object casts a shadow on another 28. Know/identify examples of the 2 binocular cues of depth perception (and know what is meant by a “binocular cue”) (lecture/book) 1. Convergence 2. Retinal disparity 29. What is meant by perceptual constancy? Specifically, know/identify exams of brightness, color, size, and shape constancy (lecture/book) • Perceptual Constancy: we perceive an object’s properties as unchanging, even though physical message delivered to eyes is changing. 30. Understand how the Ames room, Ponzo, and Muller -‐Lyer optical illusions work. Why does the brain see certain objects within these pictures as bigger than others, when they really are not?? (lecture/book) 31. Know the definition of sound, and how sound is different from light (lecture/book) 32. What shape does sound take? (Lecture/book) 33. What is meant by pitch and wh at is meant by loudness, and what quality of sound determines each of these things? (lecture/book) • Sound – energy, travels in waves, the physical message delivered to auditory system • Unlike light, it is MECHANICAL ENERGY • Requires a medium (like air/water) to travel through • A vibrating stimulus pushes air molecules into space, where they collide with other molecules • Rate of vibrating stimulus determines frequency (# of times wave moves from peak to peak per second) • Frequency determines pitch (how high or low something sounds) • Pressure amplitude of wave determines intensity or loudness 34. Pinna, tympanic membrane, middle ear, cochlea, basiliar membrane, auditory nerve – be able identify where they are in the ear, and describe what they all do. Be able to descri be the process of a sound first entering the ear and producing a neural impulse. Understand how the above parts of the ear are involved in this process (lecture/book). • Sound waves enter ear through pinna which helps capture sound (flap of tissue you call the ear!) • Sounds funneled down auditory canal toward ear drum, or tympanic membrane, which responds to sound by vibrating • Vibration pattern of ear drum is transmitted through the middle ear (portion between ear drum and cochlea, containing three small bones that help intensify vibration pattern) • Vibration pattern makes it to the inside the inner ear and the cochlea, where the sound energy gets translated to a neural impulse • INSIDE THE COCHLEA… • Basilar membrane – base for sensory cells of hearing. Flexible membrane running through cochlea that through its movement displaces the auditory receptor cells, or hair cells, lying along it. As tiny hairs (cilia) are bent through movement of this membrane, receptor cells f ire • Auditory nerve – neural impulses generated by the hair cells leave the cochlea along this nerve. 35. Be able to describe place theory and frequency theory (lecture/book). • Place theory – we hear a particular pitch because certain hair cells are responding actively. “Place” refers to location of activated hair cell on basilar membrane. • Frequency theory– pitch is determined by frequency of neural impulse traveling up auditory pathway. Brain relies on RATE at which cells fire neural impulses (not just location of cells that are activated). Higher rates of firing, higher pitch. 36. Be able to describe and identify examples of the figure -‐ground concept as applied to sound, and the idea of top down processing as applied to sound (lecture/book). • The Figure-‐Ground concept: when we see something, we separate an image into a figure and a ground. Whatever is the center of our attention is the figure, whatever is in the background is the ground • Sometimes figure/ground separation is easy, and sometimes it is hard. Sometimes it is easy, but ambiguous. • Depends on whether cues to guide interpretation are strong or weak! 37. What produces the sensation of touch? (lecture/book) 38. What produces the sensation of t emperature? (lecture/book) 39. Is experienced temperature just dependent on the actual temperature of an object? (lecture/book) 40. What is pain? (define?) Lecture/book • Pain: Adaptive reaction that body generates in response to a stimulus that is causing tissue damage 41. Understand the gate control theory of pain (lecture/book) • Gate-‐Control theory of pain: there are neural gates (endorphins) that control the transmission of pain impulses. The gate can be open or closed, and critical pain signals can be blocked from reaching higher neural centers when necessary 42. What is meant by phantom pain and how is it often treated? (lecture) • Phantom Limbs/Phantom Pain: amputees often feel the amputated limb as if it is still there and sometimes feel pain in the missing limb 43. What is meant by olfaction? (book/lecture) smell 44. Be able to describe the fishy smell studies, and what they demonstrate about how smell influences interpretation of social environments, and