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Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 4

by: Sofia Pasos

Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 4 PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid

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Sofia Pasos
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Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 4
PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
Erin Sparks Ward
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sofia Pasos on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
Study  Guide,  Exam  #4   Sofia  Pasos   CHAPTER  13:   1. What  is  social  cognition?  (book)   • Social  cognition:  the  study  of  how  people  use  cognitive  processes -­‐  such  as  perception,   memory,  thought,  and  emotion   –  to  help  make  sense  of  other  people  as  well  as   themselves.     2. Is  physical  appearance  an  important  determinant  of  first  impressions?  Why  or  why  not?  (book)   Yes,  it  is  one  of  the  most  powerful  determinants  of  a  first  impression.  In  fact,  evidence   suggests  that  we  can  form  an  initial  impression.  such  as  how  trustworthy   a  person  might   be,  after  looking  at  a  face  for  as  little  as  a  50  millisecond.     Example:  If  more  attractive  we  assume  more  intelligent.       3. What  is  a  schema?  Specifically,  what  is  a  social  schema?  (book)   • Social  schema:  a  general  knowledge  structure,  stored  in  a  long-­‐term  memory  that   relates  to  social  experiences  or  people.     4. What  is  stereotyping  vs.  prejudice  vs.  discrimination?    If  given  examples,  be  able  to  identify  the   differences  between  these  3  things  (book/lecture)   Stereotype-­‐-­‐A  generalized  belief  (knowledge  structure)  about  traits/characteristics  of  a   members  of  a  group   a. e.g.  IU  students  are  mean   Prejudice-­‐-­‐A  generalized  attitude  toward  members  of  a  group  or  evaluation  of  a  group   b. e.g.  Dislike  of  telemarketers   Discrimination-­‐-­‐Behaviors  directed  toward  people  on  the  basis  of  their  group  membership   c. e.g.  Denying  someone  a  job  because  of  their  race  or  gender     5. Understand  how  the  confirmation  bias  is  an  important  cognitive  source  of  prejudice.    Why  does   the  confirmation  bias  make  it  hard  to  get  rid  of  prejudice?  ( lecture)         6. What  is  social  identity  theory?  Understand  how/why  social  identity  theory  provides  an   explanation  of  a  motivational  source  of  prejudice  (lecture)   • We  want  to  feel  good  about  ourselves   • Much  of  our  identity  comes  from  the  groups  to  which  we  belon g   • Just  as  individual  social  comparison  can  boost  self -­‐esteem:  Comparing  our  group  with  other   groups  that  are  less  well  off  can  raise  our  self -­‐esteem     7. What  is  meant  by  institutional  support  as  a  social  source  of  prejudice?    Be  able  to  identify   examples  of  institutional  support  of  prejudice  (lecture)   Institutional  Support  -­‐  our  social  institutions  (schools,  government,  the  media)  can   reinforce  biased  beliefs     Children’s  books  -­‐  gender  roles     Religion  and  women     1992  TV  season  -­‐  1%  characters  were  Hispanic  and  16%  of  them  committed  crimes  (2  X   other  groups)     • Example  from  dick  and  jane  from  textbook   –  “she  is  just  like  a  girl  –  she  gives  up”   Fairy  tales  –  the  damsel  is  always  the  one  in  distress,  and  she  is  rescued  by  some  sort  of   masculine  character   –  knight  in  shining  armor,  the  woodsman  in  Little  Red  Riding  Hood   “flesh”  colored  crayon  changed  to  peach  in  1962   Horror  Movies  –  screaming  females  –  brave  males,  1950’s  TV  shows  also  perpetuate  gender   stereotypes..     8. What  is  a  self-­‐fulfilling  prophecy?    Know  the  results  of  the  Snyder  telephone  study  and   understand  how  the  women’s  conversational  styles  demonstrated  a  self -­‐fulfilling  prophecy   effect  (book  –  in  particular,  see  the  picture  flow  chart  on  page  407)  (book/lecture)   • Self-­‐fulfilling  prophecies:  our  impressions  of  others  can  affect  how  they  behave,  leading   them  to  act  in  the  expected  ways.     • “Attractive  people  are  nice/friendly”   • Snyder  &  colleagues,  1977 :  Men  were  nicer  on  the  phone  to  women  they  thought  were   attractive.  These  women  were  then  act ually  more  friendly  back!     9. Be  able  to  define/understand  what  is  meant  by  implicit  vs.  explicit  prejudice  (book/lecture)  and   understand  why  dual  attitudes  (attitudes  with  both  an  implicit  and  explicit  component)  makes  it   difficult  to  get  rid  of  all  our  prej udice  (lecture)   • Explicit  prejudice  –feelings  that  you’re  aware  of   • Implicit  prejudice  –  feelings  you’re  not  aware  of   Implicit  attitudes  are  often  more  negative  than  explicit  attitudes.  