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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Egypt - Class Notes

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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Egypt - Class Notes

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background image EGYPT –WORLD CIVILIZATIONS  The Pharaoh  3100­1000 BCE –period that Egypt had its greatest triumphs and cultural achievements  The Pharaoh (he or she) was a god who chose to live on Earth. Governed through a group of 
officials, mainly of noble landowners and temple priests. Directly responsible for the welfare of 
Egypt.  Intermediate Periods: Two short intervals 2200­2100BCE and 1650­1570BCE when the 
pharaoh’s powers were diminished. The first remains unclear. The second period was due to 
invasion by 
Hyksos, who conquered the Nile delta.  There were 31 dynasties, beginning with Menes and ending with the dynasty that fell to the 
Persian invaders (525 BCE). 
Old Kingdom (3100­2200 BCE) –from Menes to the first Intermediate period. More 
fertile and successful era. Built the pyramids of Giza during this time. 
Middle Kingdom – (2100­1650BCE). 500years of political stability after the first 
intermediate period. Trade was more extensive. Labor became worse. Controlled more 
territory.  New Kingdom – (1550­770 BCE) also called the Empire. Lasted through the years of 
wars against the Hittites and others for control. Long centuries of sporadic weakness. The
Empire did not last because of military reversals and internal discontent. The last 300 
years, experience frequent invasions over the Sinai Desert and from the south. The 
Kushites and Assyrians invaded repeatedly. The Persians in 525 finally conquered them. 
However, cultural forms and beliefs stayed. The Great Pyramid of Khufu was the largest and grandest commemorative edifice ever built.  Between 2600 and 2100 BCE, the pyramids were built during the pharaoh’s time and used as 
their tomb. 
Around 1300, statues of warrior­pharaohs were built. Some still stand at the Nile sites of Karnak 
and Tel el Amarna. All tombs were robbed of their treasures, except for King Tut’s, who was 
hidden underneath the ground until discovered in 1920.  Hieroglyphics: pictographs that could convey either an idea or a phonetic sound. It began as far 
back as 3000 BCE. Confined to a small group of educated people. Gradually disappeared in the 
6
th  century.  Religion was polytheistic.  Amun­Ra: combined from Amun and Ra (gods of the Sun). Represents the embodiment 
of all gods. 
Anuket: goddess of the Nile and fertility  Osiris: ruler of the afterlife 

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School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Early Africa, Egypt, chapter outline, notes, and world civilizations
Name: Egypt
Description: The second part of the chapter outline.
Uploaded: 02/18/2016
2 Pages 16 Views 12 Unlocks
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