how our interpretation of social environments influences what we smel l! (lecture) 45. What are the four basic tastes? (lecture/book) Four basic tastes: a. Sweet b. Bitter c. Salty d. Sour 46. What is a super taster and what is thought to make some people supertasters? (lecture) Supertasters… have relatively more taste buds than non tasters! Chapter 6: 1. Be able to define “consciousness.” What is it? (lecture/book) • Subjective awareness of internal and external events. • Basically -‐ Everything of which we are aware at any given time! 2. What is consciousness good for? (lecture/book) • Developing strategies for your own behavior • Think about what you want to say/do • Imagine how something in the future will turn out • Imagine what other people are thinking, predict their behavior 3. What is attention and how does it relate to consciousness? (lecture/book) • Attention -‐ The internal processes that set priorities for mental functioning. Attention is selective! (We don’t focus on everything at once) • How does it relate to consciousness? We are only consciously aware of what we pay attention to. 4. What are the typical results of a dichotic listening task? How do they demonstrate the ability to attend to things selectively? (book/lecture) Typical results are that you only concentrate on one thing. They demonstrate it by putting to different sounds on both of your ears a nd seeing that you can only pay attention to one. 5. Does our ability to attend selectively mean our brains have totally shut out all other information entirely? (lecture/book) 6. Know what is meant by the cocktail effect (lecture/book) The ability to focus on one auditory message and ignore others; also refers to the tendency to notice when your name suddenly appears in a message that you’ve been actively wrong. 7. Know how results of a dichotic listening task where message suddenly switch es ears demonstrates that the brain is not actually shutting everything else out when it attends selectively (book/lecture) 8. Multi-‐tasking: Can you typically perform two tasks at once in the same amount of time as it would take to perform each of them one at a time, one right after the other? What is meant by switching time cost? (lecture) 9. Are self-‐described multi-‐taskers better at performing tasks that come with constant distraction? (lecture) 10. What is automaticity? (book/lecture) • The fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention. Not under conscious control. 11. How do divided attention tasks demonstrate whether something is automatic? (lecture/book) • Divided attention tasks are used to measure whether something is automatic. If one task fails to interfere with the other, it is not under conscious control. 12. What are subliminal influences? Does the research show that the influence of subliminal messages is probably strong or weak? (book/lecture) 13. What is visual neglect? (lecture /book) • Damage to right parietal lobe of cerebral cortex produces tendency to ignore things appearing toward left side of body. 14. What is ADHD? (book/lecture) • ADHD– Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder • -‐Trouble paying attention for long periods • -‐Can’t finish tasks • -‐Most common in school -‐aged children • -‐Hyperactive/impulsive • -‐Squirmy/fidgety • -‐Answer questions before questions are completely asked 15. Is sleep considered to be an altered state of consciousness? (lecture/book) Yes o Changes in awareness produced by o Sleep o Meditation o Hypnosis o Drugs 16. What is a circadian rhythm? (lecture/book) Transition from sleep to waking is an example of a Circadian Rhythm 17. Be able to describe the characteristics of the 4 stages of sleep. Know what is meant by theta waves, alpha waves, sleep spindles, and K complex. Understand what happens to the body during each of these stages (book/lecture) Stage 1 • Lightest sleep – some claim thoughts are simply drifting • Theta waves begin, which are a bit lower in amplitude and more irregula r than the alpha waves experienced when you are relaxed/drowsy just prior to sleep (theta waves are similar to awake waves, but still distinct) Stage 2 • Somewhat more deeply asleep (mid -‐sleep). Brain still reacts to loud noises • Sleep spindles occur – short bursts of activity interrupting theta waves • K Complex occurs – sudden, sharp, intermittent waveforms Stage 3 • Deep Sleep – if woken up, act confused. • Delta Waves 20% = More synchronized slow wave/deep sleep begins • Heart and breathing slow and regular Stage 4 • Deepest sleep • Delta waves reach nearly 100% • Blood pressure and brain activity at lowest points in 24 hour period 18. Know how far into sleep REM sleep typically happens, and understand the basic characteristics of REM sleep (lecture/book) 19. Understand the basic pattern of sleep cycles during a typical night’s sleep. How much time is typically spent in REM sleep? (lecture/book) 20. What are some theories about the function of sleep (repairing/restoring, survival value) (lecture/book) 21. What happens when people ar e sleep deprived? (lecture/book) 22. What is REM rebound? (book/lecture) 23. About how much sleep do people need each night? (book/lecture) 24. What are the differences between REM dreams, non REM dreams (lecture/book), and Lucid dreams (just lecture)? 