They  are  m easured  by  IAT.   Implicit  and  explicit  attitudes  influence  different  responses.   Explicit:  overt  bias,  policy  attitudes   Implicit:  nonverbal  bias,  split  second  decisions     10. What  does  the  IAT  stand  for?    Understand  what  the  IAT  tests  for,  how  the  test  works,  and  what   the  results  of  the  test  mean  (lecture)   It  stands  for:  Implicit  Associations  Test  and  it  attempts  to  measure  implicit  responses.   • What  does  the  results  mean?     – When  shown  one  racial  category   – Slower  to  categorize  with  positive   – Quicker  to  categorize  negative   – Strong  association  between  that  category  and  negative   attributes   – Does  this  mean  you  are  prejudiced?   – Not  necessarily,  just  that  you  have  an  association  between  the  two   – But  it  does  make  some  good  predictions       11. Know  the  basic  difference  between  how  a  social  psychologist  would  measure  an  explicit  attitude   versus  an  implicit  attitude  (lecture)   o Implicit  attitude  measured  by  IAT.  Implicit  –  how  they  actually  did   o Explicit  attitude  by  self -­‐report.  Explicit  –  how  they  thought  they  did  in  an   interracial  interaction     12. Do  explicit  or  implicit  attitudes  usually  tend  to  be  mo re  negative?  Why?  What  kind  of  behavior   does  an  explicit  attitude  best  predict  and  what  kind  of  behavior  does  an  implicit  attitude  best   predict?)  (lecture)   Implicit  attitudes  are  often  more  negative  than  explicit  attitudes.   Measured  by  IAT   Implicit  and  explicit  attitudes  influence  different  responses   Explicit:  overt  bias,  policy  attitudes   Implicit:  nonverbal  bias,  split  second  decisions   13. What  is  an  attribution?  (book/lecture)   Attribution:  the  interference  processes  people  use  to  assign  cause  and  effect  to   behavior.     14. According  to  the  covariation  model  of  attribution,  what  are  the  3  pieces  of  information  that  help   us  make  the  appropriate  inference  or  attribution  about  someone  else’s  behavior?  (hint:   consistency,  distinctiveness,  and  consensus).  Know  what  is  mea nt  by  these  3  things  if  given  an   example  of  someone’s  behavior.  (book)   o Consistency:  we  try  to  determine  whether  the  change  occurs  regularly  when  the   causal  event  is  present  –  does  Ira’s  mood  consistently  improve  after  exercise   class?   o Distinctiveness:  provi des  an  indication  of  whether  the  change  occurs  uniquely  in     the  presence  of  the  event  –  does  Ira’s  mood  improve  after  lunch  only  if  he’s   been  exercising?   o Consensus:  tells  us  whether  other  people  show  similar  reactions  when  there   exposed  to  the  same  causal   event  –  is  elevation  of  mood  a  common  reaction  to   exercising?       15. What  is  meant  by  an  internal  vs.  external  attribution?  Be  able  to  identify  examples  of  internal  vs.   external  attributions  (book/lecture).  Know  what  has  to  be  true  of  distinctiveness,  consisten cy,   and  consensus  in  order  for  someone  to  make  an  internal  vs.  an  external  attribution  (i.e.  know   whether  each  of  these  3  elements  needs  to  be  high  or  low  for  an  internal  vs.  external  attribution   to  take  place,  and  be  able  to  identify  from  an  example  wheth er  someone  will  make  an  internal   or  external  attribution  based  on  these  3  elements)  (book)   a. External  attribution:  attributing  the  cause  of  a  person’s  behavior  to  an  external  event  or   situation  in  the  environment.   b. Internal  attribution:  attributing  the  cause  of  a  person’s  behavior  to  an  internal   personality  trait  or  disposition.    (page:  410)     16. What  is  meant  by  the  fundamental  attribution  error?  Be  able  to  identify  examples   (book/lecture)   o Fundamental  attribution  error:  when  people  seek  to  interpret  someone  else’ s   behavior,  they  tend  to  overestimate  the  influence  of  internal  personal  factors   and  underestimate  the  role  of  situational  factors.     17. What  is  the  actor -­‐observer  effect?  (book)   o Actor-­‐observer  effect:  the  overall  tendency  to  attribute  our  own  behavior  to   external  sources  but  to  attribute  the  behavior  of  others  to  internal  sources.     18. What  is  the  self -­‐serving  bias?  (book/lecture)   o Self-­‐serving  bias:  the  tendency  to  make  internal  attributions  about  one’s  own   behavior  when  the  outcome  is  positive  and  to  blame  the  situation  when  ones   behavior  lead  to  something  negative.       19. What  is  an  attitude?  (book/lecture)   o Attitude:  a  positive  or  negative  evaluation  which,  in  turn,  predisposes  us  to  act   in  certain  ways;  attitudes  are  typically  broken  down  into  cognitive,  effective,   and  behavioral  components.     20. What  are  the  3  main  components  of  an  attitude?  (book)  Be  able  to  identify  examples  of  the  3   main  components  of  an  attitude   o Cognitive  component:  represents  what  people  know  or  believe  about  the  object   of  their  attitude   o Affective  component:  emotional  feelings   o Behavioral  component:  predisposition  to  act  toward  the  object  in  a  particular   way.     21. What  is  the  elaboration  likelihood  model,  the  central  route  to  persuasion,  and  the  peripheral   route  to  persuasion?  (book)   o Elaboration  likelihood  model:  a  model  proposing  two  primary  routes  to   persuasion  and  attitude  change.   o Central  route  to  persuasion:  operates  when  we  are  motivated  and  focusing  our   attention  on  the  message.   o Peripheral  route  to  persuasion:  operates  when  we  are  either  unm otivated  to   process  the  message  or  are  unable  to  do  so.     22. Define  cognitive  dissonance?  (book/lecture)   o Cognitive  dissonance:  the  tension  produced  when  people  act  in  a  way  that  is   inconsistent  with  their  attitude.     23. When  is  strong  cognitive  dissonance  most  lik ely  to  occur?  (lecture)   An  unpleasant  state  that  occurs  whenever  an  individual  simultaneously  holds  two  or   more  cognitions  that  are  psychologically  inconsistent.       24. Understand  all  the  details  of  the  “ studying  and  being  bought  a  car ”  example.  Understand  how  it   illustrates  cognitive  dissonance  at  work.  Did  buying  a  car  to  get  kids  to  study  make  them  start  to   study  more  often?  (hint:  yes,  it  did)  Did  buying  a  car  make  them  feel  like  they  LIKED  studying   more  than  they  had  before?  ( hint:  no,  it  didn’t)  Why  would  buying  a  car  to  encourage  studying   make  kids  start  to  study  more  often,   but  also  make  them  feel  like  they  LIKED  studying  less?   Be   able  to  describe  from  the  perspective  of  cognitive  dissonance  theory  why  kids  would  be   motivated  to  convince  themselves  they  l iked  studying  in  the  scenario  where  we  got  them  to  do   it  but  didn’t  buy  them  anything!  (lecture)       25. Be  able  to  describe  the  methods  and  findings  of  Festinger’s  1959  dissonance  study.   Understand   how  they  illustrate  the  principles  of  cognitive  dissonance  theo ry  (book/lecture)   § People  show  up  for  “Measures  of  Performance”   § Study  has  to  do  with  performing  routine  tasks,  like  those  found  in  factories   § BORING!  Taking  pegs  off  and  turning  pegs     § Experimenter  “confesses”  the  study  is  really  about  motivation  and  repetiti ve  tasks   § My  confederate  is  gone   –  can  you  tell  the  next  participant  you  enjoyed  this?   § 3  conditions  -­‐  No  lie,  $1  for  lie,  $20  for  lie   §  Follow  up  questions  about  enjoyment  of  study     How  to  eliminate  dissonance   • Change  one  of  the  cognitions  by  changing  a  belief,  opinion,  attitude,  or  behavior     • Acquire  new  information  or  add  cognitions  to  reduce  the  dissonance   • Make  one  of  the  dissonant  cognitions  less  important  than  the  others     26. BE  ABLE  TO  LABEL  THE  BARS  ON  THE   RESULTS  GRAPH  –  know  what  happened  in  the  no  pay,  $1,   and  $20  condition.  Who  said  they  enjoyed  the  experiment  the  most?  Why?  (lecture/book)   2.0 1.0 0.0 Enjoyment Rating -1.0     27. Be  able  to  apply  the  principles  of  cognitive  dissonance  theory  to  some  other  real-­‐life  examples   I’ll  give  you.    Be  able  to  identify  examples  of  people  in  a  state  of  cognitive  dissonance,  and  be   able  to  identify  in  these  examples  who,  according  to  cognitive  dissonance  theory,  would  say   they  enjoyed  a  task  the  most.             28. Know  the  3  main  ways  you  can  eliminate  dissonanc e  and  be  able  to  identify  examples  (lecture)   o Change  one  of  the  cognitions  by  changing  a  belief,  opinion,  attitude,  or   behavior     o Acquire  new  information  or  add  cognitions  to  reduce  the  dissonance   o Make  one  of  the  dissonant  cognitions  less  important  than  the   others     29. What  is  meant  by  self -­‐perception  theory?  How  does  it  provide  an  alternative  explanation  for  the   results  of  Festinger’s  cognitive  dissonance  study?  