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Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 2

by: Sofia Pasos

Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 2 PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid

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Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 2
PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
Erin Sparks Ward
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sofia Pasos on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
Exam  #2     CHAPTER  5  :   1. What  are  sense  organs  and  sensory  receptor  cells?  (lecture)   • Sense  Organs:  organs  that  receive  stimuli  (eyes,  ears,  nose,  mouth,  skin)   • Sensory  Receptor  Cells:  specialized  cells  within  the  sense  organs  that  send  neural   impulses  to  the  brain     2. Be  able  to  define  the  terms  “sensation”  &  "perception"  (lecture  &  book)   • Sensations:  the  elementary  components,  or  building  blocks,  of  an  experience  (such  as  a   pattern  of  light  and  dark,  a  bitter  taste,  or  a  change  in  temperature)   • Perceptions:  the  collection  of  processes  used  to  arrive  at  a  meaningful  interpretation  of   sensations.       3. How  does  the  Necker  cube  illustration  the  distinction  between  sensation  &  perception?   (lecture/book)     4. What  is  meant  by  absolute  threshold  and  difference  threshold?  (lecture/book)   • Absolute  Threshold:  the  smallest  magnitude  of  a  stimulus  that  can  be  detected  (the   weakest  detectable  stimulus)   • Difference  Threshold :  the  smallest  detectable  difference  between  two  stimuli     5. What  is  Weber’s  law  as  applied  to  the  idea  of  a  difference  threshold?  (lecture/book)   Weber’s  Law:  The  Difference  Threshold  between  two  things  depends  on  the  strength  of   the  original  stimulus  (the  stronger  the  original  stimulus,  the  bigger  the  changes  must  be  in  order   for  them  to  be  noticed,  yet  changes  in  weak  stimuli  are  very  noticeable) .     6. What  is  meant  by  sensory  adaptation?  (lecture/book)   • Sensory  Adaptation:  the  perceived  weakening  of  a  sensation  due  to  prolonged  exposure   to  the  stimulus.     7. What  is  the  definition  of  light?  (lecture/book)   • Light:  The  small  part  of  the  electromagnetic  spectrum  that  is  processed  by  the  visual   system.     8. What  is  meant  by  hue,  brightness,  and  purity?  What  determines  hue/brightness/purity?   (lecture/book)   • Hue:  the  dimension  of  light  that  produces  color;  hue  is  typically  determined  by  the   wavelength  of  light  reflecting  from  an  object.   • Brightness:  the  aspect  of  the  visual  experience  that  changes  with  light  intensity;  in   general,  as  the  intensity  of  light  increa ses,  so  does  its  perceived  brightness.     • Purity:  complexity  of  light  (gives  us  pure  versus  paler  colors).  Determine  by  mix  of   wavelengths  present.  Influences  saturation  or  richness  of  perceived  colors     9. Does  the  human  visual  spectrum  represent  a  small  or   large  part  of  the  entire  electromagnetic   spectrum?  What  wavelengths  (in  nanometers)  make  up  the  human  visual  spectrum?   (lecture/book)   The  human  visual  spectrum  represents  a  small  part  of  the  electromagnetic  spectrum.   400  to  700  nanometers  make  up  the  human  visual  spectrum.       10. Be  able  to  identify  where  the  pupil,  cornea,  lens,  iris,  retina,  and  fovea  are  in  a  diagram  of  the   eye  (lecture/book).  Be  able  to  describe  what  each  of  these  parts  of  the  eye  are,  and  what  they   do.         11. Be  able  to  describe  the  process  of  light  first  entering  the  eye  through  the  cornea  and  projecting   an  image  onto  the  retina.    Understand  how  the  above  parts  of  the  eye  are  involved  in  this   process  (lecture/book).   It  is  here  that  electromagnetic  energy  gets  translated  into  inner  language  of   brain   (electrochemical  impulses)   Receptor  cells  change  the  light  energy  into  electrochemical  impulses   –  cells  contain   substance  called  photophigment,  which  reacts  to  light,  and  this  chemical  reaction  leads   to  a  neural  impulse     12. What  is  accommodation  as  it  r elates  to  the  lens?  (lecture/book)   • Lens:  Light  next  travels  through  here,  the  transparent  portion  of  the  eye  behind  the   pupil  that  focuses  light  onto  the  retina.    Focusing  happens  by  changing  lens  shape   (muscles  contract  and  lens  is  thicker  and  rounder  whe n  an  object  is  close  -­‐   accommodation)     13. Be  able  to  describe  how  receptor  cells  in  the  retina  then  translate  the   electromagnetic  energy  of   light  into  the  inner  language  of  brain  (electrochemical  impulses) .    Specifically,  what  is   photopigment  and  what  does  it  do?  (lecture/book)   It  is  in  the  retina  that  electromagnetic  energy  gets  translated  into  inner  language  of   brain  (electrochemical  impulses)   Receptor  cells  change  the  light  energy  into  electrochemical  impulses   –  cells  contain   substance  called  photopigment,  which  reacts  to  light,  and  this  chemical  reaction  leads  to  a   neural  impulse   Light  reacts  chemically  with  photopigments  in  receptor  cells.  In  bright  light,   photopigments  in  the  rods  and  cones  have  been  bleached  or  broken  down  by  light.     14. Rods  &  cones  are  two  types  of  receptor  cells  located  in  the  retina.  What  sort  of  vision  do  "rods"   provide?  What  about  "cones"?(lecture/book)   The  retina  has  two  types  of  receptor  cells:   a. Rods:  receptor  cells  that  are  more  sensitive  to  light  than  cones   –  not  much  light  needed   to  generate  visual  signals  (located  outside  the  center  of  the  retina   –  120  million  cells   each  eye)   b. Cones:  receptor  cells  that  code  information  about  fine  detail  and  the  early  processing  of   color,  which  need  high  levels  of  light  to  operate    ( located  at  the  center  of  the  retina  –  6   million  cells  each  eye)     15. What  is  a  receptive  field?  (book)   • Receptive  field:  in  vision,  the  portion  of  the  retina  that,  when  stimulated,  causes  the   activity  of  higher  order  neurons  to  change.     16. What  is  the  optic  nerve?  Where  is  it  located  in  a  diagram  of  an  eye?  Understand  why  it  creates  a   biological  blind  spot.    Do  most  people  experience  a  hole  in  their  visual  field  as  a  result  of  this   blind  spot?  Why/why  not?  (book/lecture)   • Optic  Nerve:  collection  of  nerve  fibers  that  carries  visual  neural  messages  to  the  brain   (the  area  where  the  optic  nerve  attaches  contains  no  rods  or  cones  and  therefore  is  a   blind  spot).       17. What  is  dark  adaptation?  (book/lecture)   • Dark  adaptation:  Process  of  gradually  adjusting  to  dark .  Light  reacts  chemically  with   photopigments  in  receptor  cells.  In  bright  light,  photopigments  in  the  rods  and  cones   have  been  bleached  or  broken  down  by  light.  Go  into  dark  theater  from  the  sun   –   enough  photopigments  must  be  regenerated  by  cells  to  detect  low  levels  of   light  It  takes   about  20-­‐25  minutes     18. What  are  feature  detectors?  (book)   • Feature  detectors:  cells  in  the  visual  cortex  that  respond  to  very  specific  visual  events,   such  as  bars  of  light  at  particular  orientations.       19. What  is  the  trichromatic  theory  of  color   vision?  (lecture/book)   • Trichromatic  Theory:  The  first  level  of  color  processing:     i. There  are  three  different  kinds  of  cones  in  the  eye  and  that  each  respond  to   light  in  either  red,  blue,  or  green  wavelengths  therefore  all  sensations  of  colors   result  from  stimulating  a  combination  of  these  three  cones.   ii. When  just  one  receptor  type  is  activated,  we  see  one  of  the  primary  colors.   iii. All  other  colors  require  the  activation  of  more  than  one  type     20. Are  the  three  primary  paint  colors  that  you  grew  up  learning  in  art  cla ss  different  from  the  three   primary  light  colors  that  we  discussed  in  the  trichromatic  theory  of  color  vision?  What  are  the   primary  colors  for  light  vs.  paint?  Why  does  mixing  primary  paint  colors  produce  a  different   result  than  mixing  primary  light  colors ?  (lecture)   • Yellow,  red  and  blue  are  the  primary  colors  of  paint   • Green,  red  and  blue  are  the  primary  colors  of  light     21. How  does  the  trichromatic  theory  of  color  vision  explain  color  blindness  (lecture/book)   • “Color-­‐Blind”  people  can  usually  see  some  colors  a nd  not  others   i. 8%  of  males  are  color  blind     ii. Extremely  rare  in  females   iii. Nature  “makes  a  mistake”  and  fills  someone’s  red  cones  with  green   photopigment  or  green  cones  with  red  photopigment.  People  essentially  only   then  have  2  instead  of  3  cone  receptors,  so  yo u  can  no  longer  discriminate   between  certain  colors   iv. Red,  yellow,  and  orange  might  all  just  look  yellow     22. What  is  opponent -­‐process  theory?  (lecture/book)  What  is  meant  by  an  after -­‐image?   • The  Opponent-­‐Process  Theory:  second  level  of  color  processing   In  addition  to  three  types  of  cones  (one  for  red,  blue  and  green),  there  are  “opponent -­‐process   mechanisms”.  Certain  colors  are  specially  linked.       23. What  is  meant  by  top -­‐down  and  bottom-­‐up  processing  (book/lecture).   • Auditory  perception:  We  use  “top  down   processing”,  like  with  vision,  to  bring  certain   organizational  rules  and  expectations  to  the  table.  Knowledge,  beliefs,  and  expectations   are  used  to  organize  and  interpret  what  we  see  ( TOP-­‐  DOWN  PROCESSING).   • Mental  activity:   First,  visual  system  analyzes  a ctual  sensory  message  (pattern  of   electromagnetic  information  on  retina).    This  is   BOTTOM-­‐UP  PROCESSING  (process  that   starts  with  actual  physical  message) .     24. Be  able  to  identify  images  that  demonstrate  top -­‐down  processing  at  work  (book/lecture).     25. Be  able  to  describe  &  identify  examples  of  the  5  Gestalt  principles  of  organization   (book/lecture).   The  5  Gestalt  Principles  of  Perceptual  Organization:   1. Proximity:  things  that  are  close  together  are  grouped  together  in  the  mind  as  if   they  belong  together   2. Closure:  incomplete  figures  tend  to  be  seen  as  complete  because  our  brain  fills   in  missing  information   3. Similarity:  similar  things  are  seen  as  being  related   4. Continuation:  images  are  seen  in  ways  that  produce  smooth  continuation   5. Common  Fate:  objects  moving  together  are  grouped  together     26. What  is  meant  by  the  figure  ground  concept?  (book/lecture)   • The  Figure-­‐Ground  concept:  when  we  see  something,  we  separate  an  image  into  a  figure   and  a  ground.  Whatever  is  the  center  of  our  attention  is  the  figure,  whatever  is  in  the   background  is  the  ground.     27. Know/identify  examples  of  the  4  monocular  cues  of  depth  perception  (and  know  what  is  meant   by  a  “monocular  cue”)  (lecture/book)   1. The  brain  knows  that  distant  objects  produ ce  smaller  images  on  the  retina   2. Linear  perspective:  parallel   lines  receding  far  into  the  distance  converge  on  a  point.  Closer   together  lines  must  be  farther  away.   3.  Far  away  objects  look  blurry/slightly  blue -­‐ish   4.  Can  tell  distance  based  on  whether  one  object  casts  a  shadow  on  another     28. Know/identify  examples  of   the  2  binocular  cues  of  depth  perception  (and  know  what  is  meant   by  a  “binocular  cue”)  (lecture/book)   1.  Convergence   2.  Retinal  disparity     29. What  is  meant  by  perceptual  constancy?  Specifically,  know/identify  exams  of  brightness,  color,   size,  and  shape  constancy  (lecture/book)   • Perceptual  Constancy:  we  perceive  an  object’s  properties  as  unchanging,  even  though   physical  message  delivered  to  eyes  is  changing.     30. Understand  how  the  Ames  room,  Ponzo,  and  Muller -­‐Lyer  optical  illusions  work.    Why  does  the   brain  see  certain  objects  within  these  pictures  as  bigger  than  others,  when  they  really  are  not??   (lecture/book)   31. Know  the  definition  of  sound,  and  how  sound  is  different  from  light  (lecture/book)   32. What  shape  does  sound  take?  (Lecture/book)     33. What  is  meant  by  pitch  and  wh at  is  meant  by  loudness,  and  what  quality  of  sound  determines   each  of  these  things?  (lecture/book)   • Sound  –  energy,  travels  in  waves,  the  physical  message  delivered  to  auditory  system   • Unlike  light,  it  is  MECHANICAL  ENERGY   • Requires  a  medium  (like  air/water)   to  travel  through   • A  vibrating  stimulus  pushes  air  molecules  into  space,  where  they  collide  with  other   molecules   • Rate  of  vibrating  stimulus  determines  frequency  (#  of  times  wave  moves  from  peak  to   peak  per  second)   • Frequency  determines  pitch  (how  high  or  low  something  sounds)   • Pressure  amplitude  of  wave  determines  intensity  or   loudness     34. Pinna,  tympanic  membrane,  middle  ear,  cochlea,  basiliar  membrane,  auditory  nerve   –  be  able   identify  where  they  are  in  the  ear,  and  describe  what  they  all  do.    Be  able  to  descri be  the   process  of  a  sound  first  entering  the  ear  and  producing  a  neural  impulse.  Understand  how  the   above  parts  of  the  ear  are  involved  in  this  process  (lecture/book).   • Sound  waves  enter  ear  through   pinna  which  helps  capture  sound  (flap  of  tissue   you  call  the  ear!)   • Sounds  funneled  down  auditory  canal  toward   ear  drum,  or  tympanic   membrane,  which  responds  to  sound  by  vibrating   • Vibration  pattern  of  ear  drum  is  transmitted  through  the   middle  ear  (portion   between  ear  drum  and  cochlea,  containing  three  small  bones  that  help  intensify   vibration  pattern)   • Vibration  pattern  makes  it  to  the  inside  the  inner  ear  and  the   cochlea,  where   the  sound  energy  gets  translated  to  a  neural  impulse   • INSIDE  THE  COCHLEA…   • Basilar  membrane  –  base  for  sensory  cells  of  hearing.  Flexible  membrane   running  through  cochlea  that  through  its  movement  displaces  the  auditory   receptor  cells,  or  hair  cells,  lying  along  it.  As  tiny  hairs  (cilia)  are  bent  through   movement  of  this  membrane,  receptor  cells  f ire   • Auditory  nerve  –  neural  impulses  generated  by  the  hair  cells  leave  the  cochlea   along  this  nerve.       35. Be  able  to  describe  place  theory  and  frequency  theory  (lecture/book).   • Place  theory  –  we  hear  a  particular  pitch  because  certain  hair  cells  are  responding   actively.    “Place”  refers  to  location  of  activated  hair  cell  on  basilar  membrane.   • Frequency  theory–  pitch  is  determined  by  frequency  of  neural  impulse  traveling  up   auditory  pathway.    Brain  relies  on  RATE  at  which  cells  fire  neural  impulses  (not  just   location  of  cells  that  are  activated).  Higher  rates  of  firing,  higher  pitch.     36. Be  able  to  describe  and  identify  examples  of  the  figure -­‐ground  concept  as  applied  to  sound,  and   the  idea  of  top  down  processing  as  applied  to  sound  (lecture/book).   • The  Figure-­‐Ground  concept:  when  we  see  something,  we  separate  an  image  into  a  figure   and  a  ground.  Whatever  is  the  center  of  our  attention  is  the  figure,  whatever  is  in  the   background  is  the  ground   • Sometimes  figure/ground  separation  is  easy,  and  sometimes  it  is  hard.  Sometimes  it  is   easy,  but  ambiguous.   • Depends  on  whether  cues  to  guide  interpretation  are  strong  or  weak!     37. What  produces  the  sensation  of  touch?  (lecture/book)     38. What  produces  the  sensation  of  t emperature?  (lecture/book)     39. Is  experienced  temperature  just  dependent  on  the  actual  temperature  of  an  object?   (lecture/book)     40. What  is  pain?  (define?)  Lecture/book   • Pain:  Adaptive  reaction  that  body  generates  in  response  to  a  stimulus  that  is  causing   tissue  damage     41. Understand  the  gate  control  theory  of  pain  (lecture/book)   • Gate-­‐Control  theory  of  pain:  there  are  neural  gates  (endorphins)  that  control  the   transmission  of  pain  impulses.  The  gate  can  be  open  or  closed,  and  critical  pain  signals   can  be  blocked  from  reaching  higher  neural  centers  when  necessary     42. What  is  meant  by  phantom  pain  and  how  is  it  often  treated?  (lecture)   • Phantom  Limbs/Phantom  Pain:  amputees  often  feel  the  amputated  limb  as  if  it  is  still   there  and  sometimes  feel  pain  in  the  missing  limb     43. What  is  meant  by  olfaction?  (book/lecture)   smell   44. Be  able  to  describe  the  fishy  smell  studies,  and  what  they  demonstrate  about  how  smell   influences  interpretation  of  social  environments,  and  how  our  interpretation  of  social   environments  influences  what  we  smel l!  (lecture)     45. What  are  the  four  basic  tastes?  (lecture/book)   Four  basic  tastes:   a. Sweet   b. Bitter   c. Salty   d. Sour     46. What  is  a  super  taster  and  what  is  thought  to  make  some  people  supertasters?  (lecture)   Supertasters…    have  relatively  more  taste  buds  than  non  tasters!     Chapter  6:   1. Be  able  to  define  “consciousness.”  What  is  it?  (lecture/book)   • Subjective  awareness  of  internal  and  external  events.   • Basically  -­‐  Everything  of  which  we  are  aware  at  any  given  time!     2. What  is  consciousness  good  for?  (lecture/book)   • Developing  strategies  for  your  own  behavior   • Think  about  what  you  want  to  say/do   • Imagine  how  something  in  the  future  will  turn  out   • Imagine  what  other  people  are  thinking,  predict  their  behavior     3. What  is  attention  and  how  does  it  relate  to  consciousness?  (lecture/book)   • Attention  -­‐  The  internal  processes  that  set  priorities  for  mental  functioning.  Attention  is   selective!  (We  don’t  focus  on  everything  at  once)   • How  does  it  relate  to  consciousness?  We  are  only  consciously  aware  of  what  we  pay   attention  to.     4. What  are  the  typical  results  of  a  dichotic  listening  task?  How  do  they  demonstrate  the  ability  to   attend  to  things  selectively?  (book/lecture)   Typical  results  are  that  you  only  concentrate  on  one  thing.  They  demonstrate  it  by   putting  to  different  sounds  on  both  of  your  ears  a nd  seeing  that  you  can  only  pay   attention  to  one.       5. Does  our  ability  to  attend  selectively  mean  our  brains  have  totally  shut  out  all  other  information   entirely?  (lecture/book)     6. Know  what  is  meant  by  the  cocktail  effect  (lecture/book)   The  ability  to  focus  on  one  auditory  message  and  ignore  others;  also  refers  to  the   tendency  to  notice  when  your  name  suddenly  appears  in  a  message  that  you’ve  been   actively  wrong.     7. Know  how  results  of  a  dichotic  listening  task  where  message  suddenly  switch es  ears   demonstrates  that  the  brain  is  not  actually  shutting  everything  else  out  when  it  attends   selectively  (book/lecture)       8. Multi-­‐tasking:  Can  you  typically  perform  two  tasks  at  once  in  the  same  amount  of  time  as  it   would  take  to  perform  each  of  them  one  at  a  time,  one  right  after  the  other?  What  is  meant  by   switching  time  cost?  (lecture)     9. Are  self-­‐described  multi-­‐taskers  better  at  performing  tasks  that  come  with  constant  distraction?   (lecture)       10. What  is  automaticity?  (book/lecture)   • The  fast  and  effortless  processing  that  requires  little  or  no  focused  attention.  Not  under   conscious  control.     11. How  do  divided  attention  tasks  demonstrate  whether  something  is  automatic?  (lecture/book)   • Divided  attention  tasks  are  used  to  measure  whether  something  is   automatic.    If  one   task  fails  to  interfere  with  the  other,  it  is  not  under  conscious  control.     12. What  are  subliminal  influences?  Does  the  research  show  that  the  influence  of  subliminal   messages  is  probably  strong  or  weak?  (book/lecture)     13. What  is  visual  neglect?  (lecture /book)   • Damage  to  right  parietal  lobe  of  cerebral  cortex  produces  tendency  to  ignore  things   appearing  toward  left  side  of  body.     14. What  is  ADHD?  (book/lecture)   • ADHD–  Attention  deficit/hyperactivity  disorder   • -­‐Trouble  paying  attention  for  long  periods   • -­‐Can’t  finish  tasks   • -­‐Most  common  in  school -­‐aged  children   • -­‐Hyperactive/impulsive   • -­‐Squirmy/fidgety   • -­‐Answer  questions  before  questions  are  completely  asked     15. Is  sleep  considered  to  be  an  altered  state  of  consciousness?  (lecture/book)   Yes   o Changes  in  awareness  produced  by   o Sleep   o Meditation   o Hypnosis   o Drugs     16. What  is  a  circadian  rhythm?  (lecture/book)   Transition  from  sleep  to  waking  is  an  example  of  a  Circadian  Rhythm     17. Be  able  to  describe  the  characteristics  of  the  4  stages  of  sleep.  Know  what  is  meant  by  theta   waves,  alpha  waves,  sleep  spindles,  and  K  complex.    Understand  what  happens  to  the  body   during  each  of  these  stages  (book/lecture)     Stage  1     • Lightest  sleep  –  some  claim  thoughts  are  simply  drifting   • Theta  waves  begin,  which  are  a  bit  lower  in  amplitude  and  more  irregula r  than  the  alpha   waves  experienced  when  you  are  relaxed/drowsy  just  prior  to  sleep  (theta  waves  are   similar  to  awake  waves,  but  still  distinct)   Stage  2     • Somewhat  more  deeply  asleep  (mid -­‐sleep).  Brain  still  reacts  to  loud  noises   • Sleep  spindles  occur  –  short  bursts  of  activity  interrupting  theta  waves   • K  Complex  occurs  –  sudden,  sharp,  intermittent  waveforms   Stage  3     • Deep  Sleep  –  if  woken  up,  act  confused.   • Delta  Waves  20%  =  More  synchronized  slow  wave/deep  sleep  begins   • Heart  and  breathing  slow  and  regular   Stage  4       • Deepest  sleep   • Delta  waves  reach  nearly  100%   • Blood  pressure  and  brain  activity  at  lowest  points  in  24  hour  period     18. Know  how  far  into  sleep  REM  sleep  typically  happens,  and  understand  the  basic  characteristics   of  REM  sleep  (lecture/book)   19. Understand  the  basic  pattern  of  sleep  cycles  during  a  typical  night’s  sleep.  How  much  time  is   typically  spent  in  REM  sleep?  (lecture/book)   20. What  are  some  theories  about  the  function  of  sleep  (repairing/restoring,  survival  value)   (lecture/book)   21. What  happens  when  people  ar e  sleep  deprived?  (lecture/book)   22. What  is  REM  rebound?  (book/lecture)   23. About  how  much  sleep  do  people  need  each  night?  (book/lecture)   24. What  are  the  differences  between  REM  dreams,  non  REM  dreams  (lecture/book),  and  Lucid   dreams  (just  lecture)?     25. Know  the  4  reasons  why  psychologists  think  we  might  dream  (lecture/book).    Be  able  to  identify   examples  of  each.   26. Are  people  certain  of  which  theory  of  dreaming  is  correct?  (book/lecture)   27. Specifically,  for  Freud’s  theory  of  wish  fulfillment,  make  sure  you  know  what  is  meant  by  latent   content  and  manifest  content  (lecture/book).  Be  able  to  identify  examples  of  Freud’s  idea  of   dream  interpretation.   28. Know  what  is  meant  by  dyssomnia  and  parasomnia  (lecture/book)   • Dyssomnias  (problems  connected  with  amount,  timing,  and  qualit y  of  sleep)   • Parasomnias  (disturbances  during  sleep)     29. Understand  the  potential  causes  and  symptoms  of  the  following  dyssomnias:    insomnia,   hypersomnia,  narcolepsy.  (lecture/book)   30. Understand  the  potential  causes  and  symptoms  of  the  following  parasomnias:    Sl eepwalking,   night  terrors,  nightmares  (lecture/book),  and  sleep  talking  (just  lecture).   31. What  are  psychoactive  drugs  and  why  do  people  take  them?  (lecture/book)   Psychoactive  Drug:  Any  substance  that  affects  behavior  and  mental  processes  through   alterations  of  conscious  awareness   People  take  drugs  to:   • Relieve  pain/discomfort   • Alter  consciousness   • Psychological  escape   • For  recreation/fun     32. What  are  depressants?  What  do  depressants  do  in  low  and  high  doses,  and  what  are  some   examples  of  depressants?  (lecture/book)     • Depressants:  slow  down  the  CNS,  inhibit  neural  activity   o Low-­‐Moderate  Levels:  calm,  drowsy,  reduced  anxiety  and  inhibitions   o High  Levels:  insensitivity  to  pain  and  other  senses   o Overdose:  irregular  heartbeat,  death   o Common  “downers”:  alcohol,  valium,  xanax,       33. What  are  stimulants?  What  do  stimulants  do  in  low  and  high  doses,  and  what  are  some   examples  of  stimulants?  (lecture/book)   • Stimulants:  speed  up  the  Central  Nervous  System   o Low-­‐Moderate  Levels:  excited,  confident,  euphoric   o High  Levels:  anxious,  jittery,  hyp er   o Overdose:  convulsions,  heart  failure,  death   o Common  “uppers”:  caffeine,  meth,  cocaine,  nicotine,  speed,  crack,  crank     34. What  are  opiates?  What  are  some  examples  of  opiates?  (lecture/book)   Opiates:  pain  relievers   a. Derived  from  the  “poppy”  plant   b. Mimics  the  body’s  endorphines  that  are  involved  in  reducting  pain   c. Effects  vary:  euphoria,  reduced  anxiety   d. Common  “pain  killers”:  opium,  heroine,  methadone     35. What  are  hallucinogens?  What  are  some  examples  of  hallucinogens?  (lecture/book)   Hallucinogens:  disrupt  normal  tho ught  process   a. Reactions  vary:  sometimes  pleasant,  sometimes  not   b. Some  produce  visual  hallucinations  (LSD,  Mushrooms,  peyote)     36. What  is  hypnosis?  Is  hypnosis  the  same  as  sleep?  Are  “weak  minded”  people  more  easily   hypnotized?  What  are  the  two  theories  that   explain  heightened  suggestibility  (dissociation  and   role  playing)?  (book)   • Induced  altered  consciousness   • State  of  deep  relaxation   • Associated  with  heightened  “suggestibility”   • Can  have  analgesic  effects   • Bradley  Method  of  Birthing  (self -­‐hypnosis)   • Hypnosis  Dentistry   • Theories  of  Hypnosis:     o Dissociation:  a  splitting  of  conscious  awareness   o Social  Role  Playing:  acting  out  suggestions     37. What  is  meditation?  What  are  some  benefits  of  meditation?   (book)   • Induced  altered  consciousness   • Rooted  in  ancient  Eastern  religions   • State  of  “alert-­‐relaxation”   • Improves  immune  system,  lowers  BP  and  cholesterol,  creates  a  general  feeling  of  “well -­‐ being”     Chapter  7:   1. What  is  the  definition  of  learning?  (lecture /book).  Be  able  to  identify  from  examples  what  is   learning  and  what  is  not  learning.   2. What  is  meant  by  orienting,  habituation,  and  sensitization?  (lecture/book)  Understand  how   these  concepts  are  all  related  to  the  process  of  how  people  notice  a  stimulus  in   the  environment   and  learn  to  ignore  it.    How  are  habituation  and  sensitization  both  adaptive?   3. Understand  that  classical  conditioning  refers  to  a  process  by  which  people  notice  a  stimulus  in   the  environment  and  learn  WHAT  IT  SIGNALS  OR  PREDICTS,  or  a   process  by  which  people  learn   relationships  between  events  that  occur  outside  of  their  control    (lecture/book).    Be  able  to   identify  examples  of  classical  conditioning.   4. Be  able  to  describe  Pavlov’s  dog  studies.    Understand  how  they  are  an  example  of  classi cal   conditioning.    (lecture/book)   5. In  classical  conditioning,  know  the  shorthand  for  US,  UR,  CS,  and  CR  and  be  able  to  identify  the   various  stimuli  in  an  example    i.e.  UnConditioned  Stimulus  =  US,  Unconditioned  Response  =  UR,   conditioned  stimulus=CS,  condit ioned  response=CR,  Etc.  (lecture/book)   6. In  classical  conditioning,  the  conditioned  stimulus  should  function  as  a  _____?______that  the   unconditioned  stimulus  is  about  to  occur  (lecture/book)   7. Know  the  4  things  necessary  to  form  the  CS -­‐US  connection  in  classic al  conditioning   (lecture/book).  Know  what  is  meant  by  simultaneous  conditioning,  backward  conditioning,  and   blocking,  and  understand  how  these  terms  relate  to  what  is  necessary  to  form  the  CS -­‐US   connection  (lecture/book)   8. Understand  how  the  Little  Albert  ex periment  worked  and  know  what  the  experiment   demonstrated  (lecture/book).  Know  what  the  US,  UR,  CS,  and  CR  were  in  this  experiment.   9. Why  does  classical  conditioning  work?  What  was  the  early  theory  and  what  is  the  current   cognitive  view?  (lecture/book)   10. Know  what  Second-­‐order  Conditioning  is  and  be  able  to  identify  an  example  (lecture/book)   11. Be  familiar  with  stimulus  Generalization  and  stimulus  discrimination  and  know  how  they  apply   to  classical  conditioning  (lecture/book)   12. What  is  Extinction  as  it  relates  to  cl assical  conditioning?  (lecture/book)   13. What  is  conditioned  inhibition?  (book/lecture)   14. Know  the  meaning  of  Spontaneous  Recovery  (book)   15. What  is  counter  conditioning?  (just  lecture)   16. Know  what  is  meant  by  operant  conditioning  and  the  law  of  effect  (lecture/book)   17. Make  sure  you  know  how  operant  conditioning  is  DIFFERENT  from  classical  conditioning  (I.e.   think  about  learning  what  an  event  PREDICTS  versus  learning  about  the  consequences  of  our   OWN  BEHAVIOR  (lecture/book)   18. Understand  how  BF  Skinner  used  operant  conditi oning  to  train  pigeons  (lecture/book)   19. Within  operant  conditioning,  know  what  is  meant  by  the  stimulus  situation,  the  discriminative   stimulus,  stimulus  generalization,  and  stimulus  discrimination  (lecture/book)   20. Within  operant  conditioning,  be  able  to  define  punishment  and  reinforcement.    In  addition,   know  the  difference  between  positive  vs  negative  punishment  and  positive  vs  negative   reinforcement.    Be  able  to  identify,  from  an  example,  which  of  these  4  things  is  going  on   (lecture/book).   21. What  is  a  primary  re inforcer?  (lecture/book?)   22. What  is  a  conditioned  reinforcer?  (lecture/book)   23. What  are  some  cautions  to  consider  when  using  punishment?  (lecture/book)   24. Within  operant  conditioning,  what  is  a  continuous  reinforcement  and  partial  reinforcement   schedule?  (lecture/book)   25. Know  the  4  different  partial  reinforcement  schedules  of  operant  conditioning,    be  able  to   identify  examples  of  each,  and  know  how  well  each  one  tends  to  work  and  why.  What  is  meant   by  a  post  reinforcement  pause  and  how  does  this  relate  to  a  fixed  ra tio  schedule?  (lecture/book)   26. What  is  meant  by  shaping?  How  did  Skinner  use  shaping  to  train  pigeons?  (lecture/book)   27. Understand  some  of  the  biological  constraints  on  learning  (book)   28. What  is  meant  by  observational  learning?  (lecture/book)   29. What  is  meant  by  mo deling?  (lecture/book)   30. What  were  Bandura’s  Bobo  doll  studies  and  what  did  they  demonstrate?  (lecture/book)   31. What  is  meant  by  vicarious  reinforcement  and  punishment?  (lecture/book)   Chapter  8  Part  1  –  only  tested  over  pages  236-­‐252.    The  rest  of  chapter   8  is  pushed  back  to  exam  3.   1. What  is  the  definition  of  memory?  (book)   2. What  is  encoding?  (book/lecture)   3. What  is  storage?  (book/lecture)   4. What  is  retrieval?  (book/lecture)   5. What  is  sensory  memory?  What  is  meant  by  an  icon  and  an  echo?  (book/lecture)   6. Be  able  to  identify  examples  of  how  iconic  and  echoic  memory  might  be  measured   (book/lecture)   7. What  is  short-­‐term  memory?  (book/lecture)   8. What  is  meant  by  the  inner  voice  vs.  the  inner  eye,  and  how  do  these  ideas  relate  to  sho-­‐term   memory?  (lecture/book)   9. What  is  rehearsal ?  (book)   10. What  is  memory  span?  Research  has  shown  that  short -­‐term  memory  span  is  typically  how  many   items?  (book/lecture)   11. What  is  chunking?  (book/lecture)   12. What  is  long-­‐term  memory?  (book/lecture)   13. What  are  episodic  memories?  (book/lecture)   14. What  are  semantic   memories  and  procedural  memories?  (book/lecture)   15. What  is  elaboration?  (book/lecture)   16. What  is  visual  imagery?  (book)   17. Know  the  7  different  methods  for  improving  the  storage  of  information  in  long  term  memory   (book/lecture)     18. Thinking  about  “spacing  your  repet itions”  (number  5  on  the  list  from  lecture).    What  are  the   implications  of  this  principle  for  late-­‐night  cram  sessions?  (book/lecture)   19. Thinking  about  number  6  on  the  list,  “consider  sequence  position”,  what  is  the  primacy  effect   and  what  is  the  recency  eff ect?  (book/lecture)   20. What  is  a  mnemonic  device?  (book)   21. What  is  a  flashbulb  memory?  Be  able  to  identify  examples  of  flashbulb  memories.  (book/lecture)        


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