PSY101 Exam 2 Study Guide
PSY101 Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 101
Popular in Introduction to psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Robert Short in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 1631 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
Reviews for PSY101 Exam 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/18/16
● What is a discriminative stimulus? ○ Stimulus cause action ○ E.g. Classical conditioning ● Give an example of shaping in operant conditioning ○ Learning through reward and reinforcement ● Know all of your schedules of reinforcement and give examples ○ Set time for you to respond to a stimulus (rewarding) ○ Schedules ■ Continuous Reinforcement— Immediately gets the reward after doing something ■ Intermitte Reinforcement— Randomly giving rewards; Behavior is less likely to extinct due to no constant reward ■ Variable Rati— An average amount of trails you give the reward (e.g. “about" some number) ■ Fixed Rati— Giving rewards in a fixed ratio every couple trials (e.g. one out of four) ■ Fixed Time— Giving rewards after a certain trial ■ Variable Interv— Giving rewards after some time (e.g. “about” every five minutes) ■ Fixed Interv— Response is needed for the reward (e.g. every five minutes) ● What do tolerance and withdrawal have to do with drugs and their use? ○ Drug tolerance: As the time go by, the reaction towards the drug decrease therefore you need an increased amount of dose to keep the same effect. (The original dose becomes normal) ○ Drug withdrawal: The symptoms that show one is dependent towards a longterm drug; the symptom that shows ● Be able to describe all of the sleep disorders discussed in class ○ Sleep Apnea ■ Waking up to breathe ■ Happens hundreds of time ■ You don’t remember ○ Insomnia ■ Most common ■ Cannot fall asleep ■ Mental distress ■ Psychiatric patients sleep lesser than nonpsychiatric patients ○ Narcolepsy ■ Excessive daytime disorder ■ Drop into REM; brain stem shuts off; paralyze the body ■ Immediately fall asleep ○ SIDS ■ Sudden Infant Death Syndrome ■ Suddenly stop breathing and suffocation ■ Happens more in developed countries ■ Sleep without blankets or toys ○ REM Disorder ■ Acting out their dreams; Not paralyzed; motor cortex doesn’t shut down ■ Very dangerous ○ Sleepwalking ■ Not in REM (Stage 4) ■ Not acting out dreams ○ Nightmares ■ Occur in REM ■ Awaken to scream and stay awake in fear for 30 mins ■ Happens to kids ■ Doesn’t remember the dream ● Know the various categories of drugs and their effects ○ Stimulant— Stimulates central nervous system ■ Increase of heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety, insomnia ■ Cocaine; Caffeine; Nicotine; Meth; Ecstacy ○ Depressant— Slows down the system ■ Depression, unconsciousness ■ Alcohol; Roofies; Valium ○ Hallucinogen— Distorted reality ■ Flashbacks after dose, increase temperature and blood rate, can have bad reaction ■ Mushroom; LSD; Ketamine; PCP; Peyote ○ Narcotics— Painkiller ■ Stimulates endorphin which reduce pain naturally ■ Morphine; Heroine; Opium; Codeine ○ Cannabis drugs— Slows down everything ■ Can cause memory loss, learning issues, lung cancer ■ Weed; Hashish ● What are the similarities between positive and negative reinforcements? ○ Either reinforcements are good for you ○ Positive reinforcement ■ Getting something ■ E.g. Getting a cookie for doing dishes ○ Negative reinforcement ■ Losing something ■ E.g. Losing weight when you exercise; drug takes away negative emotions ● Under what conditions is punishment effective? ○ Punishment— Trying to eliminate inappropriate responses ○ Types of punishment ■ Positive (type I) : one stop misbehaving due to the consequence ■ Something unpleasant happened after the bad behavior ■ Negative: lossing center things therefore they behave well ■ Something valuable is lost after the bad behavior ○ Conditions ■ Manner of introduction— not warning about the punishment ■ Intensity punishment— subject should feel it’s a punishment ■ Immediacy punishment— most effective to reduce responses when it was used shortly after behavior ■ Schedule punishment— get punishment every time when you do a certain behavior ■ Availability of other reinforcer—the effective or availability of the reinforcer ■ Punishment is more effective when there’s no positive reinforcement; once complete suppression has occurred, the probability to respond for reinforcement is increased ■ ■ Response alternatives— give subject another way to get reinforcement; can be more effective with moderate punishment ● What is the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers? ○ Primary reinforcer— the most important one (E.g. Getting food; normally biological) ○ Secondary reinforcer— not so important reinforcer (E.g. Getting good grades; human desire) ○ Primary reinforcer is innate needs whereas secondary reinforcer isn’t going to kill you if you don’t have it ● Know how to classically condition an organism—e.g., your roommate ○ Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) ■ Nature triggering response ■ E.g. Meat power ○ Unconditioned Response (UCR) ■ Naturally responds to the UCS ■ E.g. Salivation ○ Conditioned Stimulus (CS) ■ Stimulus that is associated with a response yet originally has no correlation ■ E.g. Fork sound ○ Conditioned Response (CR) ■ Response that is learned to respond a CS ■ E.g. Salivation ○ Without UCS, when one is trained, they can respond to CS with CR though they’re unrelated ● What is melatonin and its relationship to sleep? ○ Melatonin makes you fall asleep; chemical; drugs ● What are circadian rhythms? ○ Physiological processes that repeat about every 24 hours ○ Governed by sunlight at hypothalamus ● Be able to describe the predictable sleep patterns ○ Stage 1 ■ Light sleep ■ Hallucination ■ Easy Awaken ○ Stage 2 ■ Sleep walking ■ Rapid waves in brain ■ Can be disturbed by marijuana and alcohol ■ 1/2 of the sleeping time ○ Stage 3/4 ■ Sleep talking ■ Large slow waves ■ Deep sleep ○ REM Stage— Rapid eyes movement ■ Dreaming ■ Motor cortex is off therefore paralyzed ■ Getting boners ■ Associations are made easily ● Be able to describe stimulus generalization ○ When one is trained, it will generalize some of the stimulus to respond ● What is spontaneous recovery? ○ A behavior happens again after a period of time ○ Reappearance of response ● What is a conditioned taste aversion? ○ Associate a certain food taste with an illness symptoms such as vomiting, nausea due to experience ● How does age relate to sleep patterns? ○ Require less sleeping hours when you are older (Lesser REM sleep) ● What are some useful tips to deal with insomnia? ○ Get up and read ○ It’s not good to associate bed with sleeplessness
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'