Be  able  to  identify  examples  of  self -­‐perception   at  work  (book/lecture)   § Alternatives  to  dissonance  the ory…   § Self-­‐perception  theory  –  It’s  hard  to  know  our  own  attitudes.   We  gain  insight  into  our  own  attitudes  by  observing  our  own   behavior.       30. What  is  meant  by  social  facilitation?  (book)   o Social  facilitation:  the  enhancement  in  performance  that  is  sometimes  fo und   when  an  individual  performs  in  the  presence  of  others.       31. What  is  meant  by  social  interference?  (book)   o Social  interference:  the  impairment  in  performance  that  is  sometimes  found   when  an  individual  performs  in  the  presence  of  others.     32. What  is  altruism?  ( book)   o Altruism:  acting  in  a  way  that  shows  unselfish  concern  for  the  welfare  of  others.       33. What  is  the  story  of  the  Kitty  Genovese  incident  and  what  is  meant  by  the  bystander  effect?   What  is  meant  by  diffusion  of  responsibility  and  how  does  it  contribute  the  bystander  effect?   (book/lecture)     – The  story  of  Kitty  Genovese   – Affects  prosocial  (good)  behavior:  the  more  people  that  are  present  during  an   emergency,  the  more  time  it  takes  for  someone  to  call  for  help   – Diffusion  of  Responsibility:  someone  else  will  d o  it!       34. What  is  meant  by  social  loafing?  (book)   o Social  loafing:  the  tendency  to  put  out  less  effort  when  working  in  a  group   compared  to  when  working  alone.       35. What  is  deindividuation?  (book)   o Deindividuation:  the  loss  of  individuality,  or  depersonalization,  that  comes  from   being  in  a  group.       36. What  did  the  Zimbardo  prison  study  demonstrate?  (lecture)   – The  Zimbardo  Prison  Study   – Roles  have  a  profound  effect  on  our  behavior,  thoughts  and  feelings   – Powerpoint  slide  number  43     37. What  are  the  3  main  types  of  social  influence  and  could  you  identify  the  differences  if  offered   examples?  (conformity,  compliance,  obedience   -­‐  lecture)   1)  Conformity:  the  tendency  to  change  one's  beliefs  or  behaviors  in  ways  that  are   consistent  with  social  norms. Subtle:  It  can  occur  without  anyone  directly  or  explicitly  trying  to   influence  us  (i.e.  Fads,  Candid  Camera  clip)   2)  Compliance:  is  defined  as  a  change  in  behavior  due  to  the  intentional  influence  of   others.  Compliance  can  be  elicited  through   direct  appeals  or  requests  from  another  to  do   something  or  compliance  can  be  elicited  in  a  more   subtle  nature.  This  is  persuasion!  –  People   are  trying  to  influence  you!   3)  Obedience:  involves  a  change  in  behavior  that  is   in  response  to  someone  who  is  in   authority  or  someone  who  has  power  over  you.  Note:  Note  that  this  is  different  from   compliance  in  that  compliance  does   not  involve  people  who  are  in  positions  of  power   over  us.     38. What  is  meant  by  societal  norms?  (lecture)   – Norms:  Rules  that  a  group  has  for  dictating  the  acceptable  values,  beliefs  and  behaviors   of  its  members   – In  other  words:  acceptable  ways  of  behaving  and  thinking  in  order  to  maintain  positive   social  status     39. Know  the  results  of  the  Asch  line  study  and  explain   how  they  demonstrate  conformity  at  work   (lecture/book)   6  people:  5  people  of  study,  and  one  random.   One  line  on  one  side  and  4  lines  on  the  other  side,   they  ask  which  one  is  the  most  alike  to  the  line  on  the  other  side?  And  all  of  the  subjects  say  one   that  is  not  alike,  and  the  one  that  is  random  says  the  same  because  of  conformity.       40. Know/understand  the  Cialdini’s  6  principles  of  compliance  and  be  able  to  identify  examples  of   each  of  these  6  principles  at  work  through  various  persuasive  appeals  (lecture)   – 1)  Social  validation/consensus  –  for  acceptance,  popularity   – 2)  Authority   – 3)  Scarcity  -­‐  place  higher  value  on  an  object  that  is  scarce,  and  less  on  something  that  is   abundant   – 4)  Consistency/commitment   -­‐  foot  in  door     – 5)  Reciprocity  –  feel  like  you  owe  it   – 6)  Likeability  –  because  of  friendship  or  love  or  caring     41. Be  able  to  describe/understand  the  methods  and  results  of  Milgram’s  obedience  study   (lecture/book)   o Participants  brought  in  with  confederate   o Pick  roles  out  of  hat   o Participant  (teacher)  //  Confederate  (s tudent)   o Participant  reads  off  word  pairs  and  student  then  recalls   o When  wrong,  teacher  shocks  student   o Increase  level  of  shock  for  each  one  wrong   o Highest  level  labeled  “Danger   -­‐-­‐  XXX”   o Confederate  complains  of  heart  problems     42. What  is  meant  by  group   polarization  and  groupthink?  (book/lecture)     Group  Polarization  –  Group’s  dominant  view  becomes  stronger  with  time   Groupthink  –  Group  members  become  interested  in  finding  consensus,  and  start  to   suppress  any  dissenting  viewpoint     43. Define  attraction  (lecture)   o Attraction:  Anything  that  draws  two  or  more  people  together,  making  them   want  to  be  together  and  possibly  to  form  a  lasting  relationship.       44. Be  able  to  list/understand  the  5  big  predictors  of  attraction  we  discussed  in  class  (lecture   –  some   in  book  as  well.  Your  book  discusses  proximity,  similarity,  and  reciprocity.    In  class  we  discussed   2  additional  principles)   – Proximity:  defined  in  terms  of  closeness  of  living  quarters   –  between  two  people  in   the  building.   – Physical  attractiveness   – Similarity  vs.  complementarity   – Liking  those  who  give  us  rewards  (who  do  things  for  us  or  make  us  feel  good)   – Reciprocity:  Liking  those  who  like  us     45. What  did  the  Westgate  West  floorplan  study  demonstrate  (hint:  how  proximity  increases   attraction  or  predicts  likelihood  of  b ecoming  friends  with  people)  (lecture/some  in  book)   Festinger:  Examined  friendship  in  the  west  gate  west  apartments   Functional  distance  was  VERY  important  in  friendship  formation   a. People  who’s  front  door  was  close  to  each  other  become  friends  (6  &  7  vs.  7  &  8)   b. People  on  different  floors  or  ends  of  hallway  were  unlikely  to  become  friends   c. People  near  staircases  were  particularly  popular     46. Define  the  mere  exposure  effect  and  understand  how  it  helps  explain  the  impact  of  proximity.   Be  able  to  identify  examples  of  the  mere  exposure  effect.  (lecture)   What  is  familiar  is  good.  Occurs  without  our  awareness  and  influences  our  perceptions    Why  does  proximity  influence  friendship  formation?   § Cognitive  consistency  -­‐  it  is  distressing  to  dislike  those  near  us,  so  we   experience   pressure  to  like  our  neighbors   § Increases  familiarity,  which  breeds  liking  –  mere  exposure  effect     47. What  is  the  physical  attractiveness  stereotype??  (lecture)   § Physical  attractiveness  stereotype:   assumption  that  attractive  people   possess  other  positive  qualities   We  assume  they  are  more  kind,  outgoing,  intelligent,  and  successful   Women  were  rated  kinder  and  more  sensitive  after  plastic  surgery   Attractiveness  determines  liking     48. Why  do  people  prefer  composite  faces?  (lecture/book)   Composite  faces  are  faces  made  from  a  lot  of  different  faces.     49. Which  wins  in  predicting  attraction   –  similarity  or  complimentarity?  (lecture/book)   – We  like  those  similar  to  us   – We  can’t  let  of  this  complimentarity  idea!   – Research  does  not  support  it   – May  evolve  as  relationship   progresses     50. Define  the  reward  theory  of  attraction  (lecture)   o Reward  Theory  of  Attraction :    We  like  those  who  reward  us  or  who  we   associate  with  rewarding  events  (e.g.,  good  feelings)   o People  who  do  us  favors   o Giving  who  give  us  praise     51. Be  able  to  describe  th e  methods  and  findings  of  the  Lewicki  (1985)  study  and  what  it   demonstrates  (hint:  the  reward  theory  of  attraction  can  also  work  by  ASSOCIATION)  (lecture)   This  can  also  work  by  association   –  we’ll  like  people  we  ASSOCIATE  with  people  who   have  given  us  rewards  or  made  us  feel  good!   Ø Lewicki  (1985)  liking-­‐by-­‐association   Ø 2  women  (A  &  B)  were  rated  as  looking  equally  friendly  by  control  group   Ø Some  Pp’s  had  interacted  with  a  friendly  experimenter  who  looked  like  A     52. What  is  one  reason  we  might  tend  to  like  people   who  like  us?  (Hint:  social  reciprocity  norm)   (lecture/book)   Reciprocity       53. What  is  meant  by  passion,  intimacy,  and  commitment?  Do  each  of  these  increase  or  decrease   over  time?  (lecture/book)   o Passion:  physiological  arousal,  longing,  sexual  attraction   o Intimacy:  close  bond,  sharing,  support   o Commitment:  willing  to  define  as  love,  long  term   – Passionate  sexual  attraction  fades  with  time.   – But  feelings  of  intimacy  and  commitment  increase   54. What  is  passionate  love  and  what  is  companionate  love?  (book/lecture)   – Passionate  or  romantic  love  –passion  and  intimacy  without  commitment   – Companionate  love  –  intimacy  and  commitment  without  passion     55. According  to  Rusbult,  what  are  3  components  that  keep  people  together?  (lecture)   Rusbult  –  3  Components  that  keep  people  together   1. Satisfaction  –  Do  you  like  your  partner?   Positive  (rewards)  and  negative  (costs)  experiences   2. Quality  of  available  alternatives     Maybe  relationship  isn’t  satisfying,  but  there  is  no  one  else  available   Relationship  may  be  incredibly  satisfying,  but  there  ar e  better  others  out  there   3. Investment  –  how  much  has  your  partner  put  into  the  relationship   Sunk  costs  –  Time,  effort,  emotion  and  other  resources  put  into  the  relationship  that   can’t  be  gotten  back     If  you  struggle  to  keep  the  relationship  going  for  severa l  years  and  just  end  it,   that’s  2  years  of  work  down  the  drain     Ch.  14   1. Understand  the  four  main  proposed  criteria  for  defining  abnormal  behavior  (statistical  deviance,   cultural  deviance,  emotional  distress,  and  dysfunction).    Know  what  is  meant  by  each  and   identify  examples  (book/lecture).   Abnormal  Behavior/  Mental  Disorder:  actions,  thoughts  and  feelings  that:   a. Are  infrequent/rare  (statistical  deviance)   b. Violate  standards  of  society  (cultural  deviance)   c. Cause  emotional  distress   d. Cause  dysfunction  in  living     2. Are  “normal”  vs.  “abnormal”  rigid  categories,  such  that  human  behavior  clearly  fits  into  one  or   the  other?  (lecture/book)   Abnormal  and  normal  are  not  fixed  categories  but  endpoints  on  a  continuum.  To  a   certain  degree,  everyone  has  acted  unusually,  suffer ed  from  emotional  distress,  or   failed  to  follow  an  adaptive  strategy.       3. What  is  meant  by  the  legal  concept  of  insanity,  and  how  is  it  different  from  a  psychological   disorder?  (book/lecture)   Insanity:  a  legal  term  that  has  three  different  meanings:     1.)  A  person’s  ability  to  tell  right  from  wrong   (not  guilty  by  reason  of  insanity)     2.)  A  person’s  ability  to  understand  the  legal  proceedings   (competency  to  stand   trial)     3.)  Whether  the  person  is  a  direct  danger  to  self  or  others   (involuntary   commitment  to  a  mental  hospital)   Jeffrey  Dahmer  –  capable  of  understanding  wrongness  of  actions  but  clearly  suffering   from  psychological  disorders       4. What  is  the  medical  model  of  diagnosis  when  it  comes  to  psychological  disorders?   (book/lecture)   § Medical  model  –  abnormal  behavior  is  caused  by  an  underlying  disease   that  could  be  cured  with  appropriate  therapy     5. Be  able  to  describe  some  criticisms  of  the  medical  model  (book/lecture)   Problems  with  the  DSM:   a. Over-­‐diagnosis   b. Labeling   c. Serious  problems  vs.  “normal”  problems   d. Subjective  nature  of  determining  a  disorder     6. What  is  meant  by  diagnostic  labeling  effects?  Be  able  to  explain  the  results  of  the  Rosenhan   study  (book)   § Diagnostic  labeling  effects:  the  fact  that  labels  for  psychological   problems  can  become  self -­‐fulfilling  prophecies;  the  label  may  make  it   difficult  to  recognize  normal  behavior  when  it  occurs,  and  it  may   actually  increase  the  likelihood  that  a  person  will  act  in  abnormal  way.   § Rosenhan  study:  patients  faked  to  be  hearing  voices,  were  admitted  to  a   facility  and  everyone  treating  them  noticed  their  behavior  to  be   abnormal,  when  they  where  actually  perfectly  fine.       7. What  is  the  DSM?  (book/lecture)   The  DSM:  Diagnostic  and  Statistical  Manual  of  Mental  Disorders   a. Medical  model  –  abnormal  behavior  is  caused  by  an  under lying  disease  that  could  be   cured  with  appropriate  therapy   b. Describes  symptoms  and  typical  age  of  onset  or  other  characteristics  of  the  disorder       8. Understand  what  is  meant  by  an  anxiety  disorder.    Know  that  the  following  are  all  anxiety   disorders:    generalized  anxiety  disorder,  panic  disorder,  phobic  disorder/specific  phobia,  social   anxiety  disorder,  agoraphobia  (all  book/lecture)  and  PTSD  (just  lecture).  Be  able  to  recognize   symptoms  and  identify  examples  of  people  suffering  from  each  of  these  things  (book/ lecture)     § Anxiety  Disorders:  excessive  levels  of  negative  emotions,  such  as  nervousness,   tension,  worry,  fright  and  anxiety   § Generalized  Anxiety  Disorder /free  floating  anxiety:  a  vague,  uneasy  sense  of   general  tension  and  apprehension  that  lasts  for  years   § Panic  Disorder:  a  pattern  of  anxiety  in  which  long  periods  of  calm  are  broken  by   intensely  uncomfortable  attacks  of  anxiety  (panic  attack/anxiety  attack)   § Social  anxiety  disorder:  fear  of  socializing   § Phobias:  an  intense,  irrational  fear   § Post  Traumatic  Stress  Disorder  (PTSD):  experiencing  anxiety,  irritability,   upsetting  memories,  dreams,  and  realistic  flashbacks  of  a  traumatic  event   § Agoraphobia:  avoid  public  places  out  of  fear  that  a  panic  attack  will  occur     9. What  is  obsessive  compulsive  disorder?  