25. Know the 4 reasons why psychologists think we might dream (lecture/book). Be able to identify examples of each. 26. Are people certain of which theory of dreaming is correct? (book/lecture) 27. Specifically, for Freud’s theory of wish fulfillment, make sure you know what is meant by latent content and manifest content (lecture/book). Be able to identify examples of Freud’s idea of dream interpretation. 28. Know what is meant by dyssomnia and parasomnia (lecture/book) • Dyssomnias (problems connected with amount, timing, and qualit y of sleep) • Parasomnias (disturbances during sleep) 29. Understand the potential causes and symptoms of the following dyssomnias: insomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy. (lecture/book) 30. Understand the potential causes and symptoms of the following parasomnias: Sl eepwalking, night terrors, nightmares (lecture/book), and sleep talking (just lecture). 31. What are psychoactive drugs and why do people take them? (lecture/book) Psychoactive Drug: Any substance that affects behavior and mental processes through alterations of conscious awareness People take drugs to: • Relieve pain/discomfort • Alter consciousness • Psychological escape • For recreation/fun 32. What are depressants? What do depressants do in low and high doses, and what are some examples of depressants? (lecture/book) • Depressants: slow down the CNS, inhibit neural activity o Low-‐Moderate Levels: calm, drowsy, reduced anxiety and inhibitions o High Levels: insensitivity to pain and other senses o Overdose: irregular heartbeat, death o Common “downers”: alcohol, valium, xanax, 33. What are stimulants? What do stimulants do in low and high doses, and what are some examples of stimulants? (lecture/book) • Stimulants: speed up the Central Nervous System o Low-‐Moderate Levels: excited, confident, euphoric o High Levels: anxious, jittery, hyp er o Overdose: convulsions, heart failure, death o Common “uppers”: caffeine, meth, cocaine, nicotine, speed, crack, crank 34. What are opiates? What are some examples of opiates? (lecture/book) Opiates: pain relievers a. Derived from the “poppy” plant b. Mimics the body’s endorphines that are involved in reducting pain c. Effects vary: euphoria, reduced anxiety d. Common “pain killers”: opium, heroine, methadone 35. What are hallucinogens? What are some examples of hallucinogens? (lecture/book) Hallucinogens: disrupt normal tho ught process a. Reactions vary: sometimes pleasant, sometimes not b. Some produce visual hallucinations (LSD, Mushrooms, peyote) 36. What is hypnosis? Is hypnosis the same as sleep? Are “weak minded” people more easily hypnotized? What are the two theories that explain heightened suggestibility (dissociation and role playing)? (book) • Induced altered consciousness • State of deep relaxation • Associated with heightened “suggestibility” • Can have analgesic effects • Bradley Method of Birthing (self -‐hypnosis) • Hypnosis Dentistry • Theories of Hypnosis: o Dissociation: a splitting of conscious awareness o Social Role Playing: acting out suggestions 37. What is meditation? What are some benefits of meditation? (book) • Induced altered consciousness • Rooted in ancient Eastern religions • State of “alert-‐relaxation” • Improves immune system, lowers BP and cholesterol, creates a general feeling of “well -‐ being” Chapter 7: 1. What is the definition of learning? (lecture /book). Be able to identify from examples what is learning and what is not learning. 2. What is meant by orienting, habituation, and sensitization? (lecture/book) Understand how these concepts are all related to the process of how people notice a stimulus in the environment and learn to ignore it. How are habituation and sensitization both adaptive? 3. Understand that classical conditioning refers to a process by which people notice a stimulus in the environment and learn WHAT IT SIGNALS OR PREDICTS, or a process by which people learn relationships between events that occur outside of their control (lecture/book). Be able to identify examples of classical conditioning. 4. Be able to describe Pavlov’s dog studies. Understand how they are an example of classi cal conditioning. (lecture/book) 5. In classical conditioning, know the shorthand for US, UR, CS, and CR and be able to identify the various stimuli in an example i.e. UnConditioned Stimulus = US, Unconditioned Response = UR, conditioned stimulus=CS, condit ioned response=CR, Etc. (lecture/book) 6. In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus should function as a _____?