Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 4
Psychology 120 Study Guide Exam 4 PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sofia Pasos on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Study Guide, Exam #4 Sofia Pasos CHAPTER 13: 1. What is social cognition? (book) • Social cognition: the study of how people use cognitive processes -‐ such as perception, memory, thought, and emotion – to help make sense of other people as well as themselves. 2. Is physical appearance an important determinant of first impressions? Why or why not? (book) Yes, it is one of the most powerful determinants of a first impression. In fact, evidence suggests that we can form an initial impression. such as how trustworthy a person might be, after looking at a face for as little as a 50 millisecond. Example: If more attractive we assume more intelligent. 3. What is a schema? Specifically, what is a social schema? (book) • Social schema: a general knowledge structure, stored in a long-‐term memory that relates to social experiences or people. 4. What is stereotyping vs. prejudice vs. discrimination? If given examples, be able to identify the differences between these 3 things (book/lecture) Stereotype-‐-‐A generalized belief (knowledge structure) about traits/characteristics of a members of a group a. e.g. IU students are mean Prejudice-‐-‐A generalized attitude toward members of a group or evaluation of a group b. e.g. Dislike of telemarketers Discrimination-‐-‐Behaviors directed toward people on the basis of their group membership c. e.g. Denying someone a job because of their race or gender 5. Understand how the confirmation bias is an important cognitive source of prejudice. Why does the confirmation bias make it hard to get rid of prejudice? ( lecture) 6. What is social identity theory? Understand how/why social identity theory provides an explanation of a motivational source of prejudice (lecture) • We want to feel good about ourselves • Much of our identity comes from the groups to which we belon g • Just as individual social comparison can boost self -‐esteem: Comparing our group with other groups that are less well off can raise our self -‐esteem 7. What is meant by institutional support as a social source of prejudice? Be able to identify examples of institutional support of prejudice (lecture) Institutional Support -‐ our social institutions (schools, government, the media) can reinforce biased beliefs Children’s books -‐ gender roles Religion and women 1992 TV season -‐ 1% characters were Hispanic and 16% of them committed crimes (2 X other groups) • Example from dick and jane from textbook – “she is just like a girl – she gives up” Fairy tales – the damsel is always the one in distress, and she is rescued by some sort of masculine character – knight in shining armor, the woodsman in Little Red Riding Hood “flesh” colored crayon changed to peach in 1962 Horror Movies – screaming females – brave males, 1950’s TV shows also perpetuate gender stereotypes.. 8. What is a self-‐fulfilling prophecy? Know the results of the Snyder telephone study and understand how the women’s conversational styles demonstrated a self -‐fulfilling prophecy effect (book – in particular, see the picture flow chart on page 407) (book/lecture) • Self-‐fulfilling prophecies: our impressions of others can affect how they behave, leading them to act in the expected ways. • “Attractive people are nice/friendly” • Snyder & colleagues, 1977 : Men were nicer on the phone to women they thought were attractive. These women were then act ually more friendly back! 9. Be able to define/understand what is meant by implicit vs. explicit prejudice (book/lecture) and understand why dual attitudes (attitudes with both an implicit and explicit component) makes it difficult to get rid of all our prej udice (lecture) • Explicit prejudice –feelings that you’re aware of • Implicit prejudice – feelings you’re not aware of Implicit attitudes are often more negative than explicit attitudes. They are m easured by IAT. Implicit and explicit attitudes influence different responses. Explicit: overt bias, policy attitudes Implicit: nonverbal bias, split second decisions 10. What does the IAT stand for? Understand what the IAT tests for, how the test works, and what the results of the test mean (lecture) It stands for: Implicit Associations Test and it attempts to measure implicit responses. • What does the results mean? – When shown one racial category – Slower to categorize with positive – Quicker to categorize negative – Strong association between that category and negative attributes – Does this mean you are prejudiced? – Not necessarily, just that you have an association between the two – But it does make some good predictions 11. Know the basic difference between how a social psychologist would measure an explicit attitude versus an implicit attitude (lecture) o Implicit attitude measured by IAT. Implicit – how they actually did o Explicit attitude by self -‐report. Explicit – how they thought they did in an interracial interaction 12. Do explicit or implicit attitudes usually tend to be mo re negative? Why? What kind of behavior does an explicit attitude best predict and what kind of behavior does an implicit attitude best predict?) (lecture) Implicit attitudes are often more negative than explicit attitudes. Measured by IAT Implicit and explicit attitudes influence different responses Explicit: overt bias, policy attitudes Implicit: nonverbal bias, split second decisions 13. What is an attribution? (book/lecture) Attribution: the interference processes people use to assign cause and effect to behavior. 