Specificall y,  what  is  meant  by  obsessions  and   compulsions?  (book/lecture)  Be  able  to  recognize  the  symptoms  and  identify  examples  of   people  suffering  from  it.   Obsessive-­‐Compulsive  Disorder:  involves  obsessions  (intrusive  anxiety  provoking  thoughts)   and/or  compulsions  (irresistible  urges  to  engage  in  specific  irrational  behaviors)   a. Example:  obsession  (intrusive  thoughts)  about  germs  leads  to  compulsive  hand  washing       10. Understand  what  is  meant  by  a  somatic  symptom  disorder.    Specifically,  what  is  conversion   disorder?  (book)   § Somatic  symptom  disorder:  psychological  disorders  that  focus  on  the  physical  body.   These  disorders  can  be  associated  with  specific  body  complaints  (such  as  continuing   pain)  and/or  excessive  worry  about  the  possibility  of  contracting  a  serious  disease.   § Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person has blindness, paralysis, or other nervous system (neurologic) symptoms that cannot be explained by medical evaluation.     11. Understand  what  is  meant  by  a  dissociative  disorder.    Know  that  the  followi ng  are  all   dissociative  disorders:  dissociative  amnesia,  dissociative  fugue,  dissociative  identity  disorder.  For   each,  be  able  to  recognize  symptoms  and  identify  examples  of  people  suffering  from  it   (book/lecture)   Dissociative  Disorders :  (rare)  conditions  involving  sudden  cognitive  changes,  such  as  change   in  memory,  perception  or  identity.    Separation  of  conscious  awareness  from  previous  thoughts   or  memories.   a. Dissociative  amnesia  –  not  remembering  personal  information   b. Dissociative  fugue  –  accompanied  by  escape  or  flight  –  cant  remember  your  identity   Dissociative  Identity  Disorder  (Multiple  Personality) :  where  an  individual  appears  to  shift   abruptly  and  repeatedly  from  one  “personality”  to  another   i. This  is  a  controversial  disorder  and  believed  to  be  caused   by  severe  child  abuse   (physical  and  sexual)  that  results  in  the  child  “splitting”  from  him/herself  in   order  to  cope  with  the  abuse   12. Understand  what  is  meant  by  a  depressive/bipolar  disorder  (book/lecture)   Depressive  Disorders :  psychological  disorders  involving  prolonged/disabling  disruption  to   emotional  state       13. What  is  a  major  depressive  episode?  (book/lecture)  Be  able  to  recognize  the  symptoms  and   identify  examples  of  people  suffering  from  it.  What  is  meant  when  major  depression  is   described  as  recurrent  vs .  Dysthymic  disorder?  (book/lecture)   Major  Depressive  Episode :  characterized  by  episodes  of  deep  unhappiness,  loss  of   interest  in  life,  and  other  symptoms.  Usually  lasts  weeks/months   i. Recurrent:  Has  occurred  more  than  once,  separated  by  period  of  more  than   2   months   ii. Dysthymic  disorder:  A  relatively  continuous  depressed  mood  lasting  for  at  least   2  years,  but  symptoms  are  milder       14. What  is  bipolar  disorder?  Specifically,  understand  what  is  meant  by    manic  episode  and  a   depressive  episode  and  understand  how  these  are  both  present  (book/lecture)  Be  able  to   recognize  the  symptoms  and  identify  examples  of  people  suffering  from  it.   Bipolar  Affective  Disorder :  periods  of  mania  that  alternate  with  periods  of  severe  depression   a. Mania:  a  disturbance  in  mood  in  which  the  individual  experiences  a  euphoria   characterized  by  unrealistic  optimism  and  heightened  sensory  pleasures  (dangerous   because  it  leads  to  risky  behavior  and  loss  of  sleep  and  sometimes  leads  to  loss  of  touch   with  reality)   15. What  are  the  major  risk  factors  associ ated  with  suicide?  (book)   § Alcohol  use  and  abuse     § Death  of  a  loved  one   § Failure  or  rejection  in  a  personal  relationship   § Natural  disasters   § Can  be  contagious  (suicide  rates  increase  when  suicides  are  publicized)       16. What  is  schizophrenia?  (book/lecture)  Be  able   to  recognize  the  symptoms  and  identify  examples   of  people  suffering  from  it.  