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ASU / Psychology / PSY 101 / psy 101 exam 2 asu

psy 101 exam 2 asu

psy 101 exam 2 asu

Description

School: Arizona State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Mae
Term: Winter 2014
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: PSY101 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Contact Phoebe.Chang@asu.edu if you have more questions and request!
Uploaded: 02/18/2016
6 Pages 14 Views 14 Unlocks
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● What is a discriminative stimulus?


What do tolerance have to do with drugs and their use?



○ Stimulus cause action

○ E.g. Classical conditioning

● Give an example of shaping in operant conditioning

○ Learning through reward and reinforcement

● Know all of your schedules of reinforcement and give examples

○ Set time for you to respond to a stimulus (rewarding)

○ Schedules

■ Continuous Reinforcement— Immediately gets the reward after doing

something

■ Intermittent Reinforcement— Randomly giving rewards; Behavior is

less likely to extinct due to no constant reward

■ Variable Ratio— An average amount of trails you give the reward (e.g.

“about" some number)

■ Fixed Ratio— Giving rewards in a fixed ratio every couple trials (e.g.

one out of four)

■ Fixed Time— Giving rewards after a certain trial

■ Variable Interval— Giving rewards after some time (e.g. “about” every


What are the similarities between positive and negative reinforcements?



five minutes)

■ Fixed Interval— Response is needed for the reward (e.g. every five

minutes)

● What do tolerance and withdrawal have to do with drugs and their use? ○ Drug tolerance: As the time go by, the reaction towards the drug decrease therefore you need an increased amount of dose to keep the same effect. (The original dose becomes normal)

○ Drug withdrawal: The symptoms that show one is dependent towards a long­term drug; the symptom that shows

● Be able to describe all of the sleep disorders discussed in class

○ Sleep Apnea

■ Waking up to breathe

■ Happens hundreds of time

■ You don’t remember

○ Insomnia

■ Most common

■ Cannot fall asleep If you want to learn more check out alternate forms of the same gene

■ Mental distress

■ Psychiatric patients sleep lesser than non­psychiatric

patients


What are circadian rhythms?



○ Narcolepsy

■ Excessive daytime disorder

■ Drop into REM; brain stem shuts off; paralyze the body

■ Immediately fall asleep

○ SIDS

■ Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

■ Suddenly stop breathing and suffocation

■ Happens more in developed countries

■ Sleep without blankets or toys

○ REM Disorder

■ Acting out their dreams; Not paralyzed; motor cortex doesn’t shut down ■ Very dangerous

○ Sleepwalking

■ Not in REM (Stage 4)

■ Not acting out dreams

○ Nightmares

■ Occur in REM

■ Awaken to scream and stay awake in fear for 30 mins

■ Happens to kids

■ Doesn’t remember the dream

● Know the various categories of drugs and their effects We also discuss several other topics like law 323 class notes

○ Stimulant— Stimulates central nervous system

■ Increase of heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety, insomnia

■ Cocaine; Caffeine; Nicotine; Meth; Ecstacy

○ Depressant— Slows down the system

■ Depression, unconsciousness

■ Alcohol; Roofies; Valium

○ Hallucinogen— Distorted reality

■ Flashbacks after dose, increase temperature and blood rate, can have bad reaction

■ Mushroom; LSD; Ketamine; PCP; Peyote

○ Narcotics— Painkiller

■ Stimulates endorphin which reduce pain naturally

■ Morphine; Heroine; Opium; Codeine

○ Cannabis drugs— Slows down everything

■ Can cause memory loss, learning issues, lung cancer

■ Weed; Hashish

● What are the similarities between positive and negative reinforcements? ○ Either reinforcements are good for you

○ Positive reinforcement

■ Getting something

■ E.g. Getting a cookie for doing dishes

○ Negative reinforcement

■ Losing something

■ E.g. Losing weight when you exercise; drug takes away negative

emotions

● Under what conditions is punishment effective?

○ Punishment— Trying to eliminate inappropriate responses

○ Types of punishment

■ Positive (type I) : one stop misbehaving due to the consequence

■ Something unpleasant happened after the bad behavior Don't forget about the age old question of psy2071

■ Negative: lossing center things therefore they behave well

■ Something valuable is lost after the bad behavior

○ Conditions

■ Manner of introduction— not warning about the punishment

■ Intensity punishment— subject should feel it’s a punishment Don't forget about the age old question of cis 120

■ Immediacy punishment— most effective to reduce responses when it

was used shortly after behavior

■ Schedule punishment— get punishment every time when you do a

certain behaviorIf you want to learn more check out jmu psychology checklist

■ Availability of other reinforcer—the effective or availability of the

reinforcer

■ Punishment is more effective when there’s no positive reinforcement;

once complete suppression has occurred, the probability to respond for

reinforcement is increased

■ Response alternatives— give subject another way to get reinforcement; can be more effective with moderate punishment

● What is the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers? ○ Primary reinforcer— the most important one (E.g. Getting food; normally biological) ○ Secondary reinforcer— not so important reinforcer (E.g. Getting good grades; human desire) Don't forget about the age old question of alabaster vase uruk

○ Primary reinforcer is innate needs whereas secondary reinforcer isn’t going to kill you if you don’t have it

● Know how to classically condition an organism—e.g., your roommate ○ Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

■ Nature triggering response

■ E.g. Meat power

○ Unconditioned Response (UCR)

■ Naturally responds to the UCS

■ E.g. Salivation

○ Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

■ Stimulus that is associated with a response yet originally has no

correlation

■ E.g. Fork sound

○ Conditioned Response (CR)

■ Response that is learned to respond a CS

■ E.g. Salivation

○ Without UCS, when one is trained, they can respond to CS with CR though they’re unrelated

● What is melatonin and its relationship to sleep?

○ Melatonin makes you fall asleep; chemical; drugs

● What are circadian rhythms?

○ Physiological processes that repeat about every 24 hours

○ Governed by sunlight at hypothalamus

● Be able to describe the predictable sleep patterns

○ Stage 1

■ Light sleep

■ Hallucination

■ Easy Awaken

○ Stage 2

■ Sleep walking

■ Rapid waves in brain

■ Can be disturbed by marijuana and alcohol

■ 1/2 of the sleeping time

○ Stage 3/4

■ Sleep talking

■ Large slow waves

■ Deep sleep

○ REM Stage— Rapid eyes movement

■ Dreaming

■ Motor cortex is off therefore paralyzed

■ Getting boners

■ Associations are made easily

● Be able to describe stimulus generalization

○ When one is trained, it will generalize some of the stimulus to respond ● What is spontaneous recovery?

○ A behavior happens again after a period of time

○ Reappearance of response

● What is a conditioned taste aversion?

○ Associate a certain food taste with an illness symptoms such as vomiting, nausea due to experience

● How does age relate to sleep patterns?

○ Require less sleeping hours when you are older (Lesser REM sleep)

● What are some useful tips to deal with insomnia?

○ Get up and read

○ It’snotgoodtoassociatebedwithsleeplessness

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