14. According to the covariation model of attribution, what are the 3 pieces of information that help us make the appropriate inference or attribution about someone else’s behavior? (hint: consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus). Know what is mea nt by these 3 things if given an example of someone’s behavior. (book) o Consistency: we try to determine whether the change occurs regularly when the causal event is present – does Ira’s mood consistently improve after exercise class? o Distinctiveness: provi des an indication of whether the change occurs uniquely in the presence of the event – does Ira’s mood improve after lunch only if he’s been exercising? o Consensus: tells us whether other people show similar reactions when there exposed to the same causal event – is elevation of mood a common reaction to exercising? 15. What is meant by an internal vs. external attribution? Be able to identify examples of internal vs. external attributions (book/lecture). Know what has to be true of distinctiveness, consisten cy, and consensus in order for someone to make an internal vs. an external attribution (i.e. know whether each of these 3 elements needs to be high or low for an internal vs. external attribution to take place, and be able to identify from an example wheth er someone will make an internal or external attribution based on these 3 elements) (book) a. External attribution: attributing the cause of a person’s behavior to an external event or situation in the environment. b. Internal attribution: attributing the cause of a person’s behavior to an internal personality trait or disposition. (page: 410) 16. What is meant by the fundamental attribution error? Be able to identify examples (book/lecture) o Fundamental attribution error: when people seek to interpret someone else’ s behavior, they tend to overestimate the influence of internal personal factors and underestimate the role of situational factors. 17. What is the actor -‐observer effect? (book) o Actor-‐observer effect: the overall tendency to attribute our own behavior to external sources but to attribute the behavior of others to internal sources. 18. What is the self -‐serving bias? (book/lecture) o Self-‐serving bias: the tendency to make internal attributions about one’s own behavior when the outcome is positive and to blame the situation when ones behavior lead to something negative. 19. What is an attitude? (book/lecture) o Attitude: a positive or negative evaluation which, in turn, predisposes us to act in certain ways; attitudes are typically broken down into cognitive, effective, and behavioral components. 20. What are the 3 main components of an attitude? (book) Be able to identify examples of the 3 main components of an attitude o Cognitive component: represents what people know or believe about the object of their attitude o Affective component: emotional feelings o Behavioral component: predisposition to act toward the object in a particular way. 21. What is the elaboration likelihood model, the central route to persuasion, and the peripheral route to persuasion? (book) o Elaboration likelihood model: a model proposing two primary routes to persuasion and attitude change. o Central route to persuasion: operates when we are motivated and focusing our attention on the message. o Peripheral route to persuasion: operates when we are either unm otivated to process the message or are unable to do so. 22. Define cognitive dissonance? (book/lecture) o Cognitive dissonance: the tension produced when people act in a way that is inconsistent with their attitude. 23. When is strong cognitive dissonance most lik ely to occur? (lecture) An unpleasant state that occurs whenever an individual simultaneously holds two or more cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent. 24. Understand all the details of the “ studying and being bought a car ” example. Understand how it illustrates cognitive dissonance at work. Did buying a car to get kids to study make them start to study more often? (hint: yes, it did) Did buying a car make them feel like they LIKED studying more than they had before? ( hint: no, it didn’t) Why would buying a car to encourage studying make kids start to study more often, but also make them feel like they LIKED studying less? Be able to describe from the perspective of cognitive dissonance theory why kids would be motivated to convince themselves they l iked studying in the scenario where we got them to do it but didn’t buy them anything! (lecture) 25. Be able to describe the methods and findings of Festinger’s 1959 dissonance study. Understand how they illustrate the principles of cognitive dissonance theo ry (book/lecture) § People show up for “Measures of Performance” § Study has to do with performing routine tasks, like those found in factories § BORING! Taking pegs off and turning pegs § Experimenter “confesses” the study is really about motivation and repetiti ve tasks § My confederate is gone – can you tell the next participant you enjoyed this? § 3 conditions -‐ No lie, $1 for lie, $20 for lie § Follow up questions about enjoyment of study How to eliminate dissonance • Change one of the cognitions by changing a belief, opinion, attitude, or behavior • Acquire new information or add cognitions to reduce the dissonance • Make one of the dissonant cognitions less important than the others 26. BE ABLE TO LABEL THE BARS ON THE RESULTS GRAPH – know what happened in the no pay, $1, and $20 condition. Who said they enjoyed the experiment the most? Why? (lecture/book) 2.0 1.0 0.0 Enjoyment Rating -1.0 27. Be able to apply the principles of cognitive dissonance theory to some other real-‐life examples I’ll give you. Be able to identify examples of people in a state of cognitive dissonance, and be able to identify in these examples who, according to cognitive dissonance theory, would say they enjoyed a task the most. 28. Know the 3 main ways you can eliminate dissonanc e and be able to identify examples (lecture) o Change one of the cognitions by changing a belief, opinion, attitude, or behavior o Acquire new information or add cognitions to reduce the dissonance o Make one of the dissonant cognitions less important than the others 29. What is meant by self -‐perception theory? How does it provide an alternative explanation for the results of Festinger’s cognitive dissonance study? Be able to identify examples of self -‐perception at work (book/lecture) § Alternatives to dissonance the ory… § Self-‐perception theory – It’s hard to know our own attitudes. We gain insight into our own attitudes by observing our own behavior. 30. What is meant by social facilitation? (book) o Social facilitation: the enhancement in performance that is sometimes fo und when an individual performs in the presence of others. 31. What is meant by social interference? (book) o Social interference: the impairment in performance that is sometimes found when an individual performs in the presence of others. 32. What is altruism? ( book) o Altruism: acting in a way that shows unselfish concern for the welfare of others. 33. What is the story of the Kitty Genovese incident and what is meant by the bystander effect? What is meant by diffusion of responsibility and how does it contribute the bystander effect? (book/lecture) – The story of Kitty Genovese – Affects prosocial (good) behavior: the more people that are present during an emergency, the more time it takes for someone to call for help – Diffusion of Responsibility: someone else will d o it! 34. What is meant by social loafing? (book) o Social loafing: the tendency to put out less effort when working in a group compared to when working alone. 35. What is deindividuation? (book) o Deindividuation: the loss of individuality, or depersonalization, that comes from being in a group. 36. What did the Zimbardo prison study demonstrate? (lecture) – The Zimbardo Prison Study – Roles have a profound effect on our behavior, thoughts and feelings – Powerpoint slide number 43 37. What are the 3 main types of social influence and could you identify the differences if offered examples? (conformity, compliance, obedience -‐ lecture) 1) Conformity: the tendency to change one's beliefs or behaviors in ways that are consistent with social norms. Subtle: It can occur without anyone directly or explicitly trying to influence us (i.e. Fads, Candid Camera clip) 2) Compliance: is defined as a change in behavior due to the intentional influence of others. Compliance can be elicited through direct appeals or requests from another to do something or compliance can be elicited in a more subtle nature. This is persuasion! – People are trying to influence you! 3) Obedience: involves a change in behavior that is in response to someone who is in authority or someone who has power over you. Note: Note that this is different from compliance in that compliance does not involve people who are in positions of power over us. 38. What is meant by societal norms? (lecture) – Norms: Rules that a group has for dictating the acceptable values, beliefs and behaviors of its members – In other words: acceptable ways of behaving and thinking in order to maintain positive social status 39. Know the results of the Asch line study and explain how they demonstrate conformity at work (lecture/book) 6 people: 5 people of study, and one random. One line on one side and 4 lines on the other side, they ask which one is the most alike to the line on the other side? And all of the subjects say one that is not alike, and the one that is random says the same because of conformity. 40. Know/understand the Cialdini’s 6 principles of compliance and be able to identify examples of each of these 6 principles at work through various persuasive appeals (lecture) – 1) Social validation/consensus – for acceptance, popularity – 2) Authority – 3) Scarcity -‐ place higher value on an object that is scarce, and less on something that is abundant – 4) Consistency/commitment -‐ foot in door – 5) Reciprocity – feel like you owe it – 6) Likeability – because of friendship or love or caring 41. Be able to describe/understand the methods and results of Milgram’s obedience study (lecture/book) o Participants brought in with confederate o Pick roles out of hat o Participant (teacher) // Confederate (s tudent) o Participant reads off word pairs and student then recalls o When wrong, teacher shocks student o Increase level of shock for each one wrong o Highest level labeled “Danger -‐-‐ XXX” o Confederate complains of heart problems 42. What is meant by group polarization and groupthink? (book/lecture) Group Polarization – Group’s dominant view becomes stronger with time Groupthink – Group members become interested in finding consensus, and start to suppress any dissenting viewpoint 43. Define attraction (lecture) o Attraction: Anything that draws two or more people together, making them want to be together and possibly to form a lasting relationship. 