Particularly,  know  what  the  positive  symptoms  are  (specifically,   delusions,  delusion  of  grandeur,  delusion  of  persecution,  hallucinations,  disorganized  speech,   catatonia),  the  negative  symptoms  (flat  affect),  and  the  cognitive  symptoms  (book/lecture)   Schizophrenia:  disorder  involving  severe  cognitive  disturbance  and  disorganization  of   thought   i. Affects  1%  of  the  population  (men  and  women  equally)   ii. This  disorder  makes  normal  living  imp ossible     Delusions:  distorted  or  bizarre  beliefs  that  have  no  basis  in  reality     iii. Delusions  of  grandeur:  distorted  sense  of  own  importance  (e.g.  “I  am  Jesus”,  “I   am  an  important  member  of  the  government”)   iv. Delusions  of  Persecution:  distorted  sense  of  paranoia  (e.g.  “the  government  is   watching  me”,  “people  are  trying  to  kill  me”)   Hallucinations:  false  perceptual  experiences  such  as  seeing,  hearing,  feeling  things  that  are  not   there     v. Most  common  is  auditory  (hearing  voices),  but  can  involve  other  senses   Disorganized  thinking,  emotions  and  behavior:     b. Fragmented  thoughts   c. Incoherent  speech   d. Inappropriate  behavior   e. Flat  emotions  (except  for  anger)   17. Understand  what  is  meant  by  personality  disorders  (lecture/book).  Understand  that  the   following  are  all  personality  disorders:  antisocial  personality  disorder,  narcissistic  personality   disorder,  and  borderline  personality  disorder.   Personality  Disorders:  believed  to  result  from  personalities  that  developed  improperly   during  childhood   a. All  personality  disorders  begin  earl y  in  life   b. They  are  disturbing  to  the  person  and/or  others   c. They  are  very  difficult  to  treat     Borderline  Personality  Disorder :  characterized  by  impulsive  and  unpredictable  behavior,   unstable  relationships,  anger,  constant  need  to  be  with  others  and  a  lack  of  identity  (frequent   suicidal  gestures  and  very  likely  to  seek  treatment)   Narcissistic  Personality  Disorder :  characterized  by  unrealistic  sense  of  self-­‐importance,   preoccupied  with  fantasies  of  future  success,  requires  constant  attention  and  praise,  reacts   very   negatively  and  aggressively  to  criticism,  lacks  a  genuine  concern  for  others   Antisocial  Personality  Disorder :  characterized  by  a  lack  of  guilt  about  violating  social  rules   and  laws  and  taking  advantage  of  others  (formerly  known  as  “psychopath”  or  “soc iopath”)     18. Be  able  to  recognize  the  symptoms  and  identify  examples  of  people  suffering  from  the  above   personality  disorders  (book/lecture)       19. Have  a  good  understanding  of  what  is  meant  by  the  following  different  contributors  to  mental   illness:     biology  –  neurotransmitter  imbalances,  structural  problems,  and  genetic  contributions     cognitive  factors  –  maladaptive  attributions,  learned  helplessness   environmental  factors  –  the  rule  of  culture,  conditioning     Ch.  15     1. What  is  meant  by  psychotherapy?  (book/lecture)   § Psychotherapy:  Definition:  a  specialized  process  in  which  a  trained  professional  uses   psychological  methods  to  help  a  person  with  psychological  problems   o People  enter  therapy  in  order  to  rid  themselves  of  an  abnormal  behavior  or  to   improve  their  daily  living  (personal  growth)     2. What  is  a  biomedical  therapy?  Know  that  drug  therapy,  ECT,  and  psychosurgery  are  all  examples   (book/lecture)     Biomedical  therapy:  biologically  based  treatments  for  reducing  or  eliminating  the  symptoms  of   psychological  disorders.     3. What  is  drug  therapy?  Specifically,  what  do  antidepressants  treat  and  what  neurotransmitters   do  they  typically  work  on?  What  do  anti -­‐anxiety  drugs  treat?  Know  that  they  are  typically  called   tranquilizers.  What  do  antipsychotic  drugs  treat?  (book/lecture)          Drug  Therapy:  the  most  widely  used  medical  treatment  for  psychological  disorders   a. Antidepressants:  used  to  treat  depressive   disorders,  but  also  used  for  a   variety  of  other   disorders,  elevates  levels  of  serotonin  and  norepinephrine   b. Tranquilizers  (anti-­‐anxiety):  to  treat  mild  anxiety,  not  to  be  used  for  long  time  periods   Antipsychotic  drugs:  used  to  treat  schizophrenia  and  other  psychotic  disorders,  inhibits   dopamine,  reduces  delusions,  hallucinations,  thought  disorganization     4. What  is  ECT?  (book/lecture)   ¡ Electroconvulsive  Therapy  (ECT):   ¡ People  are  “shocked”  which  produces  a  convulsive  brain  seizure   ¡ In  the  1930s  the  seizures  were  violent


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