______that the unconditioned stimulus is about to occur (lecture/book) 7. Know the 4 things necessary to form the CS -‐US connection in classic al conditioning (lecture/book). Know what is meant by simultaneous conditioning, backward conditioning, and blocking, and understand how these terms relate to what is necessary to form the CS -‐US connection (lecture/book) 8. Understand how the Little Albert ex periment worked and know what the experiment demonstrated (lecture/book). Know what the US, UR, CS, and CR were in this experiment. 9. Why does classical conditioning work? What was the early theory and what is the current cognitive view? (lecture/book) 10. Know what Second-‐order Conditioning is and be able to identify an example (lecture/book) 11. Be familiar with stimulus Generalization and stimulus discrimination and know how they apply to classical conditioning (lecture/book) 12. What is Extinction as it relates to cl assical conditioning? (lecture/book) 13. What is conditioned inhibition? (book/lecture) 14. Know the meaning of Spontaneous Recovery (book) 15. What is counter conditioning? (just lecture) 16. Know what is meant by operant conditioning and the law of effect (lecture/book) 17. Make sure you know how operant conditioning is DIFFERENT from classical conditioning (I.e. think about learning what an event PREDICTS versus learning about the consequences of our OWN BEHAVIOR (lecture/book) 18. Understand how BF Skinner used operant conditi oning to train pigeons (lecture/book) 19. Within operant conditioning, know what is meant by the stimulus situation, the discriminative stimulus, stimulus generalization, and stimulus discrimination (lecture/book) 20. Within operant conditioning, be able to define punishment and reinforcement. In addition, know the difference between positive vs negative punishment and positive vs negative reinforcement. Be able to identify, from an example, which of these 4 things is going on (lecture/book). 21. What is a primary re inforcer? (lecture/book?) 22. What is a conditioned reinforcer? (lecture/book) 23. What are some cautions to consider when using punishment? (lecture/book) 24. Within operant conditioning, what is a continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement schedule? (lecture/book) 25. Know the 4 different partial reinforcement schedules of operant conditioning, be able to identify examples of each, and know how well each one tends to work and why. What is meant by a post reinforcement pause and how does this relate to a fixed ra tio schedule? (lecture/book) 26. What is meant by shaping? How did Skinner use shaping to train pigeons? (lecture/book) 27. Understand some of the biological constraints on learning (book) 28. What is meant by observational learning? (lecture/book) 29. What is meant by mo deling? (lecture/book) 30. What were Bandura’s Bobo doll studies and what did they demonstrate? (lecture/book) 31. What is meant by vicarious reinforcement and punishment? (lecture/book) Chapter 8 Part 1 – only tested over pages 236-‐252. The rest of chapter 8 is pushed back to exam 3. 1. What is the definition of memory? (book) 2. What is encoding? (book/lecture) 3. What is storage? (book/lecture) 4. What is retrieval? (book/lecture) 5. What is sensory memory? What is meant by an icon and an echo? (book/lecture) 6. Be able to identify examples of how iconic and echoic memory might be measured (book/lecture) 7. What is short-‐term memory? (book/lecture) 8. What is meant by the inner voice vs. the inner eye, and how do these ideas relate to sho-‐term memory? (lecture/book) 9. What is rehearsal ? (book) 10. What is memory span? Research has shown that short -‐term memory span is typically how many items? (book/lecture) 11. What is chunking? (book/lecture) 12. What is long-‐term memory? (book/lecture) 13. What are episodic memories? (book/lecture) 14. What are semantic memories and procedural memories? (book/lecture) 15. What is elaboration? (book/lecture) 16. What is visual imagery? (book) 17. Know the 7 different methods for improving the storage of information in long term memory (book/lecture) 18. Thinking about “spacing your repet itions” (number 5 on the list from lecture). What are the implications of this principle for late-‐night cram sessions? (book/lecture) 19. Thinking about number 6 on the list, “consider sequence position”, what is the primacy effect and what is the recency eff ect? (book/lecture) 20. What is a mnemonic device? (book) 21. What is a flashbulb memory? Be able to identify examples of flashbulb memories. (book/lecture)
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