44. Be able to list/understand the 5 big predictors of attraction we discussed in class (lecture – some in book as well. Your book discusses proximity, similarity, and reciprocity. In class we discussed 2 additional principles) – Proximity: defined in terms of closeness of living quarters – between two people in the building. – Physical attractiveness – Similarity vs. complementarity – Liking those who give us rewards (who do things for us or make us feel good) – Reciprocity: Liking those who like us 45. What did the Westgate West floorplan study demonstrate (hint: how proximity increases attraction or predicts likelihood of b ecoming friends with people) (lecture/some in book) Festinger: Examined friendship in the west gate west apartments Functional distance was VERY important in friendship formation a. People who’s front door was close to each other become friends (6 & 7 vs. 7 & 8) b. People on different floors or ends of hallway were unlikely to become friends c. People near staircases were particularly popular 46. Define the mere exposure effect and understand how it helps explain the impact of proximity. Be able to identify examples of the mere exposure effect. (lecture) What is familiar is good. Occurs without our awareness and influences our perceptions Why does proximity influence friendship formation? § Cognitive consistency -‐ it is distressing to dislike those near us, so we experience pressure to like our neighbors § Increases familiarity, which breeds liking – mere exposure effect 47. What is the physical attractiveness stereotype?? (lecture) § Physical attractiveness stereotype: assumption that attractive people possess other positive qualities We assume they are more kind, outgoing, intelligent, and successful Women were rated kinder and more sensitive after plastic surgery Attractiveness determines liking 48. Why do people prefer composite faces? (lecture/book) Composite faces are faces made from a lot of different faces. 49. Which wins in predicting attraction – similarity or complimentarity? (lecture/book) – We like those similar to us – We can’t let of this complimentarity idea! – Research does not support it – May evolve as relationship progresses 50. Define the reward theory of attraction (lecture) o Reward Theory of Attraction : We like those who reward us or who we associate with rewarding events (e.g., good feelings) o People who do us favors o Giving who give us praise 51. Be able to describe th e methods and findings of the Lewicki (1985) study and what it demonstrates (hint: the reward theory of attraction can also work by ASSOCIATION) (lecture) This can also work by association – we’ll like people we ASSOCIATE with people who have given us rewards or made us feel good! Ø Lewicki (1985) liking-‐by-‐association Ø 2 women (A & B) were rated as looking equally friendly by control group Ø Some Pp’s had interacted with a friendly experimenter who looked like A 52. What is one reason we might tend to like people who like us? (Hint: social reciprocity norm) (lecture/book) Reciprocity 53. What is meant by passion, intimacy, and commitment? Do each of these increase or decrease over time? (lecture/book) o Passion: physiological arousal, longing, sexual attraction o Intimacy: close bond, sharing, support o Commitment: willing to define as love, long term – Passionate sexual attraction fades with time. – But feelings of intimacy and commitment increase 54. What is passionate love and what is companionate love? (book/lecture) – Passionate or romantic love –passion and intimacy without commitment – Companionate love – intimacy and commitment without passion 55. According to Rusbult, what are 3 components that keep people together? (lecture) Rusbult – 3 Components that keep people together 1. Satisfaction – Do you like your partner? Positive (rewards) and negative (costs) experiences 2. Quality of available alternatives Maybe relationship isn’t satisfying, but there is no one else available Relationship may be incredibly satisfying, but there ar e better others out there 3. Investment – how much has your partner put into the relationship Sunk costs – Time, effort, emotion and other resources put into the relationship that can’t be gotten back If you struggle to keep the relationship going for severa l years and just end it, that’s 2 years of work down the drain Ch. 14 1. Understand the four main proposed criteria for defining abnormal behavior (statistical deviance, cultural deviance, emotional distress, and dysfunction). Know what is meant by each and identify examples (book/lecture). Abnormal Behavior/ Mental Disorder: actions, thoughts and feelings that: a. Are infrequent/rare (statistical deviance) b. Violate standards of society (cultural deviance) c. Cause emotional distress d. Cause dysfunction in living 2. Are “normal” vs. “abnormal” rigid categories, such that human behavior clearly fits into one or the other? (lecture/book) Abnormal and normal are not fixed categories but endpoints on a continuum. To a certain degree, everyone has acted unusually, suffer ed from emotional distress, or failed to follow an adaptive strategy. 3. What is meant by the legal concept of insanity, and how is it different from a psychological disorder? (book/lecture) Insanity: a legal term that has three different meanings: 1.) A person’s ability to tell right from wrong (not guilty by reason of insanity) 2.) A person’s ability to understand the legal proceedings (competency to stand trial) 3.) Whether the person is a direct danger to self or others (involuntary commitment to a mental hospital) Jeffrey Dahmer – capable of understanding wrongness of actions but clearly suffering from psychological disorders 4. What is the medical model of diagnosis when it comes to psychological disorders? (book/lecture) § Medical model – abnormal behavior is caused by an underlying disease that could be cured with appropriate therapy 5. Be able to describe some criticisms of the medical model (book/lecture) Problems with the DSM: a. Over-‐diagnosis b. Labeling c. Serious problems vs. “normal” problems d. Subjective nature of determining a disorder 6. What is meant by diagnostic labeling effects? Be able to explain the results of the Rosenhan study (book) § Diagnostic labeling effects: the fact that labels for psychological problems can become self -‐fulfilling prophecies; the label may make it difficult to recognize normal behavior when it occurs, and it may actually increase the likelihood that a person will act in abnormal way. § Rosenhan study: patients faked to be hearing voices, were admitted to a facility and everyone treating them noticed their behavior to be abnormal, when they where actually perfectly fine. 7. What is the DSM? (book/lecture) The DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders a. Medical model – abnormal behavior is caused by an under lying disease that could be cured with appropriate therapy b. Describes symptoms and typical age of onset or other characteristics of the disorder 8. Understand what is meant by an anxiety disorder. Know that the following are all anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobic disorder/specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia (all book/lecture) and PTSD (just lecture). Be able to recognize symptoms and identify examples of people suffering from each of these things (book/ lecture) § Anxiety Disorders: excessive levels of negative emotions, such as nervousness, tension, worry, fright and anxiety § Generalized Anxiety Disorder /free floating anxiety: a vague, uneasy sense of general tension and apprehension that lasts for years § Panic Disorder: a pattern of anxiety in which long periods of calm are broken by intensely uncomfortable attacks of anxiety (panic attack/anxiety attack) § Social anxiety disorder: fear of socializing § Phobias: an intense, irrational fear § Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): experiencing anxiety, irritability, upsetting memories, dreams, and realistic flashbacks of a traumatic event § Agoraphobia: avoid public places out of fear that a panic attack will occur 9. What is obsessive compulsive disorder? Specificall y, what is meant by obsessions and compulsions? (book/lecture) Be able to recognize the symptoms and identify examples of people suffering from it. Obsessive-‐Compulsive Disorder: involves obsessions (intrusive anxiety provoking thoughts) and/or compulsions (irresistible urges to engage in specific irrational behaviors) a. Example: obsession (intrusive thoughts) about germs leads to compulsive hand washing 10. Understand what is meant by a somatic symptom disorder. Specifically, what is conversion disorder? (book) § Somatic symptom disorder: psychological disorders that focus on the physical body. These disorders can be associated with specific body complaints (such as continuing pain) and/or excessive worry about the possibility of contracting a serious disease. § Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person has blindness, paralysis, or other nervous system (neurologic) symptoms that cannot be explained by medical evaluation. 11. Understand what is meant by a dissociative disorder. Know that the followi ng are all dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder. For each, be able to recognize symptoms and identify examples of people suffering from it (book/lecture) Dissociative Disorders : (rare) conditions involving sudden cognitive changes, such as change in memory, perception or identity. Separation of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories. a. Dissociative amnesia – not remembering personal information b. Dissociative fugue – accompanied by escape or flight – cant remember your identity Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality) : where an individual appears to shift abruptly and repeatedly from one “personality” to another i. This is a controversial disorder and believed to be caused by severe child abuse (physical and sexual) that results in the child “splitting” from him/herself in order to cope with the abuse 12. Understand what is meant by a depressive/bipolar disorder (book/lecture) Depressive Disorders : psychological disorders involving prolonged/disabling disruption to emotional state 13. What is a major depressive episode? (book/lecture) Be able to recognize the symptoms and identify examples of people suffering from it. What is meant when major depression is described as recurrent vs . Dysthymic disorder? (book/lecture) Major Depressive Episode : characterized by episodes of deep unhappiness, loss of interest in life, and other symptoms. Usually lasts weeks/months i. Recurrent: Has occurred more than once, separated by period of more than 2 months ii. Dysthymic disorder: A relatively continuous depressed mood lasting for at least 2 years, but symptoms are milder 14. What is bipolar disorder? Specifically, understand what is meant by manic episode and a depressive episode and understand how these are both present (book/lecture) Be able to recognize the symptoms and identify examples of people suffering from it. Bipolar Affective Disorder : periods of mania that alternate with periods of severe depression a. Mania: a disturbance in mood in which the individual experiences a euphoria characterized by unrealistic optimism and heightened sensory pleasures (dangerous because it leads to risky behavior and loss of sleep and sometimes leads to loss of touch with reality) 15. What are the major risk factors associ ated with suicide? (book) § Alcohol use and abuse § Death of a loved one § Failure or rejection in a personal relationship § Natural disasters § Can be contagious (suicide rates increase when suicides are publicized) 16. What is schizophrenia? (book/lecture) Be able to recognize the symptoms and identify examples of people suffering from it. Particularly, know what the positive symptoms are (specifically, delusions, delusion of grandeur, delusion of persecution, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonia), the negative symptoms (flat affect), and the cognitive symptoms (book/lecture) Schizophrenia: disorder involving severe cognitive disturbance and disorganization of thought i. Affects 1% of the population (men and women equally) ii. This disorder makes normal living imp ossible Delusions: distorted or bizarre beliefs that have no basis in reality iii. Delusions of grandeur: distorted sense of own importance (e.g. “I am Jesus”, “I am an important member of the government”) iv. Delusions of Persecution: distorted sense of paranoia (e.g. “the government is watching me”, “people are trying to kill me”) Hallucinations: false perceptual experiences such as seeing, hearing, feeling things that are not there v. Most common is auditory (hearing voices), but can involve other senses Disorganized thinking, emotions and behavior: b. Fragmented thoughts c. Incoherent speech d. Inappropriate behavior e. Flat emotions (except for anger) 17. Understand what is meant by personality disorders (lecture/book). Understand that the following are all personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Personality Disorders: believed to result from personalities that developed improperly during childhood a. All personality disorders begin earl y in life b. They are disturbing to the person and/or others c. They are very difficult to treat Borderline Personality Disorder : characterized by impulsive and unpredictable behavior, unstable relationships, anger, constant need to be with others and a lack of identity (frequent suicidal gestures and very likely to seek treatment) Narcissistic Personality Disorder : characterized by unrealistic sense of self-‐importance, preoccupied with fantasies of future success, requires constant attention and praise, reacts very negatively and aggressively to criticism, lacks a genuine concern for others Antisocial Personality Disorder : characterized by a lack of guilt about violating social rules and laws and taking advantage of others (formerly known as “psychopath” or “soc iopath”) 18. Be able to recognize the symptoms and identify examples of people suffering from the above personality disorders (book/lecture) 19. Have a good understanding of what is meant by the following different contributors to mental illness: biology – neurotransmitter imbalances, structural problems, and genetic contributions cognitive factors – maladaptive attributions, learned helplessness environmental factors – the rule of culture, conditioning Ch. 15 1. What is meant by psychotherapy? (book/lecture) § Psychotherapy: Definition: a specialized process in which a trained professional uses psychological methods to help a person with psychological problems o People enter therapy in order to rid themselves of an abnormal behavior or to improve their daily living (personal growth) 2. What is a biomedical therapy? Know that drug therapy, ECT, and psychosurgery are all examples (book/lecture) Biomedical therapy: biologically based treatments for reducing or eliminating the symptoms of psychological disorders. 3. What is drug therapy? Specifically, what do antidepressants treat and what neurotransmitters do they typically work on? What do anti -‐anxiety drugs treat? Know that they are typically called tranquilizers. What do antipsychotic drugs treat? (book/lecture) Drug Therapy: the most widely used medical treatment for psychological disorders a. Antidepressants: used to treat depressive disorders, but also used for a variety of other disorders, elevates levels of serotonin and norepinephrine b. Tranquilizers (anti-‐anxiety): to treat mild anxiety, not to be used for long time periods Antipsychotic drugs: used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, inhibits dopamine, reduces delusions, hallucinations, thought disorganization 4. What is ECT? (book/lecture) ¡ Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): ¡ People are “shocked” which produces a convulsive brain seizure ¡ In the 1930s the seizures were violent
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